Intro to Sociology
Intro to Sociology SOC 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amely Sawayn on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at University of Michigan taught by Luis Sfeir-Younis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/231473/soc-100-university-of-michigan in Sociology at University of Michigan.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Unit 5 Reading Notes Deviance and Crime Chapter 6 Deviance and Crime Deviance Breaking a social rule or refusing to follow one We can be considered deviant without doing saying or believing anything bad or wrong 0 LE Belonging to a stigmatized minority group 0 Having some status that s against what s considered quotNormalquot Most deviance is not illegal and many illegal acts are only mildly deviant or not deviant at all Cultural Rules 0 Folkways Unspoken conventions of behavior 0 Mores Norms with a strong moral significance 0 Taboos Prohibitions viewed as essential to the wellbeing of humanity I Always made into laws unless lawmakers cannot believe that anyone would break them Stigma If some part of you is considered deviant Ways to neutralize Stigma o Minstrelization I Virtually alone and with little power I To exaggerate the differences between the stigmatized and the dominant group o Normification I Small amount of power I Minimize the differences between the stigmatized groups 0 Militant Chawinism I High level of power and organization I Maximize differences with the dominant group but also indicate superiority Subculture Group that evolves within a dominant culture always more or less hidden and closed to outsiders Deviant Subculture 0 Must be punished but not punished too much o It must have enough participants but not too many o It must be complex but not too complex Youth Gangs 0 Before the 1950s they were innocent and often helped citizens and police 0 Well armed and financed due to drug trafficking 0 Potential links between gangs and terrorist groups fuel most of the concern about gangs Durkheim argues that deviance is useful to society in the following ways o It affirms cultural norms and values o It clarifies moral boundaries o It heightens group solidarity o It encourages social change Differential Association Deviance occurs when an individual receives more prestige and less punishment by violating norms rather than by following them Control theory People rational they decide whether or not to engage in an act by weighing the potential outcome Social controls Controls like outer controls and inner controls that prevent us from doing certain things 0 Inner and outer controls do theirjob in the following four ways I Attachment Strong attachments encourage conformity weak attachments encourage deviance I Commitment The greater our commitment to the norms and values of the group the more advantages we get from conforming the more we have to lose through deviance I Involvement Extensive involvement in group activities inhibits deviance I Belief a strong belief in conventional morality and respect for authority figures inhibits deviance Labeling theory Deviance is a process not a categorical difference between the deviant and the nondeviant The label depends on the group s relative amount of power Primary deviance most acts provoke very little reaction and have little effect on your self concept Secondary deviance Rule breaking is no longer a momentary lapse in judgment or justifiable under the circumstances Tertiary deviance formerly labeled deviant group attempts to redefine their acts attributes or identities as normal or even virtuous Deviance is not solely a product of quotbadquot people or quotwrongquot behaviors but also of the bad wrong andor unfair social conditions of people s lives Crime any act that violates a formal normative code that has been enacted by a legally constituted body Strain theory When a society promotes certain goals but provides unequal means of acquiring them the result is anomic a conflict between accepted norms and social reality Americans promote the goal of financial success and claim it can be achieved through the means of selfdiscipline and hard work Five potential reactions to endorsed values and the limited means of achieving them 0 Conformists I Accept both the means and the values 0 Innovators I Accept the values but reject the means 0 Ritualists I Accept the means but reject the values 0 Rebels I Reject both the means and the values and substitute new ones 0 Retreatists I Retreatists reject both the means and the values and replace them with nothing Critics of this theory point out that not everyone shares the same goals Broken windows theory explains how social controls can systematically weaken and minor acts of deviance can spiral into severe crime and social decays Five most important values of gang members 0 Nonutilitarianism I No economic motive o Maliciousness I The valued just being plain mean 0 Negativism I Aware of the norms of the dominant culture and valued doing the exact opposite o Shortrun hedonism I Valued getting immediate gratification and disapproved of members who waited patiently 0 Group autonomy I Defied or ignored authority figures Lower class has many values that may be considered deviant by upper class 0 Trouble o Toughness o Smartness o Excitement o Fate 0 Autonomy Opportunity theory Those who have many opportunities will be more likely than those