Intro to Anthro
Intro to Anthro ANTHRCUL 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Furman Hills on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRCUL 101 at University of Michigan taught by Andrew Shryock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/231468/anthrcul-101-university-of-michigan in Culture at University of Michigan.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Lecture 9 Modern Humans Out of Africa Why Africa Why leave Africa Homo Habilis appears 2417 million years ago Cranial capacity of 700 800 cc Arms were still long Body as small as A afarensis Only 200000 years later H habilis had evolved into Homo Erectus which lived from 16 mya300000 bp Modern body and limbs Bigger brain between 900 and 1250 cc Why the rapid pace of evolution Punctuated equilibrium Cooking and re Bigger brains better tools Acheulian more reliance on hunting smaller molars and jaws change in diet food got softer larger brow ridge superorbital torus to support pulling muscles yank things with the mouth larger front teeth Culture inclusive tness and group selection plus natural selection based on individual differential success From Darwinian to increasingly Lamarckian selection Tool making traditions Paleolithic lower Acheulian H erectus middle Mousterian archaic H sapiens Neandertals upper blade tools H sapiens sapiens Immature birth dependency rapid skull and brain growth Brain becomes formatted disk with increasing memory Big empty brains ready to be lled with cultural knowledge Characteristics of the H erectus body and head still very robust football shaped cranium occipital bun brow ridges big front teeth Terra Amata France H erectus camp sites 300000 years old diet included deer elephant boar mountain goats rhinos wild oxen turtles birds oysters mussels sh Built huts used re Fire enabled humans to spread into temperate climates cook vegetables and meat feed younger and older members softer foods eliminate certain parasites from diet Language was evolving Language capacity was part of the formatting on the empty brain disk By 700000 bp H erectus had reached Java in Southeast Asia By 500000 bp they were in China by 900000 bp they were in southern Europe After 300000 bp H erectus has evolved into Archaic H sapiens 300000 35000 and Neandertals 130000 35000 Archaics spread into colder climates Neandertals Who were they Cold adapted H sapiens Their tools were Mousterian much improved over Acheulian tools Their bodies had large torsoshort limb con guration to conserve heat Face was pulled forward out from the brain long broad noses to protect the brain from cold air Heavy brow ridges slanting forehead massive face large jaws more cranial capacity than modern humans 1430 cc Did Neandertals evolve into Homo sapiens sapiens Or did they die out Classic Neandertal features softened over time becoming less robust Was this a result of interbreeding with archaic H sapiens or was it convergent parallel evolution The DNA evidence Neandertal DNA when compared to modern human DNA is different at 27 locations The same section of modern human DNA gathered from populations around the world has only 58 differences The Neandertal DNA is as unlike the modern European DNA as it is unlike any other modern human sample DNA suggests that Neandertal ancestors split off from archaics about 550 690000 bp Neandertals gone by 35000 bp mtDNA and the African Eve 200000 bp Homo Sapiens migrated out of Africa about 60000 bp vs multiregional evolution But wait There s another homo out there on an island near Indonesia The true survivor H oresiensis A pygmy erectus Lived until 12000 ya After 35000 bp human adaptations become increasingly complex and unstable More of the natural environment is being used and altered gathering oysters and mussels for instance develops into fishing with harpoons and hooks in boats followed by cooking and smoking of fish for surplus storage Some attempts to alter nature are mental magical and involve art and ceremony Cave paintings Rock engravings Ceremonies of increase Hunting magic Initiation rites Mesolithic 1500010000 bp in Middle East 120005000 bp in Europe etc microlith toolkit generalized broadspectrum hunting and gathering economies domestication of dogs
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