New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

App Honors Calc II

by: Mrs. Preston Lehner

App Honors Calc II MATH 156

Mrs. Preston Lehner
GPA 3.87

Robert Krasny

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Robert Krasny
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Mathematics (M)

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Preston Lehner on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MATH 156 at University of Michigan taught by Robert Krasny in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/231485/math-156-university-of-michigan in Mathematics (M) at University of Michigan.

Similar to MATH 156 at UM

Popular in Mathematics (M)


Reviews for App Honors Calc II


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/29/15
RESEARCH ON STUDENT N OTETAKING IMPLICATIONS FOR FACULTY AND GRADUATE STUDENT INSTRUCTORS Deborah DeZure Matthew Kaplan Martha A Deerman Deborah DeZure is Coordinator of Faculty Programs at the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at the University ofMichigan Matthew Kaplan is Associate Director at the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at the University ofMichigan Martha A Deerman is a graduate student research assistant at CRLT Introduction Notetaking has been a staple activity of academic life particularly in lecture courses for decades Despite its widespread use notetaking has generally been taken for granted by both instructors and students However in the past few years changes in the landscape of higher education such as the proliferation of commercial notetaking services have led instructors to ask questions about the efficacy of notetaking in promoting learning and their own role in the process These questions re ect instructor concerns not only about notetaking services but also the apparent decrease in student notetaking abilities the introduction of active modes of learning within lectures and the ease with which instructors can post their lecture notes online for campusbased courses or distance learning The purpose of this Occasional Paper is to review what research tells us about the impact of notetaking and how the review of notes affects student learning The paper also explores the role that instructors can play suggesting several specific strategies to support students What Research Tells Us About Notetaking and Review of Notes Research on notetaking indicates that taking notes in class and reviewing those notes either in class or afterward have a positive impact on student learning Not surprisingly the preponderance of studies confirms that students recall more lecture material if they record it in their notes Bligh 2000 Students who take notes score higher on both immediate and delayed tests of recall and synthesis than students who do not take notes Kiewra et al 1991 Moreover the more students record the more they remember and the better they perform on exams Johnstone amp Su 1994 In summary notetaking facilitates both recall of factual material and the synthesis and application of new knowledge particularly when notes are reviewed prior to exams Many studies of notetaking find that review of notes one s own borrowed notes or notes provided by the instructor significantly improves recall of lecture material Kiewra et a1 1991 found that students who take notes but do not review earn lower exam scores than students who review notes prior to the exam Additionally students not present at the lecture but given notes to review either the instructors notes or notes taken by other students did almost as well as the students who reviewed their own notes and signi cantly better than students who did not review Student Notetaking Abilities Given the importance of notetaking and review to student beaming it is especially problematic that student notes are often incomplete and or inadequate Research indicates that students fail to record 40 of the important In summary notetaking facilitates both recall of factual material and the synthesis and application of new 39 Ag particularly when notes are reviewed prior to exams points in a typical lecture Hartley amp Cameron 1967 Howe 1970 with firstyear students recording on average only 11 Locke 1977 Material written on the blackboard makes it into students notes at a higher rate than material communicated verbally students record most of the blackboard information Locke 1977 but only about 10 of information delivered orally Johnstone amp Su 1994 However students are selective about which lecture material to record so that while overall recording may be low recording of main ideas may be quite high Kiewra Benton and Lewis 1987 found that students record 90 of the main ideas but not more than 11 of the supporting ideas Unfortunately students notes are often inaccurate Johnstone and Su 1994 report that inaccuracies in student notes occur most frequently when students are copying diagrams numerical figures equations and items on transparenciesmuch of which is essential material Further corrections to notes that are identified during class are seldom incorporated into notes once they are written All of these challenges are compounded for international students who may have difficulty with oral andor written communications in English How can faculty support student notetaking The poor quality of student notes may re ect not only a lack of skills necessary to take accurate and complete notes but also the complexity of the task Notetaking involves listening to new and often unfamiliar information transcribing that information quickly enough to keep pace with the lecture and deciding how to organize the material to re ect the relationships stated by the speaker Several studies