New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Sociology

by: Amely Sawayn

Intro to Sociology SOC 100

Amely Sawayn
GPA 3.93

Luis Sfeir-Younis

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Luis Sfeir-Younis
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Sociology

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amely Sawayn on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at University of Michigan taught by Luis Sfeir-Younis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/231473/soc-100-university-of-michigan in Sociology at University of Michigan.


Reviews for Intro to Sociology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/29/15
Chaplet l i v ilill is Sociolourquot alwuvv in l39iux Meanwhile as the postmodernist understanding has grown we have LLJL39ll a resurrvcnce of premode ideas V Sociology in the 21 Century Sociology and You Sociolog I has undergone major changes over the past several decades reflectingr the major changes in the world it studies Sociology s unique way of seeing the world and its efforts to include women and racial ethnic and sexual minorities among its practitioners makes it a vital social science in academia today Kev Terms from Chapter One canon the core texts or thinkers in an academic eld p 21 con ict theory theory that sugpcsts that the dynamics of society both of social order and social resistance are the result 0139 the con ict among different groups p 26 generalized other a person s notion of the common values norms and expectations of other people in a society p 21 globalization the economic political cultural and social interconnections among different groups of people all over the world a dynamic web that connects us to one another and also Creates Cleavagzus among different groups of people p 27 latent functions the hidden unintended functions of an institution or interaction p 25 macrolevel analysis analysis focused on largoscale institutional processes p 27 manifest functions the overt and obvious functions of an institution or interaction p 25 McDonaldization the homogenizing spread of consumerism around the globe p 3 l mechanical solidarity form ofsolidarity in traditional society where life is uniform and people are similar and share a common culture and sense of morality p 18 mircrolevel analysis analysis focused on ways in which different groups of people and even individuals construct their identities based on membership in those groups p 27 modernism the bulletin evolutionary progress through the application ot science p 32 multiculturalism literally the understanding of many cultures a way to understand the very different ways that different groups of people approach issues construct identities and create institutions that express their needs p 27 organic solidarity form of solidarity in modern sooicty where there is a division of labor and diverse and con icting interests and common values are less obvious p 18 llllillth lull f39imlttl lor mcrologyiuon paradigm a coherent moch ol39ltow socrety works and how individuals are socialized into their roles within it p 24 postmodernism perspective that supgcsts that the meaning ofsocial life may not be t39ound in conforming to rigid patterns of devolopment but rather in the creatiw assembling interactions and interpretations that enable us to negotiate our way in the World p 3 0 social Darwinism theory that saw each succeeding society as improving on the one before it p 20 sociological imagination secs our lives as contextual lives our individual identities are sensible only in the social contexts in which we rind ourselves p 39 sociology the study of human behavior in society p 5 Structural functionalism theory that social lilo consists ot several distinct integrated levels that enable the world and individuals who are within inito ind stability order and meaning tp 14 symbolic intoractionism theory that examines how an individualquots interactions with his or her environment help people develop a sense of selt p 24 KEV People from quotbanter One Auguste Comte lirt39nch theorist who coined the term sociology p 1439 Alexis de I39uulueville lirvni h theorist and historian known for his studies ot Ameriian democracy p 15 Frederick Douglass the most important Alrich American intellectual ol the nineteenth century whose work focuSed on the cruelty and illoiiic of slavery p 22 W E B Du Bois African American scholar who was one it thc greatest sociolotvtsts in our history best known lot his work on racial inequality and race relations p 22 Emile Durkheim early sociologist who looked for the social origins of even the most individual and personal issues as in his classic study ofsuieide p 16 Margaret Fuller America s rst Female foreign correspondent whose work became the intellectual foundation of the American women s movement p I 1 Charlotte Perkins ilman early Feminist socioloist who examined how women s economic dependence on men encouraged quotizl39ininint39 behaviors p l l lilnli39i I Ulllllr ininl Ii l particular sociologists examine how knowledge of hiin culture is a form of cultural capital that the dominant class uses tojustify its dominance C Forms of Popular Culture Popular culture is uid and constantly changing and includesquotads in objects activities ideas and personalities and39Elslviom 0 The Politics of Popular Culture While cultural elites control lllg39ll culture popular culture usually comes from the margins from those who have been excluded from a role in de ning other forms of culture re The Globalization of Popular Culture Fashion and other fomis of popular culture in the US are increasingly apparent in other countries Our popular culture may be exported deliberately which some critics consider a form of cultural imperialism or may emerge from below without any deliberate efforts tn additiom trends may be transferred from other countries to the US 11 Culture as Tool Kit Culture is not something we do or don t have rather it s i set of behaviors attitudes and symbols that we actively use drawing on dilr tcrent cultural elements in different circumstances V Cultural Change Cultures are constantly changing and we often experience quotculture wars as groups clash over certain symbols and cultural changes Not all parts ol39soeiety change at the same rate or same time for example material culture often changes before nonmatcriiil culture does creating a situation called culture lag in which we may be uncomfortable feel confused or experience conflict with others as we establish new norms and values related to the new material objects ulturcs may also change throth cultural di usion Sometimes a technological change allows one group to impose its values on another causing rapid cultural chanue VI Culture in the 21 Century Sociologists use the concept of culture to understand the context in which individual action takes place 39ultures are always de ned both by cohesion and diversity Kev Terms from Chapter Two countercultures subcultures that identify themselves through their difference from and opposition to the dominant culture p 43 cultural capital any piece of culture that Ll group can use as a symbolic resource to exchange with others p 58 cultural diffusion the spreading of new ideas through a society independent of population movement p 63 cultural diversity the world s culture are vastly difl39ei39ent from each other p 4 39llii lHk U T inninll