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Comp Game Design

by: Ophelia Ritchie

Comp Game Design EECS 494

Ophelia Ritchie
GPA 3.8

John Laird

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John Laird
Class Notes
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This 112 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ophelia Ritchie on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EECS 494 at University of Michigan taught by John Laird in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/231516/eecs-494-university-of-michigan in Engineering Computer Science at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Ethics in Computer Games John Laird O EECS 494 33339 December 7 2005 00 Based on a talk created by Brian Magerko Overview 2 o The Business 0 Piracy o RatingsCensorship 0 Game Content 0 Violence in Gaming 0 GenderampSexuaity 0 Social Effect 0 Privacy 0 Computer Game Addiction 0069 000 OOQBOO 003 O The Law 0 Games are protected under copyright for 95 years 0 You have the right to make backup copies Software Piracy Piracy rate and revenue loss per region 100 80 Western Centd Mexico Central North Midde Asia Ewope Ewope andSAmerica America EastAfrica Paci c goo a Software Piracy Software piracy distribution by region AsiaPacific Western 156 Europe 115 Middle EastAfrica 201 QQOOOO 003 OOQW 0 Nintendo 0 Our losses over the last year were 650 million due to piracy says Jodi Daugherty director of antipiracy for Nintendo of America Our focus with antipiracy has been shutting down the factories and the manufacturing facilities out of China We have been quite aggressive over the last 18 months OQ 0 Oi Piracy Questions o Is piracy acceptable if the person wouldn t have ever actually bought the item o Is pirating cracking a game ever ok What about to replace a lost legal copy 0 Have you ever pirated software and if so what is your rationale for breaking the law Is it any different than shoplifting Oi The Law QQ Q 0 Games qualify as a form of expression that is protected under the First Amendment 0 In 2003 a law restricting sales of Mrated games to minors was tossed out a Law emphasized violence against lawenforcement o What about fighting Roman centurions in Age of Empire Q l i Quotes 0 Anyone who does something for a mass market has a responsibility You tread carefully on the lessons that you teach If it is obvious this is an artificial world and you can t do these things in real life then that is more acceptable But if it parades itself as a real world you have to be careful about that Peter Molyneux Populous Black and White Fable OQ OO Oiii Case Study The Sims 0 Domestic violence When the characters get upset they can slap each other Whenever you have people of the same gender slapping they use the really hard slap But whenever you have a woman slapping a man they use the polite slap 033 000 OOQUOO COCO Rating Computer Games a Game ratings set by Entertainment Software Rating Board 0 Started in 1994 by the Interactive Digital Software Association IDSA 0 Rating is a consensus of at least three independent trained raters 0 Rates over 1000 games per year ESRB Ratings MY HILIIII EARLY CHILDHOOD Titles rated EC Early Childhood have content that may be suitable for ages 3 and older Contains no material that parents would find inappropriate TEEN Titles rated T Teen have content that may be suitable for persons ages 13 and older May contain violent content mild or strong language andfor suggestive themes ADULTS ONLY Titles rated 110 Adults Only have content suitable only for adults Titles in this category may include graphic depictions of sex andfor violence L39idult Only products are not intended for persons under the age of 18 ESRB Ratings mm E 5 R ATUHEI M EVERYONE Titles rated E Everyone have content that may be suitable for persons ages E and older Titles in this category may contain minimal violence some comic mischief and or mild language MATURE Titles rated M Mature haye content that may be suitable for persons ages 1 and older Titles in this category may contain mature sexual themes more intense violence andfor strong language RATING PENDING Titles listed as RP Rating Pending haye been submitted to the ESRB and are awaiting final rating QQ Q Oii Content Descriptors o Alcohol Reference Reference to andor images of alcoholic beverages o Animated Blood Cartoon or pixelated depictions of blood o Blood Depictions of blood o Blood and Gore Depictions of blood or the mutilation of body pans 0 Cartoon Violence Violent actions involving cartoonlike characters May include violence where a character is unharmed after the action has been inflicted o Comic Mischief Scenes depicting slapstick or gross vulgar humor o Crude Humor Moderately vulgar antics including bathroom humor o Drug Reference Reference to andor images of illegal drugs QQOOOO 003 OOQW 0 Content Descriptors o Edutainment Content of product provides user with specific skills development or reinforcement learning within an entertainment setting Skill development is an integral part of product 0 Fantasy Violence Violent actions of a fantasy nature involving human or nonhuman