indicate that students have difficulty organizing lecture material and identifying main points Davies 1976 Jackson amp Bilton 1990a 1990b Furthermore students say they experience the most difficulty with lecturers who speak too quickly or inaudibly fail to present a clear outline at the beginning of the lecture or fail to signal important information Johnstone amp Su 1994 Consequently how faculty lecture organization pace affect in ection and what faculty do during lecture give handouts write on the board emphasize and or repeat important material summarize complex information strongly affect students ability to take notes Faculty can improve their students notetaking ability by focusing on three areas lecture strategies the use of handouts and strategies for engaging students Lecture strategies to support notetaking While the topic of effective lecturing is multifaceted there are two factors that have a particularly strong impact on students ability to take notes 1 pacing which includes both speed of delivery and the amount and difficulty of information delivered and 2 quotcueingquot which involves verbal and visual signals of emphasis structure and relationships Pacing The pace with which an instructor delivers a lecture has obvious implications for students ability to keep up with the presentation and maintain attention But how fast is too fast Research indicates that a moderate speed of delivery around 135 words per minute best supports student notetaking Peters 1972 Faculty can evaluate their pace by asking a colleague to sit in on a lecture or by distributing a short survey to students including items such as quotThe pace of today s lecture was a Too slow b About right c Too fastquot CRLT consultants can also observe or videotape instructors classes to assist them in assessing the pace oftheir lectures Appropriate pacing is also affected by the complexity and familiarity of the material When lectures contain complex or unfamiliar material or a lot of technical information and terminology instructors should move more slowly to allow students to record the relevant information Instructors may also want to balance the amount of new vs familiar and simple vs complex material when possible Conversely when lecture material is easy to understand or reviews familiar ground instructors can pick up the pace and expect that students will easily keep up Pausing The simplest way to engage students and improve their notes is to build in short pauses two to three minutes a few times during the lecture when students can review and rework their notes At the end of the lecture instructors can ask students to take three minutes to do a quotfree recallquot that is write down everything they remember from lecture Pausing uses relatively little class time and requires minimal effort from instructors Pausing also significantly improves student comprehension and retention of material Bonwell amp Eison 1991 Verbal anal Visual Cues Students ability to discern the structure of a lecture will also play a role in the quality of their notes Although the problemcentered chronological or causeandeffect organization of a lecture may be selfevident to faculty students may not be able to identify this structure To help students faculty can signal lecture structure and hierarchical relationships e g key points versus detail context versus cause by verbal and visual cueing Verbal cues provide clarity and emphasis as well as signal relationships causeandeffect hierarchical sequential comparative etc Bligh 2000 Verbal cues include phrases such as quotThe four main arguments arequot quotA major development wasquot quotApplying that conceptquot quotThis story was an example ofquot Instructors can use visual cues to emphasize specific concepts andor relationships among concepts Visual cues include writing information or simple diagrams on the board presenting graphs or complex charts on transparencies or presenting a running outline of the lecture on slides The most commonly used visual cue is a topic outline on the board slide or overhead at the beginning of class to signal what will be addressed in class that day Instructors can refer back to the topic outline throughout the class to signal transitions from one topic to the next to reinforce the relations among topics and to summarize what has been discussed at the close of class Written cues are particularly important in light of students tendency to record material from the blackboard However students often record complex information such as long definitions formulas or labeled figures and diagrams incorrectly When it is important to record exact wording or an accurate diagram student learning is better supported with a handout containing the complete information Johnstone amp Su 1994 While visual cues and handouts are particularly helpful to nonnative speakers and students with several types of disabilities they benefit most students and are well worth the time and effort to use them Handouts Faculty can support student notetaking by distributing handouts for students to use while taking notes or while reviewing their lecture notes Students take better notes and review material more effectively if faculty provide a quotscaffoldquot such as an outline an overview or other advance organizer for students to use while taking notes The research on notetaking focuses on three kinds of handouts outlines graphic organizers and copies full or partial of the instructor s lecture notes Students benefit from outlines Students benefit from outlines during lecture because outlines provide a scaffold for notetaking Students benefit from graphic organizers during review because graphic organizers facilitate understanding