ii39ii catalog Now cultural imperialism the deliberate imposition ofone countryquot culture on another country p 61 Cultural relativism lln position that all cultures are equally valid in the experience of their own members p 42 cultural universals rituals customs and symbols that are evident in all societies p 56 culture the sets of values and ideals that we understand to define morality good and evil appropriate and inappropn39ate de nes larger structural forces and how we perceive them p 40 culture lag the gap between a society s technology and material culture and its social belicl39s and institutions p 6392 culture shock a feeling of disorientation we often experience when we encounter a different culture p 41 ethnocentrism a belief that one s culture is superior to others p 42 fads short lived highly popular and widespread behaviors styles or modes of thought p 59 fashion a behavior style or idea that is more permanent than a fad p 60 folkways relatively weak and informal norms that are the result of patterns of action p 49 language an organized set of symbols by which we are able to think and communicate with others p 46 laws norms that have been organized and written down and the breaking ot which involves disapproval not only 0139 immediate community members but also the agents of the state p 50 material culture the things people make and the things they use to make them p 4039 mores norms that are stronger than folkways and are informally enforced p 50 nonmaterial culture the ideas and beliefs that people develop about their lives and their world p 41 norms the rules a culture develops that define how people should act and the consequences of lhilure to act in the specified ways p 48 popular culture the culture ofthe masses the middle and working class as opposed to high culture p 57 Cl llll quot Timur mil 5 in my rituals process by which member s ot a culture emuaut in a routine behavior to express their sense ot belonuing to thc culture p 47 Sapjr Whorf hypothesis concluded that language itselfprovides a cultural lens through which people perceive the world as opposed to the common sense belief that the function of language is to express the world we already perceive p 4b subcultures a group o39fpeople within a culture who share some distinguishing characteristic belicis values or attribute that win them apart from the dominant culture p 43 symbol anything that carries additional meanings beyond itselfto others who share in the culture p 45 values the ethical foundations ofa culture p 5 ll Kev People from Chapter Two Pierre Bourdieu French sociologist who argued that dit l39crcnt groups possess cultural capital a resource that those in the dominant class can use toiusti39t y their dominance p 58 Edward Sapir and Benjamin Wllorf anthropologists who develOped the apirWhorf hypothesis which describes the relationship between perception and language pr 46 Ann Swidler sociologist who developed the concept of cultun as a tool kitquot p o E William Graham Sumner sociologist who coined the term ethnocentrism p 42 Trv It Exercise Thinking about Culturi in Everyday Life p 42 Mociiedfivm an acrivizy submitted by Jonathan Marx Winthrop University OBJECHVE Understand the importance ofculture in everyday life STEP 1 Plan Your instructor will either ask you to think about something that represents your culture or subculture or you may be asked to bring a material artifact food clothing uiusic photo or other Object that would help someone understand your culture S39l liP 2 Share Brictly share what rst came to mind or the actual object Identify yourself by name and talk about the culturalsubcultural groups you represent rrsuucior lartunl for Soutoiogy vth Kcv Terms from lianter Three achieved status a status we attain through talent ability effort or other unique personal characteristics p 77 ascribed status a status that we receive involuntarily without regard to our unique talents skills or accomplishments p 77 bureaucracy a formal organization characterized by a division oflabor a hierarchy of authorih formal rules governing behavior a logic ol39rationalitv and an impersonality of criteria p 94 bureaucratic personality term used to dtncri be the personality 01 people who become more committed to following the correct procedures than they are to getting the job done p 97 coercive organizations organizations in which membership is not voluntary p 92 crowd an aggregate of individuals who happen to be together but experience themselves as essentially independent p 81 dramaturgy llrving Goffman s theory of social life based around his concept ofimpression management p 73 dyad a group oftwo p 8 l ethnomt thodology sociological tradition in which the researcher tries to expose the common unstaicd assumptions that enable conversational shortcuts to work p 7 face work concept from Goffman s dramaturgy theory it is our attempt to give the best possible performance in our social interactions p 74 group any assortment of people who share or believe they share the same norms values and expectations p 81 group cohesion the degree to which the individual members ot39a group identify with each other and the group p lt l groupthink the process by which group members try to preserve harmony and unity in spite of their individualiudgments p 87 hardcore members members ofa group who have a great deal ot power to make policy decisions p 35 I up icr f octet Interaction it39ll iiiiii V lf illilmtllllllquot impression management when people actively try to control how others perceive them by changing their hehavror to CUI I39L 1OnCi to an ideal of what the others ill find most appealing p 73 in group a group a person fceln positively toward and to which the person belonps p b in group heterogeneity concept describing the fact that Wt are keenly aware of the subtle differences among members of our in groups p 84 leader someone in charge ofa group p 85 lookingglass self Charles Horton Cooley s concept that argues that identity is t39ormed through social interaction p 72 master status when an ascribed or achieved status is presumed iu important that it overshadows all 01 the other statuses dominating our lives and controlling our position in society p 78 network a type ot39ijiroup that is both looser and denser than a formal group p 88 normative orgzinimtion organization peoplejoin to pursue some interest or obtain some sort of satisfaction 13 91 organization large secondary group designed to accomplish speci c tasks in an etlicient manner p 91 outgroup ti group to which a person does not belong and does not feel positively toward p outgroup homogeneity concept describing our tendency to view all members of out out groups as the same p 84 primary group groups that come toiiether for expressive reasons to provide emotional support love companionship and security p 82 reference group a group toward which we are so strongly committed or which commands so much prestige that we orient our actions around what we believe that group s perceptions would be p 84 role sets ofbehaviors that are expected ofa person who occupies a certain status p 79 role conflict occurs when we try to play different roles with extremely different or contradictory rules at the same time p 80 role exit the process ofadjustment that takes place when we move out of a role that is central to ouridentity p 80


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.