characters in situations easily distinguishable from real life 0 Gambling Betting like behavior o Informational Overall content of product contains data facts resource information reference materials or instructional text o Intense Violence Graphic and realisticlooking depictions of physical conflict May involve extreme andor realistic blood gore weapons and depictions of human injury and death 0 Mature Humor Vulgar andor crude jokes and antics including quotbathroomquot humor 0 Mature Sexual Themes Provocative material possibly including partial nudity Content Descriptors OQ 0 Oi Mild Language Mild references to profanity sexuality violence alcohol or drug use Mild Lyrics Mild references to profanity sexuality violence alcohol or drug use in music Mild Violence Mild scenes depicting characters in unsafe andor violent situations Nudity Graphic or prolonged depictions of nudity Partial Nudity Brief and mild depictions of nudity Sexual Violence Depictions of rape or other sexual acts Some Adult Assistance May Be Needed Early Childhood Descriptor only Strong Language Profanity and explicit references to sexuality violence alcohol or drug use OQ OO 0lii Content Descriptors 0 Strong Lyrics Profanity and explicit references to sex violence alcohol or drug use in music o Strong Sexual Content Graphic depiction of sexual behavior possibly including nudity Tobacco Reference Reference to andor images of tobacco products Use of Drugs The consumption or use of illegal drugs Use of Alcohol The consumption of alcoholic beverages Use of Tobacco The consumption of tobacco products Violence Scenes involving aggressive conflict Possible ESRB Descriptors for Super Mario Bros 2 3 Cartoon Violence Drug Reference Gambling Mild Violence Use of Drugs drugcrazed violent psychedelic or harmless fantasy OQ OO Oiii Ratings Questions 0 Is rating computer games a form of censorship o How do computer game ratings compare to movie ratings To book ratings 0 Should there be a difference 0 Would you as a parent take advantage of such ratings Why or not 033 000 OOQUOO COCO Violence in Video Games 0 Anderson amp Bushman Exposure to violent games increases physiological arousal also increases aggressive thoughts increases aggressive emotions increases aggressive actions decreases positive prosocial actions trains our youth in combat tactics needed for the revolution OQ 0 Oi Aggression Experiments o College student experiment a Group A played a nonviolent game in Group B played a violent game a Competitive reaction test afterwards o Winner of each round delivers a loud noise blast at opponent with a choice of volume and duration 0 Group B delivered longer blasts than Group A o Exposure to violent video games increases hostile attribution bias in Those who interpret ambiguous social cues as being of hostile intent are more aggressive 9 Children who play more violent video games are more likely to have a hostile attribution bias Other Results 0 Games do not have a cathartic effect which would make them less inclined to violence getting it out of your system 0069 000 OOQBOO 003 O OQ 0 Oi Violence Questions o What social responsibilities do game designers have to the users of their products 0 Should violence in video games even be an issue since we can see it often in other more popular mass media o Have you personally observed a change in a friend due to videogame usage violent or otherwise o Do you notice any changes in your own attitude after playing a violent video game Nudity sex and all adult subject matter is justified if and only if the setting story or logical consequences justify it Nexus on Gender amp Sexuality in Games 43 of people who play interactive games are women 0 Interactive game should be taken as a broad term 53 of people who purchase computer games are women 46 of people who purchase console games are women Gender amp Sexuality Questions What are the gender stereotypes used in different gaming genres What is negative positive about them How can game designers change the way they approach game content and design to counter the prevalent gender bias in present games What are some examples of sexuality in games being appropriate in your eyes Some examples of when it s been inappropriate Should games be rated according to their sexual content What about references to alternative lifestyles Game Addiction 5 l ii i h39l tii iNS OUKHI I I t ilx39Ulx39uk quotu x x u v a r Liquot 39i15i39hL Iii 4 He even left Thanksgiving dinner before pie was served to come home and play a post on EverQuestWidows Data from Everquest I have played the game for 10 hours continuously or more N male 2760 N Female 406 1000 7A7 male 0 h m 800 A 662 693 o 0 Female 3 E 609 If fiig uz 0 635 586 gag 600920 9 riff 0 7372 39 37 e S 503 570 DU1 518 3 400 39 g a 200 UUOI O l I I I 121 1322 2328 2935 gt 35 Age Ranges Q l i Everquest My husband was doing an adventure when one of the players asked how much longer the adventure would take since his wife was inlabor When I came back home asked my EQA to come to bed with me because I needed some comfort and to process what had happened especially since ljust started my 8th month