of lecture material Copies of the instructor s notes help students as supplements to their own notes during review during lecture because outlines provide a framework for notetaking Students benefit from graphic organizers during review because graphic organizers facilitate understanding of lecture material Copies of the instructor s notes help students as supplements to their own notes during review Outlines Outlines provide students with headings and subheadings identifying major and minor topics of lecture material and include space to fill in the relevant information in the order it will be delivered during the lecture The advantage of providing outlines is that they preorganize lecture material and through headings and subheadings make clear the distinction between main and supporting ideas Studies comparing test performance of students taking notes on outlines provided by the instructor prior to lecture with students taking notes in their usual manner find that students given outlines take more complete notes and perform better on exams Kiewra DuBois Christensen Kim amp Lindberg 1989 Cohn Cohn amp Bradley 1995 This research suggests that outlines work best when used during lecture to record the material in the order it is presented Additionally an outline can enable students to identify gaps in their notes that can be corrected later through consultation with the instructor or peers Graphic Organizers Graphic organizers show relations across categories concepts or ideas by organizing information in a twodimensional format A common graphic organizer is the matrix which shows relations by using rows and columns to represent a concept its subordinate concepts an corresponding information see Fig 1 Model of a Matrix The advantage of graphic organizers is that they offer students a meaningful way to think through the information in their notes As students enter information into the cells of the matrix they construct a visual representation of the relationships between ideas or concepts presented in a given lecture Research suggests that providing students with a matrix to complete during review facilitates lea1ning particularly the ability to transfer the material to new applications andor synthesize the material Kiewra DuBois Christian amp McShane 1988 Kiewra et al 1991 Model of a Matrix Diagram motor of being alternating stupor and behavior and disregard for hygiene withdrawl disinterest in world of sudden short over many severe likely to fend live in a themselves way 199 Distributing Instructor Notes Instructors might also consider handing out partial to full copies of their own lecture notes As Kiewra argues I 985a instructor notes can effectively supplement students notes by ensuring their accuracy and comprehensiveness One study found that students who reviewed instructor notes and did not take their own performed better on recall tests than students who took and reviewed their own notes Kiewra 1985b However most researchers suggest that instructor notes should be used only as a supplement to students own notes since the act of notetaking itself helps students learn lecture material and because students claim that their own notes are personally meaningful and represent their personal selection of important points Bligh 2000 Important Caveats Attendance and Dependence Handing out the instructors notes raises concerns about student attendance and students potential dependence on external aids that may hinder mastery of listening and notetaking skills Instructors concerned about attendance have several options 1 make handouts skeletal enough that students need to be present in class for the notes to be useful 2 use class time for activities and interactions that will enhance learning and cannot be re ected in simple written summary or outline form 3 document the impact of attendance on exam performance and convey that information to students and 4 require attendance When students receive instructor notes in the shortrun students may perform better on tests of mastery of factual material but in the longrun students may not learn to organize ideas because of a dependence on external aids Kiewra 1985b 385 Additional strategies to support student notetaking Faculty might also consider supporting students active engagement with their notes through short focused activities during lecture or in office hours These instructional strategies engage students actively and can help them remember and understand more of the lecture material In this section we describe five activities Instruction on Notetaking and Tips Sheets Instructors particularly those who teach f1rst and secondyear students can take time in class to talk about how to take notes for their courses Instructors can also distribute or post online tips Sheets like the one provided at the end of this paper see p7 below adding their own suggestions that re ect the discipline they teach and their priorities for the types of materials they expect students to retain and master Providing models Another option is to show students a sample of complete and correct notes either provided by the instructor or borrowed from students in the class By examining exemplary notes students can see what they can do to improve their own notes Instructors can point out that good notes are correct or have been corrected identify all main points and selectively include subsidiary points or support connect supporting materials to the appropriate main point connect examples or stories to the concepts they demonstrate summarize the main points of class discussions describe interactive experiences in the classroom include student comments use abbreviations wsgwewwe Peer learning Faculty can go