Chapter 14 Need to Know Information
Chapter 14 Need to Know Information PSYC 3206-003
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3206-003 at East Carolina University taught by Gary J. Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Need to Know for Chapter 14 1. Millennials: - Do you: a. Watch more than an hour of television a day? b. Have a tattoo or piercing in a place other than your earlobe? c. Send more than 10 text messages a day? d. Have a profile on a social networking site? - If you said yes, then you have a lot in common with today’s young adults - Every cohort of young adults is affected by a different constellation of influences, and today’s – known as the millennials – are no exception. - These millennials are more racially and ethnically diverse than previous generations. - These millennials seem more reluctant to marry than previous generations and the percentage of unwed mothers is the highest in U.S. history. 2. Recentering: - RECENTERING – the process that underlies the shift to an adult identity. - Recentering is the primary task of emerging adulthood. - It is a three stage process in which power, responsibility, and decision making gradually shift from the family of origin to the independent young adult. - Stage 1: (the beginning of emerging adulthood) the individual is still embedded in the family of origin, but expectations for self-reliance and self-directedness begin to increase. (Example: a young adult might still live at home and attend high school but would be expected to schedule and monitor his own activities) - Stage 2: (during emerging adulthood) the individual remains connected to but no longer embedded within the family of origin. (Example: an undergraduate student might live at a college dorm but is still financially supported by her parents.) Toward the end of this stage, the individual is moving toward serious commitments and gaining the resources to support them. - Stage 3: (usually by age 30) the individual moves into young adulthood. This stage is marked by independence from the family of origin and commitment to a career, a partner, and possibly children. (Example: an individual might be settling into a career or marriage and live independently but still remain close to his or her parents and family of origin) 3. Adult Relationships with Parents: - Even though they are no longer children, emerging adults still need parental acceptance, empathy, and support. - Attachment to the parents remains a key ingredient of well-being - Financial support from parents enhances emerging adults’ chances of success in adult roles - Relationships are better when the young adult is married but childless, engaging in productive activity, and not living in the childhood home. - The quality of the parent-adult child relationship may be affected by the relationship between the mother and father - One measure of how successfully emerging adults handle becoming autonomous is their ability to remain connected with parents - Parents and children seem to get along best when normative life course is followed - FAILURE TO LAUNCH- adult children who continue to live with parents 4. Costa and McCraes Five Factors: - TRAIT MODELS – psychological models that focus on the measurement and examination of different traits. - FIVE-FACTOR MODEL – consists of factors or dimensions that seem to underlie five groups of associated traits, known as the “Big Five”. They are: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. - NEUROTICISM – has six factors: anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability. - EXTRAVERSION – has six facets: warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement- seeking, and positive emotions. - OPEN TO EXPERIENCE – willing to try new things and embrace new ideas - CONSCIENTIOUS – achievers: they are competent, orderly, dutiful, deliberate, and disciplined. - AGREEABLE – trusting, straightforward, altruistic, complaint, modest, and easily swayed. - Continuity and Change: a. Considerable continuity with people in all five dimensions b. Other research found change in personality throughout adulthood - Evaluating Five-Factor Model: a. Research has found gradual, systematic change in personality throughout adulthood, not continuity b. Five-factor model is based on subjective ratings-may lack validity 5. Typological Model of Personality: - Jack Block was pioneer in this approach - Researchers have identified three personality types: ego-resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled. - These three types differ in ego-resiliency and ego- control - EGO-RESILIECNY – adaptability under stress - EGO-CONTROL – self-control - Ego-resilient people are well-adjusted: self-confident, independent, articulate, attentive, helpful, cooperative, and task-focused. - Overcontrolled people are shy, quiet, anxious, and dependable; they tend to keep their thoughts to themselves and to withdraw from conflict, and they are the most subject to depression - Undercontrolled people are active, energetic, impulsive, stubborn, and easily distracted. - More extreme forms of either overcontrol or undercontrol are generally associated with low levels of ego resilience. 6. Foundations of intimate relationships: - Erikson saw the development of intimate relationships as the crucial task of young adulthood. - The need to form strong, stable, close, caring relationships is a powerful motivator of human behavior. - FICTIVE-KIN – friends who are considered and behave like family members - Foundations: self-disclosure, self-awareness and empathy, ability to communicate emotions, conflict resolution, commitment, sexual decision making - Friendship in Young Adulthood: a. Center on work and parenting activities b. Sharing of confidences and advice c. Young singles rely on friendship for social needs d. Women have social needs met by friends more than men 7. Sternberg and Love: - Three elements of love: a. Intimacy – emotional element, involves self- disclosure b. Passion – Motivational element, translates physiological arousal into sexual desire c. Commitment – Cognitive element, decision to love