of pregnancy You know what his answer was I can39tjust leave my group it39s rude Computer Game Addiction Symptoms of game addiction include falling behind in school and work and basically deferring everything else in your life so you can play she said Compulsive playing tends to mask underlying problems such as depression anger and low selfesteem said the director of the V 1 39 who said she was once hooked on computer solitaire QQOOOO 003 Qi 0 Signs of Addiction 0 Would you rather log into your online game than spend time with friends in person 0 Are the majority of your friends gamers as well who mostly get together for LAN parties to play games such as Counterstrike Unreal Tournament or Diablo 0 Do you try to find ways of playing your online game when you39re not at home 0 Do you skip appointments miss classes or miss days of work because you39re at a critical point in your online character39s advancement or adventures o Are you finding yourself flirting with those of the opposite sex in the game to build a relationship rather than in person o Do you deny addiction to an MMORPG but somehow still feel the need to play orjust keep your character and possessions updated you may be masking it by pretending you39re having fun 0 Do you feel your heart racing as you control your character in a flee from danger to save his or her virtual life when stumbling upon some serious loot 0 Do you feel a sudden rush of intense joy and relaxation after you safely manage to steal pickpocket or murder another character 0 Do you experience stronger emotions while in your online game than you do in real life this is very dangerous OQ OO Olii Game Addiction Questions o Where is the line drawn between an avid gamer and someone who is unhealthily addicted to gaming o Is being addicted to computer games really that bad inherently o Is being drawn into video games a possible symptom of problems the person has in dealing with reality or is that more of a myth o What social responsibilities do game designers have to the users of their products o Should games known to be highly addictive come with warning labels Privacy and Corporations 0 MMPORG s Webbased games and even games requiring online registration all have access to your machine and any information you choose to offer Interactive Drama EECS 494 100206 by J Laird and Sugih J amin Interactive Drama An interactive drama is a rstperson experience within a fantasy world in which the User may create enact and observe a character whose choices and actions affect the course of events just as they might in a play Brenda Laurel 1986 Interactive Drama Interactive 2 Decisions that in uences the outcome Drama Achieving a goal by overcoming obstacles Problems interactive drama oxymoron How can writer control the pace plot etc How can the user feel in control but be led through a story Different Approaches Evaluation How many choices do you really get How much drama do you really get Any replay Most important Find way to align player s goals with the goals of the character Player naturally does What plot demands Easy for DOOM hard for Hamlet Different plot based on each decision This is What people really expect Must create 16 scenes for only 4 decisions S 2d Very difficult to create 10 really good scenes in a movie 11 Death Trap Lots of choices one takes you forward some lead to death some are side trips some lead you back Usually arti cially limit choices Desert Island Boat Spaceship Warlock Lots of choices but choices don t really matter Kinder gentler death trap 39 l H I r Character explores and interacts with world DampD role playing games Hard to have any plot or drama Hard to have interaction amp interesting characters Many things happening but can only View one at at time Voyeur NightTrap Can t change What happens Replay Been done as a liveaction play Game play followed by reward transition Lots of go into transitions less go into gameplay No choices on plot TRANSITION Plot unfolds as user makes key decisions or takes specific action Maintains plot and story but usually limited decisions Intermediate decisions can determine initial conditions for action game Action game may have 23 endings Often multiple endings Wing Commander IV w c y H H l Open world with puzzles that block your way Puzzles should be solvable from story No real choices in outcome except death Myst Beyond Time Zork Full Throttle Day of the Tenacle The Dig 7th Guest 1 Puzzle 1 Puzzle 7 Design Sins of Linear With Puzzles Puzzles should be related to plot 7th Guest had puzzles that had nothing to do with story Puzzles should be solved by What s available in the game game anthropology Game shouldn t take 4 weeks With 40 minutes of material Online help can avoid some frustration IX Online MUDS MOOS Solves problem of developing interesting characters Lots of choices but What do they mean Hard to control story and plot Generate choices and plot as user makes choices Don t give choices that destroy overall plot XI Dynamically Order Plot Elements Have many small plot elements Dynamically chose from them based on user input Faeade XII Computational Theater Mixture of computer actors