Intro to Sociology
Intro to Sociology SOC 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amely Sawayn on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at University of Michigan taught by Luis Sfeir-Younis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/231473/soc-100-university-of-michigan in Sociology at University of Michigan.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Unit 4 Groups and Organizations Text Chapter 3 Society Interactions Groups and Organizations 0 Sometimes we want to fit in and be like everyone else while other times we want to stand out and show our individuality Sociologists want to figure out where we want to fit on or stand out o Contextualizing trying to understand the social contexts in which our individual activity takes place the people who we interact with what we do with them and where these interactions take place Society an organized collection of individuals and institutions bounded by space in a coherent territory subject to the same political authority and organized though a shared set of cultural expectations and values Societies are composed of structured social interactions We create identities through interactions with the world around us they are socially constructed according to sociologists Socialization the processes by which the culture incorporates individuals Social structure complex framework composed of both patterned social interactions and institutions that together both organize social life and provide the context for individual action Social interaction behaviors that are oriented toward other people Lookingglass self the process by which our identity develops o 3 stages I We image how we appear to others around us I We draw general conclusions based on the reactions of theirs I Based on our evaluations of others reactions we develop our sense of personal identity Impression management actively trying to control how others perceive you by changing your behavior to correspond to an idea of what they will find most appealing Dramaturgy social life is like a stage play with changing performances based on the characters on the stage at the moment Face work our attempt to give the best possible performance Ethnomethodology researcher tries to expose the common unstated assumptions that enable such conversational shortcuts to work Five basic patterns of social interaction 0 Exchange I Exchange of gestures or gifts 0 Cooperation I Working together building civilizations 0 Competition I Important in economies built around capitalism 0 Conflict I Members if each group will develop closer bonds in the face of the enemy o Coercion I Use of threat violence deprivation or punishment to control the ones with less power 0 Example Speed limits peer pressure Superordinate individuals or groups with social power Subordinate individuals or groups with less power Role performance the particular emphasis or interpretation we give a role Status any social identity recognized as meaningful by the group or society Ascribed status status that we receive involuntarily without regard to our unique talents skills or accomplishments Achieved status status we achieve through talent ability effort or other unique personal characteristics Master status an ascribed or achieved status is presumed so important that it overshadows all of the others dominating our lives and controlling our position in society Roles set of behaviors that are expected of a person who occupies a certain status Role strain a role has demands and expectations that contradict each other Role conflict trying to play different roles with extremely different or contradictory rules at the same time Role exit the process of adjustment that takes place when we leave a role central to our identity Four stages in voluntary role exits o Doubt 0 Search for Alternatives 0 Departure 0 New role Group assortment of people who share the same norms values and expectations Dyad a group of two Crowd aggregate of individuals who happen to be together but experience themselves as essentially independent Group cohesion the degree to which the individual members identify with each other and with the group Primary groups friends and family come together for expressive reasons They provide emotional support love companionship and security Secondary groups like coworkers or club members come together for instrumental reasons lngroup group I feel positively toward to which I actually belong Outgroup one to which I don t belong and do not feel very positively toward lngroup heterogeneity becoming aware of the subtle differences among the individual members of your group Outgroup heterogeneity the tendency to believe that all members of the outgroup are exactly the same
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