Week 8 Notes
Week 8 Notes FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Week 8 Energy Balance Weight Control and Eating Disorders At equilibrium intake of calories is equal to calorie output A positive energy balance is when the intake of calories is greater than the output gaining weight A negative energy balance is when the output of energy is greater than the input Calories can be determined using a bomb calorimeter 0 Food is burned inside a chamber with water the temperature difference of the water can be converted to calories 0 This is not how the body gets nutrients so its not very accurate Components of energy expenditure 0 BMR basal metabolic rate the minimal amount of energy used in a fasting state similar to RMR resting metabolic rate makes up about 6075 of the daily energy expended I Normal brain function accounts for 20 I Muscle and liver function are the next two largest consumers of energy I Factors affecting BMR lean body mass muscle burns more calories body surface area the more heat that escapes the more energy burned ambient temperature the cooler the environment the more the body must work to maintain internal temperature gender men have more muscle so they burn more calories age old people have less muscle 0 Adaptive thermogenesis brown fat cells leak protons to make heat instead of ATP 0 Physical activity I Varies between people I Includes working out as well as other daily movements standing chewing gum o Thermic effect of food I It takes energy to digest and absorb food I 2030 of the energy from protein is used to make urea I Fats and carbohydrates are much more easily digested Measuring energy expenditure 0 Direct calorimetry measures the heat produced by the body in a closed chamber 0 Indirect calorimetry measures the intake of oxygen and the output of carbon dioxide you can also tell what type of macronutrient the body is burning 0 Stable isotopes uses isotopes in water to measure how much energy a person burns Energy Intake 0 Why do we eat hunger routine enjoyment mood cravings social advertising sensory stress O O Hunger physiological drive to find and eat food driven by biological systems Appetite psychology of eating what are you going to eat mostly determined by the environment Satiety feeling full keeps you from eating Satiation process during meal that makes you stop eating can take around 30 minutes Internal Regulations 0 Hypothalamus I Regulates eating I Actions are based on hormones nerve cells as well as nutrients in blood I Ex ghrelin hormone in stomach that regulates eating I Ex leptin hormone produced by adipose tissue telling brain to stop eating Body composition 0 BMI weightheight in kgmz I Very rough measurement for fat health I Very easy to measure Body fat content I Women 2035 have more fat than men 824 Ways to measure fat I Underwater weighing uses water displacement to measure fat I Air displacement uses air instead of water to measure composition I Skinfold thickness measures subcutaneous fat by pinching skin I Bioelectrical impedance electrical resistance through fat is measured to determine composition I DEXA measures soft tissue by xray the most accurate and most expensive Location of fat I Upper body android or apple shape lots of visceral fat I Lower body gynecoid or pear shape more subcutaneous fat I Subcutaneous fat fat just under the surface of the skin I Visceral fat fat around the internal organs not very healthy Factors affecting body composition 0 O O 0 Genes 50 of weight is determined by genetics metabolism eating behavior Environment food availability socioeconomic status Genetic environment synergy Diseases and disorders obesity Treatment of obesity 0 Standard is to go on a quotdietquot 0 First step is to control energy intake Regulate physical activity Change behaviors I Break chains ex don t have popcorn every time you go to the movies I Stimulus control keep junk food out of sight or don t buy it I Cognitive restructuring ex don t associate stress with ice cream I Contingency management plan for situations that stimulate over eating I Self monitoring keep track of what you eat being aware is one of the most effective easy way to loose weight Maintaining weight loss 0 Eat low fats and high carbs fruits vegetables whole grains 0 Eat breakfast with high protein and fiber to delay hunger later in the day 0 Continue to self monitor 0 Have a physical activity routine Fad diets 0 Avoid premises of quick weight loss 0 11b of fat has 3500 calories 0 the faster the weight is lost the sooner it comes back Weight control 0 when behavior modifications don t work 0 drug treatments are available either inhibit hunger can increase depression or prevent fat from being digested absorbed 0 very low calorie diets in a controlled environment 0 the last option is gastric bypass surgery gastroplasty o for the underweight treatment is energy dense foods and psychological therapy Gastric bypass 0 Most of the stomach is cut off so the full feeling comes with less food 0 Cancer risk greatly decreased after surgery 0 Is almost a perfect cure for diabetes 0 Side effects include hernias as well as other GI tract issues 0 Long term effects are relatively unknown Eating disorders 0 O Anorexia nervosa I Body image is altered I Risk is much higher in women and adolescents I Treatment is a mixture of nutritional care and psychological treatment Bulimia nervosa I Binge eating followed by purging I Similar treatment to anorexia
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