and humans Computerhuman director controls computer actors so that plot is always followed Online WestWorld Holodeck Beyond the stateof theart Holy Grail on interactive drama Neil Stephenson s Diamond Age Human Wr i rer Inferac rive game populated by humanlike AI char39ac rer39s wi rh an AI direc ror39 Tha r dynamically con rr39ols an unfolding sTor39y Keys to Good Interaction Don t make people hunt for the interaction Users shouldn t have to click on every object Users shouldn t have to talk to everybody In theater lighting sound position leads the audience to Where the action will occur Character to character interaction is most interesting What are their goals What do they know What are they planning to do Character to Character Toughest interface Must pass the Turing test Full natural language isn t there Myst punted on this no living characters Options Limited natural language user guesses List of speci c choices just try them all List of abstract choices in character Deliver the interaction you promise Character Reaction Character response depends on mood effect Questions that you ask change mood Return to Zork Character response changes as story progresses Good way to move plot along Binary Space Partitioned Trees John E Laird Motivation 9 Want to nd fast correct method for ordering polygons in the Painters algorithm Avoid the ve checks of painters algorithm Preprocessing to determine the split planes 9 Create a binary tree that partitions space Can use it to nd ordering for drawing polygons Will be ltlt n 2 for rendering 9 Technique used in Doom Quake Descent Assumptions 9 Examples will be 2D but this generalizes to 3D 9 Works best for static information Good for map structures and even monster structure Gets tricky if topography can change a lot 9 Can require signi cant space at runtime Must be managed ef ciently to avoid cache problems General Idea 9 Recursively divide space into pairs of regions Stop when regions are atomic Doesn t matter which order walls are drawn no matter Where you are in the space convex W0 Builds up a binary tree 9 When rendering traverse tree depth rst always rst rendering region that you are not in This does the right thing BSP Tree Dividing Issues 9 Want to maintain a balanced tree if possible 9 Want to minimize splits of existing walls If divider crosses wall wall must be split into two walls 9 Keep dividers orthogonal to principle axes Simpli es math with splits being more likely to be integer values Picking a Divider Key Question 9 Pick on coincident with a wall Less likely to split walls 9 Pick 1 of existing walls but at least 10 Evaluate based on simple calculation and pick best unbalanced walls 15 splits 5 if not on principle axis Example Step 1 Example Step 2 Example Step 3 D 9 J3EE Rendering 9 To start with all we care about ordering of rendering 9 Not going to worry about line of sight or orientation of Viewer 9 Depth rst traversal always Visiting nodes on opposite side of divisor from current node Render space when atomic Rendering 9 Go to node 2 because C is right of divider 1 9 G0 to A because C is right of 2 0 Render A 0 Render B 9 G0 to 3 9 G0 to D a a 0 Render D D o Render C Observations 9 Will work very well with walls that are on X y axes Might be worthwhile to have as basis for room dividers Other angles can be used to ll in outside of rooms 9 Depth will be related to log of of concave areas Inverted Painters FronttoBack 9 Problem with BacktoFront is lots of overdraw Set same pixel over and over Expensive because of lighting and texture calculations 9 Fronttoback can avoid this First draw front rooms first Keep track of which pixels are lled in Only draw pixels in back rooms that haven t been lled in Stop completely when all pixels are lled in Dynamically cuts off processing of rooms far away FronttoBack Field of View 9 Don t traverse a node if eld of View completely on other side of divider Fronttoback Data Structure 9 To hold data on lled in pixels use linked list 0 Holds ranged of lled in horizontal lines 9 More compact faster to access and initialize t A O 50 220 198 199 10 220 Dynamic Modi cation of BSP 9 Extremely expensive to dynamically recalculate BSP if topology of game can arbitrarily change 9 Can have prestored variants and swap in as world changes Blow holes in walls open doors Add subtree Different atomic regions 3D Objects in BSP Trees 9 Same idea but render outside of object not inside 9 Can just drop in to existing BSP tree at the bottom as a child of the atomic region it is in 9 As 3D object moves it changes Where it is in BSP tree Arti cial Intelligence and Computer Games John Laird and Sugih J amin EECS 494 University of Michigan Also based on talks by Doug Church and Lars Lid n What is AI The term AI is broadly used in computer games Behave rationally Use available knowledge to maximize goal achievement Often leads to optimization techniques A set of capabilities Problem solving learning planning Different game genre employs different techniques Roles of AI in Games Opponents Teammates Strategic Opponents Support Characters Autonomous Characters Commentators Camera Control Plot and