a step further and allow time for students to compare their notes with those of a peer in the class offering each other corrections or missing information After three to four minutes of comparison students can ask the instructor for clari cation and elaboration The process of peer discussion can also help students identify and articulate questions about the material Writing summaries anal questions Asking students to summarize their notes or write discussion questions engages students in the active use of lecture material Both activities are easily integrated into lecture and signi cantly improve student comprehension and retention of material King 1989 1992 Instructors can collect summaries and select some common problems and particularly good examples to discuss with the class King suggests that faculty can help students formulate questions by offering quotquestion stemsquot that lead students to ask the kinds of questions that generate improved comprehension eg How is related to What is the difference between and In your opinion what is the best way to Additionally student summaries and discussion questions provide evidence of how well students understand the lecture material To further motivate students instructors can include several questions designed by students on their tests and examinations O ice hours During office hours faculty can suggest to students ways to improve their notes and help students identify gaps in notetaking that did or will impact test performance and teaming The importance of review can also be demonstrated to students when the correct information needed for a specific exam question is found in their own notes Supporting Students with Disabilities Students with disabilities often experience difficulty taking notes in lectures Students overcome these unique challenges by using various support technologies such as tape recorders or relying on sign language interpreters The UM Office of Services for Students with Disabilities SSD also offers support services for students ranging from providing notetakers who attend lecture with the student and record lecture notes to captioning videos shown in the course Faculty can learn more by contacting SSD directly at 734 7633300 or TDD 7633000 Notetaking Services for Students with Disabilities Notetaking services are often used by students with disabilities particularly when a sign interpreter is used a student cannot see the lecturer or visual aids the blackboard transparencies or PowerPoint slides or a student cannot keep up with the pace of the lecture Faculty can help students who have trouble with notetaking by 1 providing complete notes as a supplement 2 providing study guides for exams 3 giving assignments in written and oral form and 4 encouraging students and their notetakers to sit together close to the instructor SSD suggests that faculty begin each new course with a variant of the following comment quotAny student who feels that heshe may need an accommodation for any sort of disability please make an appointment to see me during office hoursquot This approach preserves students privacy and also indicates the willingness of the faculty member to provide assistance as needed See SSD Faculty Handbook at httpwwwumichedusswdssd 1bhtmfor additional suggestions Interpreters Interpreters make it possible for hearingimpaired students to learn from lectures However classroom interactions and discussions can be fastpaced Faculty can help hearingimpaired students by repeating questions raised by students before replying to the question identifying speakers so that the student knows who is speaking and by regulating crosstalk among students e g students can be asked to raise their hands so that the hearingimpaired student can identify the speaker Classroom Management to Support Students with Disabilities Communicating with disabled students requires sensitivity and exibility particularly with seating arrangements For example lip reading depends upon a clear view of the speaker Hardofhearing or learning disabled students who use a tape recorder may need to sit close to the instructor Sightimpaired students may need larger type and an uncluttered format to be able to read handouts Faculty can prepare and share handouts of the material they will present on the board Sightimpaired students can then take the handouts to SSD to be enlarged or read onto tape Conclusion The process of notetaking involves a complex set of skills and interactions between instructors and their students Current concerns and questions about notetaking offer both a challenge and an opportunity to reexamine our assumptions about the efficacy of notes and notetaking They also offer a chance to reconceptualize the role of instructors in an educational landscape that may require new approaches to timehonored practices References Bligh D 2000 What s the use oflectures San Francisco JosseyBass Bonwell C C amp Eison J A 1991 Active learning Creating excitement in the classroom Washington DC George Washington University Cohn E Cohn S amp Bradley J J 1995 Notetaking working memory and learning in principles of economics Research in Economic Education 26 4 291307 Davies B 1976 Physics lectures and student notes Physics Education 11 1 3336 Fahmy J J amp Bilton L 1990a Lecture comprehension and notetaking for L2 students Unpublished ERIC Document Reproduction No 323785 Fahmy J J amp Bilton L 1990b Listening and notetaking in higher education Unpublished ERIC Document Reproduction No 366189 Hartley J amp Cameron A 1967 Some observations on the efficiency of lecturing Educational Review 201 3037 Howe M J 1970 Notetaking strategy review and longterm retention of verbal information Journal of Educational