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Sci Tech Med&Socty

by: Mr. Gabe Abshire

Sci Tech Med&Socty HISTORY 285

Mr. Gabe Abshire
GPA 3.74


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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Gabe Abshire on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HISTORY 285 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/231459/history-285-university-of-michigan in History at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 22 Page 1 Lecture 22 Energy Crisis 1973 Arab Oil embargo 39 Oil supplies cut off 39 Oil shortages follow 39 Long lines at gas pumps 39 Focuses attention on the need for an energy policy 39 Nuclear energy did not benefit Federal legislation 39 1973 Nixon Special Energy Committee 39 1974 Energy Reorganization Acts gt ends AEC replaces with NRC gt creates ERDA 1977 Energy Organization Act gt creates DOE brings all together 1980 major energy agencies gt DOI Interior gt EPA gt NRC gt DOE gt Synfuel Corporation Oil Policy 39 1972 tax on foreign oil fails 39 1973 trans Alaska pipeline 39 1975 increase access to federal lands 39 1978 deregulate natural gas 39 1979 deregulate oil prices 39 1970s general increased emphasis on research on oil recovery etc Oil Shale 39 began leasing land in 1974 39 1980 Energy Security Act Synfuels Corporation 39 oil prices fell in 1980s and government support was withdrawn project failed Solar 39 1974 Energy Research and Development Administration ERDA 39 1974 Solar Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act Solar Energy Research Institute 39 1980 strong support not immediately be a major player Energy conservation an quotno In mlllonrc ont nnol 139quot quot139wfnru 7R AInu nnro 1m nunroll mdunly39nnroll un39rhnur quotm1l w1n History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 22 Page 2 39 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act 39 1977 National Energy Program 39 1978 National Energy Conservation Policy Act 1960s Start of the Nuclear Age 39 LW Reactors adopted as industry standard 39 Europe bases its nuclear technology on US technology 39 Demonstration reactors come on line 39 GE amp Westinghouse offer turn key reactors Price set in advance When completed utility turns key power comes on Three Mile Island TMIl 39 mid 1965 begin planning Susquehanna River 10 miles SW of Harrisburg PA 819 megawatts 39 1966 ordered from Babcock amp Wilcox 39 1974 on line TMIZ 39 begun early 1970s 39 Dec 28 1979 TMI 2 came on line 39 J anuaryFebruary 1979 a series of minor valve leaks and pump problems 39 March 28 1979 major accident Accident TMIZ 39 water circulating pumps went off line 39 dial misread shut off emergency system 39 core overheated danger of a meltdown 39 radioactive water ooded several buildings 39 some water leaked in the local river 39 Hydrogen bubble threatens explosion 39 radiation into the atmosphere through cooling towers Growing doubts about nuclear power 39 1966 Fermi Monroe MI near meltdown 39 1975 strontium 90 in milk Shippingport PA 39 1976 Brows Ferry Decatur Alabama fire 39 1976 Rasmussen Report meltdown 120000 NRC 39 1977 increased cancer Waterford CN 39 1979 GAO report calling for evacuation plans Focus shifted to damage control an quotno In mlllonrc ont nnol 139quot quot139wfnru 7R AInu nnro 1m nunroll mdunly39nnroll un39rhnur quotm1l w1n History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 22 Page 3 39 Margaret Reilly PA Dept of Radiation Protection the release of radiation amounted to a gnat s eyelash 39 Governor Thornbugh refused to order evacuation O NRC report On the basis of present scientific knowledge the radiation doses were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer developmental abnormalities or genetic ill health as a consequence of the accident at TMI 39 put odds at 1 in 325000 Critics response before accident reports of harm to animals miscarriages in cats pigs goats cows not being able to give birth white residue on buildings that made animals sick and killed grass duck and chicken eggs would not hatch accident increased concerns new evidence of increased infant mortality Scienti c issues 39 how much radiation was released in what forms 39 where was the radiation released 39 have there been any detectible effects How much radiation released 39 mathematical estimates estimated 14 millirems comparable to background radiation four sources of information stack monitors charcoal filters in stacks thermo luminescent dosimeter TLD samples of milk animals etc 39 conclusion not enough to cause effects Critics replied 39 stack meters inaccurate 39 charcoal contaminated by the accident 39 TLDs measured only limited areas 39 never did a comprehensive survey of effected animals Did accident cause human injury 39 initial reviews no effects 39 critics reanlayzed found results 39 NRC explained results away 39 critics did not accepts an quotno In mlllonrc ont nnol 139quot quot139wfnru 7R AInu nnro 1m nunroll mdunly39nnroll un39rhnur quotm1l w1n History 285 History 0fM0dem Science Lecture 22 Page 4 Became political battle 39 newspapers divided 39 Thornburgh fired his Commissioner for public health Key event 39 moratorium on licensing 39 May 6 1979 100000 nuclear opponents gathered in DC Sept 23 200000 in NYC Rejection of nuclear technology is more complex 39 Anti nuclear groups begin to form in the 1960s 39 Nuclear projects cancelled well before 1979 Causes of decline Late 1960s AEC shifted from LWR to BR Industry underestimated cost of building plants AEC remained secretive due to weapons programs No one looked seriously at the waste issue Carter 1977 stopped fuel reprocessing New environmental laws slowed plant construction Critics skillful at using nuclear issue to push environmental and energy concerns Nuclear policy 39 1974 ABC gt ERDA and NRC 39 Under Carter DOE established an quotno In anionic ont nnol 139quot quot139wfnru 7R AInu nnro 1m nunroll mdunly39nnroll un39rhnur quotm1l w1n


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