Story GuidesDirectors AI Provides Character Emotion Understanding Environments Solving Logic Resolving Rules Decision making WAttitude Bias Not yet virtual people as such AI Roles in Games Game Genres AI Roles Racing gt Other cars Fighting gt Other ghters ActiOnFPS Enemies allies RPG Monsters party members Adventure Strategy Strategic Enemies Simulation Units Sports Commentators camera Obvious Examples Situations where AI might be could be should be and is used in Games Car Game write a Virtual driver Shooter write a Virtual player Sports Games write a Virtual coach RTS write a Virtual general Racing Opponents Originally follow course on rails Next allow different speeds in curves hills Finally control vehicle using game physics Use human play traces Provide variety and skill levels with different humans Transition between trace following and respond to dynamics Powerups human player Attempt to have driver personality What makes for a fun racing game Making a fun racing game As designers we want to recreate racing not just driving around on a track Competition is a crucial part of that Need to increase likelihood of a close race So we could count on players getting good or essentially we could cheat How do we cheat well We have to slow down the front speed up the back Easiest way is just with speed Cars in front slow down in back speed up Rubber banding near player makes it challenging However this can be very obvious to players Violate fairness and consistency And worse risks removing player s feel of interaction Dynamic Dif culty Adjustment Game monitors player behavior As player struggles game changes to try and help the player through it If player does well game becomes harder Examples Risks of DDA approaches It seems obvious adaptive models are better for tuning an experience However if a player realizes they are involved they can exploit them Slowing down until the end of the race for instance Players abuse the rules Players learn to win at the provided rulesystem not the ideas in your head They don t learn the manual They don t play what you thought was cool If the way to win is to ght you can say hide all you want but they will ght They don t only do reasonable things They poke and prod the systems and eXploit any weaknesses they can nd If there are bugs in the rules they will nd and exploit them even if they enjoy it less Somewhat Real Examples Car Game write A1 to keep races close Shooter enemies die lots win little Sports commentators help player RTS generals who work on pacing It is A Question of Design Purpose Commentator Examples Excitement plus reason for play result Finite range of possible utterances decision quality is often less important than the media asset quality Better to be silent than stupid Correct isn t good enough take a knee loss of 2 Requirements for Game AI What is the goal of the game Focus on the Player Experience How is the AI going to further that goal Needs to achieve design aim and be fun Foil for the player creates opportunity Dynamic challenge Assists in Driving the action Allow player to understand AI actions Con gurable Overrideable Testable Reproducibility is Vital for test and design Satis es data and speed constraints The Thief AI Design Goals Player is going to be a Thief Ie Sneak Around Ambush Hide Steal AI must allow players to make plans And react to player actions provide challenge Game will feature a loose overall story Ability to scriptoverride behavior In game actions fed back out to story control Watchable by the player Has to go about its business with intent Actions must make sense to player interestingly predictable present play opportunities for player Overernphasize thoughts Telegraph all actions Goals must be very explicit Arti cial Stupidity 0 Intelligence Fun What makes a game entertaining and fun does not necessarily correspond to making characters smarter Must be fun not correct The player is after all supposed to Win Lars Liden s 11 Ways to be stupid 1 Don t cheat AI should not be omniscient Knows where enemies are without seeing them Know where to nd resources weapons ammo Players can detect cheating and will nd the game unfair 2 Don t kill on rst attempt It s not fun to suddenly and unexpectedly take damage Player may feel cheated particularly if attacked with a weapon that kills the player or does a lot of damage By missing the player the rst time it gives the player a second to react and still keeps the tension high 3 Have horrible airn Having abundant gun re in the air keeps the player on the move and the tension high However the player is supposed to Win By giving NPC bad airn one can have abundant gun re Without being too hard on the player HalfLife used a Wide spread on NPC weapons as much at 40 degrees 4 Never shoot When rst see the player When a player rst walks into an area and is spotted by an enemy the enemy should never attack right away A secondary activity such as running for cover or nding a good shooting location is more desirable Gives player time to react 5 Warn the Player Before attacking the player warn the player that you are about to do so Make a sound beepclick Play a quick