and stay with the beloved - Patterns of loving: a. Nonlove – All three components of love-intimacy, passion, and commitment- are absent. This describes most interpersonal relationships, which are simply casual interactions b. Liking – Intimacy is the only component present. There is closeness, understanding, emotional support, affection, bondedness, and warmth. Neither passion nor commitment is present c. Infatuation – Passion is the only component present. This is “love at first sight”, a strong physical attraction and sexual arousal, without intimacy or commitment. d. Empty Love – Commitment is the only component present. Empty love is often found in long-term relationships that have lost both intimacy and passion, or in arranged marriages. e. Romantic Love- Intimacy and Passion are both present. Romantic lovers are drawn to each other physically and bonded emotionally. They are not, however, committed to each other. f. Companionate Love – Intimacy and commitment are both present. This is a long term, committed friendship, often occurring in marriages in which physical attraction has died down but in which the partners feel close to each other and have made the decision to stay together. g. Fatuous Love – Passion and commitment are present without intimacy. This is the kind of love that leads to a whirlwind courtship, in which a couple make a commitment on the basis of passion without allowing themselves the time to develop intimacy. This kind of love usually does not last, despite the initial intent to commit. h. Consummate Love – All three components are present in this “complete love”, which many people strive for, especially in romantic relationships. It is easier to achieve it than to hold on to it. 8. Single Life and Young Adults: - 54% of adults ages 25-35 in the United States have not yet married. - The decline in marriage has occurred across all age groups but is most prominent in young adults. - Religious beliefs might affect the marriage rate. - More women today are self-supporting and there is less social pressure to marry. 9. Gay and Lesbian Relationships – Marriage: - About 40-60% of gay men and 45-80% of lesbians are in romantic relationships - Differences between gay/lesbian relationships and heterosexual ones: a. More likely to negotiate household choice b. Resolve conflicts in more positive atmosphere c. Less stable, due to lack of institutional supports. - Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages: a. World: The Netherlands first to legalize in 2001, Belgium legalized in 2003, more than a dozen European countries have recognized same-sex unions. b. U.S.: U.S. Supreme court ruled federal government was obligated to recognize gay marriage in states where it is legal, gay marriage legal in 17 states with others having legislation pending. 10. Cohabitation: - COHABITATION – unmarried couples who are involved in a sexual relationship and live together - In the U.S. there is an estimated 7.5 million unmarried couples living together. - People with less education are more likely to cohabit than those with higher education. - Cohabitation in the United States appears to be in transition - More than half of U.S. couples who marry, live together first. - Higher divorce rates among previous cohabiters. - Meaning of cohabitation is different for older couples 11. Parenthood and Meeting Expectations: - People in industrial societies typically have fewer children today than in earlier generations, and they start having them later in life, in many cases because they spend their emerging adult years getting an education and establishing a career. - Increasing proportions of U.S. couples are remaining childless - Parenthood can be key developmental experience - A woman’s age at first birth varies with ethnic and cultural background. - The number of children born to unwed mothers has been rising for the last half century. - Men and Women: Involvement in Parenthood: a. Both have a mixture of feelings: excitement, anxiety, responsibility b. Mothers are more involved than fathers in children’s lives c. Married women complain of more housework and marital conflict d. Involved fathers tend to be more satisfied with their lives - Marital satisfaction declines during child-rearing years, especially infanthood - Mothers who saw themselves as unable to cope with demands of motherhood were dissatisfied - Fathers most involved with children were more satisfied with their lives 12. Intimate Partner Violence: - INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE/DOMESTIC VIOLENCE – the physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment of a spouse, a former spouse, or an intimate partner. - Victims are predominantly young, poor, less educated, divorced, or cohabiting - Three types of violence: a. Situational couple violence – Physical confrontations that develop in the heat of an argument b. Emotional Abuse – insults and intimidation and may occur either with or without physical violence c. Intimate Terrorism – systematic use of emotional abuse, coercion, and, sometimes, threats and violence to gain or enforce power or control over a partner. - There are shelters and law enforcement that support domestic violence. 13. Self-Disclosure: - A process of communication by which one person reveals information about himself of herself to another. The information can be descriptive or evaluative, and can include thoughts, feelings, aspirations, goals, failures, successes, fears, and dreams, as well as one’s dislikes, likes, and favorites. 14. Erikson’s View on Failure to Develop Intimate Relationships: - According to Erikson, if adults cannot make deep personal commitments to others, they risk becoming overly isolated and self-absorbed. - Intimate relationships demand sacrifice and compromise. - INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION – Erikson’s sixth stage of psychological development, in which young adults either form strong, long-lasting bonds with friends and romantic partners or face a possible sense of isolation and self-absorption. - Resolution of this stage results in virtue of “love”.