with a few good opportunities Revised differential association theory 0 ln stable neighborhoods where most people know each other throughout their lives criminal subcultures develop devoted to such activities as burglary and theft 0 ln unstable neighborhoods where people are constantly moving in and out there are few opportunities to learn about burglary and theft and boys who are mostly strangers must find some way to establish dominance They turn to violence subcultures o In neighborhoods too disorganized for either crime or violence they develop retreatist subcultures Conflict theory dominant class produces deviance by making and enforcing laws that protect its own interest and oppress the subordinate class Violent crimes murder nonnegligent manslaughter forcible rape robbery and aggravated assault Property crime burglary motor vehicle theft Whitecollar crime illegal actions of corporations or people acting on its behalf Consumer crimes for example credit card fraud Occupational crime using their professional position illegally to secure something of value for themselves or for the corporation Organizational crime illegal actions committed in accordance with the operative goals of an organization Cybercrime the use of the Internet and World Wide Web to commit crime Hate crime criminal act committed by an offender motivated by bias against race ethnicity religion sexual orientation or disability status Social factors that explain our rates of crime 0 O 0 American culture emphasizes on individual economic success as the measure of self worth Not everyone has a high standard of living Guns What is the link between crime and race 0 Strain theory I Most blacks are poor Differential opportunity I Black children are more likely to be raised by single mothers Labeling I Blacks get arrested more often Conflict I Crime records omit fraud Expanding economy contributed to a drop in crime rate Handgun ownership regulations have recently been weakened Differential opportunity theorists have found no significant correlation between singleparent households and criminal behaviors by youth Goals of incarceration O O O O Retribution Deterrence Protection Rehabilitation Many violent crimes are committed in the heat of passion when rational calculation is largely or entirely blocked by emotion For deterrence to work the punishment must be swift and certain Death penalty after applied is not reversible Race plays a major factor in the death penalty whites convicted of murdering blacks are the least likely while blacks convicted of murdering whites is most likely The Aggregate Burden of Crime In the past three decades studies of the cost of crime have reported increasing crime burdens Expenditures on crimerelated products are treated as a loss to society Criminals could be working and contributing to society if they were not indulged in committing and organizing crimes One to one relationship between serious crimes and individuals parting from major cities Criminals acquired an estimated 603 billion dollars worth of assets from their victims and generated an additional 1102 billion worth of lost of productivity crimerelated expenses and diminished quality of life The net losses represent an annual per capita burden of 4118 Total of 1705 billion dollars of burden of crime We need to redefine legal policy and forge new ethical standards Beyond Crime and Punishment Prisons and Inequality The penal system affects inequality in the American Society by two ways high imprisonment rates among disadvantages men and poor economic prospects for exinmates Stricter law enforcement has caused incarceration rates to increase about five times the historical average of the about 50 years ago Female inmate populate is growing rapidly but African American women even greater In 1989 2 percent of white men have ever been to prison compared to 13 percent of black men Blacks are 8 times more likely to be incarcerated than whites Increase in penal population has not reflected the crime rates at all Drug arrests help explain the increase in populations in prisons as well as laws against repeat offenders Incarceration now accounts for most of the joblessness among young black dropouts and its rapid growth drove down employment rates during the 1990s economic boom Incarceration affects estimates of racial inequality greatly Serving time in prison reduces wages by between 10 and 30 percent Research indicates that effective crime control depends on reducing economic divisions There is a strong link between criminal behavior and economic disadvantage Under current conditions the criminal justice policy may be even tougher on the poor than it is on crime And the Poor get Prison For the same criminal behavior the poor are more likely to be arrested If arrested they are more likely to be charged convicted and imprisoned They are also more likely to be given longer prison terms than upper and middle class members The image of the criminal population is distorted by the shape of the criminal justice system itself Blacks do not make up a majority of the inmates but they make up a proportion that far outstrips their proportion in the population Statistics on different treatments of races are more available than for economic classes FBI keeps records of arrests by race sex age and geographical area it omits class or income
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