animation Say Gotchal Take this This is particularly important when attacking from behind 6 Attack kungfu style Player is usually playing the role of Rambo ie one man taking on an army Although many NPCs may be in a position to attack the player only a couple should do so at a time The remaining NPCs should look busy reloading changing positions etc 7 Tell the player What you are doing Interpreting the actions of AIS can often be subtle Complex behaviors are often missed by the player Lot s of work for nothing AIs should tell the player What they are doing anking cover me retreat Players will often intuit intelligence behavior that isn t really there 8 Intentionally be vulnerable Players learn to capitalize on opponent s weaknesses Rather than allowing the player to discover unintentional weaknesses in the AI vulnerability should be designed into an Al s behavior Stop moving before attacking Pause and prepare weapon before attacking Act surprised and slow to react when attacked from behind Planned vulnerability makes the characters seem more realistic Unintentional mistakes break the realism seems like ghting a computer program 9 Don t be perfect Human players make mistakes When AIs behave perfectly they seem unnatural If an AI knows how to avoid trip mines run into then occasionally When reloading sometimes fumble With the gun 10 Pull back last minute Trick Push the player to the limit Attack vigorously until the player is near death Then pull back Enemy becomes easier to kill Makes player feel like they really accomplished something ll React To Mistakes Mistakes in A1 are inevitable Unhandled they make make the AI look dumb By recognizing mistakes and reacting to them intelligently they can be turned into features ll React To Mistakes 0 Example 1 Occasionally when an NPC throws a grenade it bounces off of another object and lands back at the NPCs feet Note that the player occasionally makes this mistake too Looks dumb as the NPC blows himself up If the NPC reacts however the mistake turns into a feature NPC body and facial expression can show surprise fear NPC can say Oh Shoot or Doh ll React To Mistakes 0 Example 2 Player throws a grenade at a group of NPCs As they are crowded together not all of them are able to nd a path to get away Looks dumb if the NPCs that can t get away shuf e around trying to get out If we detect that the problem has arisen can have the trapped NPC s react Crouch down and put hands over head Themes Player Player Player Player Player Player How can AI enhance player experience AI is facilitator of the fun Enable creative expression for player 0 Allow player to impact the world 0 Put player in interesting situations Entertaining game smarter opponents 0 Machine opponents are babysitters not ruthless opponents 0 Players aren t pro players or pro strategists Give player ways to make the big play The illusion of intelligence is far more important than actual intelligence 0 Predictable often more important than smart Clever AI decisions are no better than secret special knowledge if player can t tell Observations AI has three basic game roles Replacement for human opponents and players Support characters for interesting player interaction Units for player management Entertainment is much more important than realism Cheating is ok if user can t detect it Play to lose or at least make it challenging Must include variable levels of skills No single type of AI is right for all games or all Al roles AI Agent in a Game Each time through control loop tick each agent Sometimes only lN times through loop More frequently if in View of player De ne an API for agents sensing and acting Encapsulate all agent data structures And so agents can t trash each other or the game Share global data structures on maps etc Agent 1 Agent 2 Player Game V Execution Flow of an AI Engine Sense Mat should be sensed Decision Making Movement and path finding Tactical and Strategic A1 FiniteState machine39s Decision trees Rl ebased systems Neural nets Fuzzy logic Planning systems Structure of an Intelligent Agent Sensing perceive features of the environment Thinking decide what action to take to achieve its goals given the current situation and its knowledge Acting doing things in the world Thinking has to make up for limitations in sensing and acting The more accurate the models of sensing and acting the more realistic the behavior 1 i i igt0 39ziii Limited sensor distance Limited eld of View Must point sensor at location and keep it on Obstacles Complex room structures Detecting and computing paths to doors Different sensors give different information and have different limitations Sound omnidirectional gives direction distances speech Vision limited field of View 2 12D color texture motion Smell omnidirectional chemical makeup dgtNeed to integrate different sources to build complete picture 4 n l l ill mlllw Sensing Have perfect information of opponent Thinking Have enough time to do any calculation Know everything relevant about the world Action Flawless limitless action Teleport anywhere anytime x I know what to do


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