Research 636285 Johnstone A H amp Su W Y 1994 Lectures a learning experience Education in Chemistry 31 1 7576 79 Kiewra K A 1985a Providing the instructor s notes An effective addition to student notetaking Educational Psychologist 201 3339 Kiewra K A 1985b Students notetaking behaviors and the efficacy of providing the instructors notes for review Contemporary Educational Psychology 10 4 378386 Kiewra K A Benton S L amp Lewis L B 1987 The qualitative aspects of information processing ability and academic achievement Journal of I nstructional Psychology 14 3 110117 Kiewra K A DuBois N Christensen M Kim SI amp Lindberg N 1989 A more equitable account of the notetaking functions in learning from lecture and from text Instructional Science 18 3 217232 Kiewra K A DuBois N Christian D amp McShane A 1988 Providing study notes Comparison of three types of notes for review Journal of Educational Psychology 80 4 595597 Kiewra K A DuBois N Christian D McShane A Meyerhoffer M amp Roskelley D 1991 Notetaking functions and techniques Journal of Educational Psychology 83 2 240245 King A 1989 Effects of selfquestioning training on college students comprehension of lectures Contemporary Educational Psychology 14 4 366381 King A 1992 Comparison of selfquestioning summarizing and notetakingreview as strategies for learning from lectures American Educational Research Journal 29 2 303323 Locke E A 1977 An empirical study of lecture notetaking among college students The Journal of Educational Research 77 9399 Palkovitz R J amp Lore R K 1980 Notetaking and note review Why students fail questions based on lecture material Teaching of Psychology 7 3 15916 1 Peters D L 1972 Effect of notetaking and rate of presentation on shortterm objective test performance Journal ofEducational Psychology 63 3 276280 Robinson DH amp Kiewra KA 1995 Visual argument Graphic organizers are superior to outlines in improving learning from text Journal of Educational Psychology 8 7 3 455467 Student Guide to Effective Notetaking and Review Good notetaking is much more than fast writing Good notetakers listen actively while they write think while they listen and make conscious choices about what to record In general they capture as much of the lecture content as possible They take notes they can use for effective learning and then most importantly they review those notes regularly and with focused attention Before Class D0 assigned readings Organize Engage Fully Check your syllabus Keep one notebook per course Be positive about learning Reading before class will help you identify understand and organize main points and content in the lecture and class discussion Loose leaf binders with pockets give more exibility in organizing your notes and allow you to add handouts and other materials in a useful order Plan to start listening as soon as the instructor starts talking tune in have your pen and paper ready do not let others distract you During Class Listen for structure Be complete and accurate Keep up Listen for introductory and concluding phrases and transitions indicating how the lecture is organized quotToday s topics will includequot Write down key points theories facts theorems de nitions etc Abbreviate Every subject has words that can be shortened For example S for Shakespeare bc for because w for with or re for regarding If the instructor begins lecture with questions write them down then listen for the answers Write down examples and indicate the points they demonstrate To save time use a system of symbols For example use E for resulted in for is equal to gt for is greater than for therefore Develop your own symbols too Listen for repetition Write down anything given in list form quotThree causes werequot Leave space if you fall behind or get confused Circle terms you do not understand Write question marks next to places you want to clarify later but do not stop taking note s Listen as closely at the end of the lecture as at the 39 39 39 The instructor may summarize the most important points quotToday we discussedquot Write down what is written on the board or projected on screen Pay attention to the instructor s body language and tone of voice Note when she or he uses the most emphasis or enthusiasm Listen for main points but lgenerally writing more is better After Class Review within in 24 hours Reorganize and rehearse Evaluate your method Compare notes with classmates to supplement or clarify what you wrote down Reorganize your notes visually Create an outline diagram or char to show relationships among concepts Are you nding a lot of gaps and errors Locate gaps or confusion Ask peers GSIs or the instructor for help in class or during office hours Use different pen colors or highlighters for different types of material or to distinguish your ideas from the instructor s Do your notes help you study Did they help you on your exams If not what can you do to improve your notes Check for accuracy of material especially formulas definitions spelling of terms Try writing brief summaries of the information in you own words If you feel that your notes are not helping you learn and you do not feel that you know how to improve them seek the assistance of your instructor or GSI Identify connections with what you already know and with material from previous class meetings How does the material extend or clarify your knowledge What is the quotbig picturequot that is starting to emerge Review your notes regularly to improve your understanding and to prevent cramming at test time Make up and answer possible test questions Prepared by Jennifer Lutrnan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching CRLT 2001


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.