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Intro to Sociology

by: Amely Sawayn

Intro to Sociology SOC 100

Amely Sawayn
GPA 3.93

Luis Sfeir-Younis

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Luis Sfeir-Younis
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amely Sawayn on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at University of Michigan taught by Luis Sfeir-Younis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/231473/soc-100-university-of-michigan in Sociology at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Unit 9 Sex amp Gender Textbook Notes Every society in the world classifies people by whether they are male or female Gender inequality is a universal phenomenon Gender varies in four crucial ways 0 Gender varies from culture to culture 0 Definitions of gender change over time 0 Definitions of gender vary within a society 0 Gender varies over the life course Gender identity our understanding of ourselves as male or female lntersectionality intersections of forms of identity Gender inequality has two dimensions the domination of men over women and the domination of some men over other men and some women over other women Patriarchy male domination Reproductive organs are a marker of one s sex Differing reproductive strategies made men and women develop differently this is called the evolutionary imperative Sex hormones hormones like testosterone The process by which males and females diverge biologically is most pronounced at two points 0 During fetal development when primary sex characteristics are developed 0 At puberty when secondary sex characteristics are developed Sociologists used to believe that a gendered dividing of labor was functional that as societies became more complex dividing work from family life made more sense and females would remain at home to do all the housebased tasks while the males went off to hunt or fish Three foundations of modern society 0 Private property 0 The modern national state 0 The nuclear family Private property both caused male domination and helped shape all modern political institutions Some anthropologists suggest there are many more genders out there than we know Berdache member of one biological sex who takes the social role of another sex Gender socialization the process by which males and females are taught the appropriate behaviors attitudes and traits for their biological sex Gender polarization marked differences between men and women Social construction of gender we construct our gender identities all through our lives using the cultural materials we find around us Gender roles the bundle of traits attitudes and behaviors associated with biological males and females Gendered institution social expectations related to gender roles in a social structure Consistent gender differences 0 Girls have somewhat higher verbal ability 0 Boys have somewhat better visual and spatial ability 0 Boys do somewhat better on mathematical tests 0 Boys were significantly more aggressive than girls Gender wage gap gap between the median wages for women and for men Feminization of poverty poverty is mainly affecting women Feminization of the professions salaries drop as female participation increases Glass ceiling the artificial barriers that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward within their organization into management level positions Sexual harassment creates unequal work environments by singling out women for different treatment Second shift the housework and childcare that also needs to be done after a regular working shift is over Women tend to be experts on love and friendship Men tend to pick up new ones based upon new situations Married people live longer and healthier lives have more and better sex save more money and are less depressed than unmarried people but it s a better deal for men Dual labor market a gender based division of labor and rank in companies The gender wage gap is usually the highest at management levels llFirst wave political movements helped women enter into the public sphere to be able to vote go to law or medical schools etc llSecond wave continued to eliminate obstacles to women s advancement focused on men s violence against women llThird wave is the wave we are currently in support lesbians and multiculturalism Feminism rests on two principles an empirical observation and a moral stand 0 Empirical observation is that men and women are not equal 0 Moral stand is that inequality is wrong and should be changed Liberal feminism want to remove structural obstacles that stand in the way of individual women s entry and mobility in their occupation or professions Radical feminism states that women are not just discriminated against economically and politically they are also oppressed and subordinated by men directional personally and most often through sexual relations Multicultural feminism experience as people of color cannot be extracted from the experience as women and treated separately llPromise keeper is a group that embraces a traditional view of the male role as family provider Lorber Judith quotNight to His Day The Social Construction of Genderquot Gender is constantly created and recreated out of human interaction out of social life and is the texture and order of that social life Men are noticed more for taking care of children 0 Gender construction starts with assignment to a sex category on basis of what the gentiles look like at birth 0 People treat those in one gender different from those in the other and the children respond by acting and feeling differently 0 Sex doesn t come into play again until puberty but by that time sexual feelings and desires and practices have been shaped by gendered norms and expectations 0 Gender roles change over time o The social institution of gender insists only that what they do is perceived as different 0 Gender is a process it has room for medication and variation by individuals and small groups 0 Gender inequality is produced and maintained by identifiable social processes and built into the general social structure and individual identities deliberately and purposely 0 Sexual difference is itself a fundamental construction Aaron Bersntein quotWomen s Pay Why the Gap Remains a Chasmquot 0 30 years ago women made 59 of what men made now they make 77 0 However when looking at total earned over a career women only currently make 44 of what a man makes 0 Outright discrimination accounts for only about 10 percent of the pay gap the majority of the problem lies between the conflicting needs and norms of society and employers o Occupations are still very sexsegregated 0 Family responsibilities also typically fall more heavily on women 0 Women can only get equal treatment when they behave like traditional men and leave their family responsibilities at home 0 Women s pay is cut severely if they drop out of the career for a certain time a lot more than men 0 Women also take a big hit for going parttime 0 Pay gap continues to narrow and it is likely to continue 0 Speedier progress won t happen without more employers making work site familyfriendly and revamping jobs to accommodate men and women as they seek to balance work and family demands Deborah Tannen quotYou Just Don t Understand Women and Men in Conversationquot 0 Men often find themselves uncomfortable around women except when it comes to sex 0 Men and women have different ways of speaking 0 Common rituals among women are designed to take the other person s feelings into account while rituals among men are commonly designed to maintain the oneup position 0 Biggest areas of miscommunication 0 Apologies I Women are often told they apologize too much I To many men apologizing seems to be putting oneself down I Even when I m sorry is a apology women assume that one will take half the blame and the other will take the other half mutually sharing the blame It s a face saving device 0 Criticism I In general women are less harsh on criticisms I Men are generally more harsh and to the point 0 Thankyous


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