October 20 and 22
October 20 and 22 Anth 1113 003
Popular in General Anthropology
Anth 1113 003
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Red-Roe on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1113 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Samuel G. Duwe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
Reviews for October 20 and 22
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/29/15
Renee Roe October 20 22 notes Oct 20 more upright posture more varied diet encephalized bigger brains more dependent learning longer life span longer period of infancy and development larger groups sometimes bipedal 2 legged gait symbolic language dependence on language for social interaction exchange of food or good in social interactions low dimorphism big groups fossil record time space sedimentary record Direct evidence of earliest stages of human evolution comes from Southern and Eastern Africa and takes the form of fossils means something that came from a hole in the ground literally organic material was replaced by minerals study of how fossils and fossil contexts are formed lit Laws of Burial of untold billions of animals that die very few are fossilized 0 999999 destroyed by things such as scavengers microbes weathering chemical dissolution 0 what survives are traces of hard rather than soft parts 0 rapid but gentle burial o mineralrich non acid groundwater later exposure discovery Where animals live and where they die determines how abundant its fossil remains might be 0 more fish fossil that that of early apes or humans Fossil records show not only different species but different communities and ecosystems o hippos and lions in London Some fossil species bear strong resemblances to extant modern species 0 example longhorned bison 0 other species indicate the existence of forms no longer represented in animal communities 0 example Synthetoceras tricornatus extinct relative of camels Miocene 12 mya found in Texas split of hominids from ancestral hominoidea emergence of bipedal locomotion expansion of the brain changes in facial features and dentition restructuring of abdominal cavity shifts in sexual dimorphism o SubSaharan East Africa rift valley 0 South Africa caves o rift valley is formed where several continental plates meet 0 early hominid fossils found in Africa because that is where they first evolved 0 many early fossils came from E Africa largely because of the unique geology of the Great Rift Valley 0 a land of slow moving rivers and shallow lakes 0 perfect for burial and preservation of fossil remains o rift continues to spread causing erosion which exposes buried fossil remains o knowing the age of the sediment and their contents is crucial to evolutionary studies o geological stratigraphy o magnetic stratigraphy I stratigraphy superimposition of different sediments rock layers ey to relative dating o radiometric dating 0 periodic shift in Earth s magnetic field recorded in some volcanic rocks produce another framework for relative dating 0 various techniques based on wellknown principles of physics especially radioactive decay 0 C14 radiocarbon KAr ArAr PotassiumArgon ArgonArgon UTh Uranium series Early Hominins 1 Oct 22 The hominids humans family hominidae of African origins o distributed worldwide 0 only primate that walks habitually upright on its hind legs Developments in human evolution 0 bipedalism Australopithecines but starts much earlier and manifested in earlier hominins increase in brain size Homo habilis tool making probably Australopithecines Homo habilis reduction in sexual dimorphism Homo habilis 0 development of language much debated pretty late Australopithecus afarensis o Hadar Ethiopia D Johansen Lucy and the first family found throughout the East Asia date range is ca 3529 million years best known of basal hominids due to abundance of skeletal remains evidence for early bipedalism also comes from fossil trackways at Laetoli 37 my Phalanges finger bones are intermediate 0 curvature indicative of arboreal adaptation o Basal hominids 0 has the lower limbs of a biped though may have walked a bit differently than use Comparison of Australopithecus afarensis and modern human skeletons 0 note differently shaped torso rib cage and upper pelvis in modern skeleton longer arms and shorter legs in Australopithecine 0 similar to contrasts between humans and gorillas suggests that Australopithecines has a relatively poor quality diet all veggies Features of Australopithecus afarensis 0 fully bipedal but perhaps slightly different gait not meat eaters not toolmakers small brain same size or slightly larger than chimpanzees moderate sexua dimorphism long arms curved fingers indicate time still spent in trees or ancestral trait not yet selected out of early hominid populations 0 save that they walked upright on 2 legs we don t see much of ourselves in Australopithecus afarensis Ecological radiation with later Australopithecines o A africanus first to be discovered s Africa relatively small teeth and jaws generalist diet 3025 mya o A boseii A ethiopicus E Africa 0 A robustus S Africa massive teeth chewing muscles suggest specialized herbivores 2010 mya 0 also called paranthropus First hominid radiation was a gradual stepwise process o began with increasing emphasis on bipedal locomotion but for first 12 million years at least hominids were still tied to trees to a certain degree increases in cranial capacity cultural developments followed much later over time there was considerable diversification of hominids expected in an adaptive radiation First members of our genus Homo appeared roughly 25 mya 0 what was different about early Homo o anatomical differences from Australopithecines o differences in behavior Early Homo H habilis Hrudofensis 0 compared to Australopithecines shows 0 larger brain case average ca 630 cc 0 more rounded higher cranial vault o flatter less prognathic face I differences are subtle especially in earliest specimens Oldest early Homo fossils from Ethiopia approx 25 mya Early Homo was not much larger in stature and still had very large teeth What is really different is that for the first time we have archaeological evidence 0 early Homo was definitely a tool maker 0 early Homo exploited large animals for food Oldest stone tools from Kada Gona Ethiopia ca 25 mya What are the first archaeological sites in E Africa like 0 streamside or lakeshore deposits 0 scatters of stone tools and animal bones o no evidence of fire or structures 0 at many sites there is a close association between stone tools and bones of large herbivores Oldowan complex the first stone tools are simple forms such as choppers flake tools cores and spheroids 0 free hand hard hammer percussion o flake tools sharpedged chips of stone struck from choppers or cores Characteristics of the Oldowan 0 tools easy to make 510 mins good understanding of stone fracture in even earliest artifacts used whatever kind of stone was available form of tool determined by stone you start withlittle evidence of design PIiopleistocene hominids did sometimes carry artifacts as far as 46 miles 0 shows that they were thinking ahead at least an hour or two What did they do with tools 0 not weapons 0 good for breaking open bones cutting into carcasses of animals 0 perhaps also simple woodworking tasks Early hominids initially thought to be hunters of large animals M Leakey G isaac o Reevaluation of evidence led to general conclusion that they scavenged large animals and killed small ones 0 bone marrow was a very rich food available to hominids from scavenged carcasses and accessible by using stone tools First evidence of 0 tool use 0 carnivory 0 moving food around landscape New ecological niches carnivory and new problems set stage for later developments 0 getting big packages of food set stage for more sharing
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'