Intro to Sociology
Intro to Sociology SOC 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amely Sawayn on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at University of Michigan taught by Luis Sfeir-Younis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/231473/soc-100-university-of-michigan in Sociology at University of Michigan.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Number2 Text Chapter 1 What is sociology Sociology disproves many common sense ideas Society permits and even facilitates the free movement of goods making life easier and more predictable Harriet Martineau observed a sharp contrast between the principles and values of the American constitution and the reality of slavery Government is to resolve disagreements between individuals and ensure people s rights People have to make a new gov t if it gets too far Locke Society enhances freedom if people if the llgeneral will and individual greed are balanced Jefferson fused the thoughts of these two people in the Declaration of Independence lmportant revolutionized sociological themes 0 The Nature of Community What it means to live in a society and the right and obligations we have 0 The Nature of Government Who should have the power to govern a king or the people 0 The Nature of the Economy Should some people have most of the money or should it be more fair 0 The Meaning oflndividuaism What rights and responsibilities do we have 0 The Rise ofSecuarism How can religion be intertwined with science and economic ideas 0 The Nature and Direction of Change Where are we heading The word sociology was developed in 1838 by a French theorist Auguste Comte defined as llthe scientific study of society Sociology was part of modernism the belief in evolutionary process According to Comte sociology relies on science to explain social facts The major source of anarchy chaos disorder and revolution is intellectual anarchy a crisis of ideas Alexis de Tocqueville s greatest insight is that democracy can either enhance or erode individual liberty Karl Marx s greatest insight was that class was the organizing principle of social life He wanted to organize society to solve basic quotmaterialquot needs not idealistic needs Marx argued that as capitalism progressed the rich would be richer poor would get poorer and it would all end in destruction Emile Durkeim studied suicide and tried to measure how connected we feel to social life and the amount our individual freedoms are constrained by examining what happens when those processes fail His central insight was that llEvery society is a moral society Max Weber found that rationality was the foundation of modern society Defined class and status and also saw that individual freedom is diminishing Georg Simmel studied forms of social interaction found that money is the root of all evil and the means to our emancipation Thorstein Veblen argued that America was split into two the ones who work and the ones who have the money Lester Ward did not believe in social Darwinism but stressed the need for social planning and reform George Herbert Mead argues that our identities are based upon our interactions with ourselves and others Mary Wollstonecraft was the first major feminist and focused on women s position and gender inequality Margaret Fuller called for an end to sexual stereotyping and the sexual double standard Frederick Douglass was an exslave and wrote about how all humans are equal and described what it was like to be a slave WEB Du Bois founded NAACP and believed race was the defining feature of American society Contemporary sociologists return constantly to the ideas of its founders for inspiration and guidance Symbolic interactionism examines how an individual s interactions help people develop a sense of self Erving Goffman finds that even when individuals are stripped of everything that identifies them to be different they still try to find something that does Structural functionalism is a theory that social life consists of several distinct integrated levels that enable the world Central figure of this theory is Taclott Parsons A paradigm is a coherent model of how society works and how individuals socialize into their roles within it Parsons believe that societies tend to go towards balance Robert K Merton argued that institutions or interactions can be manifest functions obvious or latent functions hidden unintended Conflict theory a theory that suggested that the dynamics of society were the result of conflict among groups Globalization the interconnections between different groups Multiculturalism the understanding of multiple cultures Macrolevel analysis largescale institutional processes Microlevel analysis ways in which different groups and individuals construct their identities Globalization of products and advances has made the world a smaller place lndustrial countries have been increasingly multicultural however other countries have been experiencing many llethnic cleansing wars and efforts George Ritzer calls globialization McDonaldization the homogenizing spread of consumerism around the world Globalization and multiculturalism hold us together and also drive us apart Race gender and class are among the most important axles around which social life revolves llManife O O Modernism defined differently in many time zones but in the twentieth century it s defined as the development of universal legal principles as emblems of social progress World is so interdependent that one society cannot exist in isolation from others Postmodernism meaning of social life may not be found in conforming to rigid patterns of development but in the ability to negotiate our way in the world There are more people studying sociology than ever today sto of the Communist Party Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The modern bourgeois society is still separated by classes and conditions of oppression Seperated into two classes Bourgeoisie and Proletriat Bourgeoisie exploits the worldmarket and conquers other nations to force them into their method of production Bourgeoisie create large urban cities which helps have a centralized mean for production Modern bourgeois society is no long able to control the powers it has obtained though production and trade Revolt starts and devastates the entire society because there was too much civilization too much means of subsistence too much industry and too much commerce The proletariat is the modern working class work hard to just keep a living Are slaves of the bourgeois class and of the bourgeois state Slaved by the machines and by the manufacturers The more modern manual labor becomes the less skill and strength is necessary so the less sex and skill matter The proletariat never get a chance to get together and revolt instead they fight against the enemies of the enemy the ones who aren t really the cause of all of their pain After a while the proletariat form unions and go against the bourgeoisie because as machines further develop the less they need hard labor The proletariat movement is the self conscious independent movement of the immense majority in the interests of themselves The bourgeoisie class eventually because incompatible with society living in the former idea of slavery llThe Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism Max Weber Capitalism of today has come to dominate economic life and selects the economic subjects it needs through a process of economical survival of the fittest A calling is a task set by god It is said that you can be rich as long as you are doing it for god and accepting his gifts llyou may labour to be rich for god though not for the flesh and sin Wealth is only bad when it s for sinful enjoyment of life and when it tempts you To wish to be poor is often seen as a wish to be unhealthy to reject God s gift
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