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Homer The Iliad 79 9142012 62700 PM I Review of Meleager a Meleager s Birth and the brand in the fire i Vision of the three fates if the brand is in fire Meleager dies Meleager leads a team of heroes including Peleus and Telamon to kill the boar Meleager kills his maternal uncles arguing over the trophy Altheia his mother flings the brand into the fire killing Meleager Homer s use of myth i Story made to fit the context 1 Inventions anger at mother s curse appeal from Cleopatra Illogical elements withdrawal from battle because of curse not immediately apparent ii Paradeigmata used for persuasion and consolation see also Iliad 24 II Achilles Response to the Embassy and the Heroic Code a Ajax 39 Accept compensation of Agamemnon Even murderers and their victims family resolve disputes referring to blood money ii39 Brisaeus is just a girl so help us Will return if Hector fires the ships Follows the example of Meleager instead of avoiding it setting himself up for similar disaoppointment Efusal sets in motion events leading to Patroclus death Rejects Agamemnon s abuse of the Heroic Code not the Code itself i No explicit huide to heroic conduct ii Three main ideas Tim Honor Kleos Glory Aidos Shame 1 Aidos cowardice breaking code ignoring community hubris Aidos holds a heroes desire for kleos and tim in check 2 Kleos receive after death receive when being people talk about you after you die starring in epic poem 3 Tim wealth bravery deeds of the battlefield wisdom status Pquot D110 N 0039 DD iii Aidos compels hero to respect claims of others community iv Code as Social Contract v Disaster when heroes place personal honor above community III Hera s Seduction of Zeus a Hera dresses up acquires girdle of Aphrodite b Bribes Sleep to help her c Seduces Zeus d Prolongs success of Greeks e Importance i Final delay of Plan of Zeus Achilles returning ii Genre stands out as importance episode iii Gender roles helpless like Andromache No f Does Seduction belong in Epic i Appropriate epic subjects heroes heroic deeds ii Comic elements 1 Hera s make up scene 2 Zeus Catalogue of lovers Zeus passes out 3 Salacious subject matter a Clouds shield them while they have sex in broad daylight shields his inability to control himself Zeus defends his rule yet overcome by his own weakness a Most direct challenge to his power he falls for it completely iii Female Agency 1 Are Hera s deception and seduction a form of agency 2 Hera s Aristeia 3 Dressing Scene vs Arming Scene a Dolling herself up to change the course of events in the only way she knows how Immortal and Mortal women are conquests of Zeus a To what extent do women in The Iliad have agency Helen s Seduction Deception a So much influence over events despite the fact that she isn t a goddess p 4 U1 D39 Primary mover of events Hector bursts in on her and Paris in the bedroom fends off criticism charms him controls how she is perceived n IVPatrocus a Similarity between the names of Cleopatra and Patroclus Becomes part of the story after Zeus awakes Book 15 Zeus awakes orders Hector to be awakened Prediction of Resolution of Plot Hector fires the ships Patroclus enters battle dies Achilles enters battle kills Hector Greeks sack Troy Patroclus is critical to the plot 000quot D Homer The Iliad 1115 9142012 62700 PM I Time in the Iliad a When Year 9 of siege of Troy b 24 Books a few weeks real time c Wrath of Achilles provides scope of the poem d No Trojan horse no fall of Troy e Ends with Achilles meeting Hector in battle f Homer s narrative shows frequent mismatch between real time and narrative g Simultaneous events sometimes events narrated one after another are actually taking place at the same time h Battle scenes highly stylized i Men take time to introduce themselves to who they re trying to kill i Similes and metaphors i Reinforces chaos j Dueling narrator zooms in on single fight i BK 6 Duel of Glaucus and Diomedes while Hector departs for Troy to speak with Hecuba Important event embedded in scene of chaotic events ii39 Small scale II Diomedes vs Aphrodite a 5330 Diomedes wounds Aeneas Aphrodite rushes in to protect him b 5343 Diomedes wounds goddess Aphrodite who drops Aeneas Apollo steps in to shield Aeneas c 5379 Aphrodite becomes focus of narrative as she rushes to Olympis goddess Dione consoles Aphrodite predicts punishment of Diomedes as a Theomachos d 5465 Narrator returned to Diomedes still trying to kill Aeneas in full knowledge that Apollo is protecting him e Narrator sacrifices temporal continuity for the sake of thematic continuity III Contextualizing Iliad in Trojan Saga a Catalogue of Ships BK 2 b Lists in oral tradition epic eg Agamemnon s gifts to Achilles Zeus list of previous lovers c Poet wants to set poem in larger epic context of war and remind listener of key events people d Teichoskopia view from the wall e introduction of heroes Helen f Antenor recognizes Odysseus 3219 and talks about his eloquence g Narrator inserts specific scenes in order to inform the listener reader and contextualizes events of the poem h Duel of Paris and Menelaus Meeting of Paris and Helen 3465 i Not a fight Paris loves IVDiomedes a Aetolian warrior son of Tydeus one of the Seven Against Thebes b Youthful optimistic outgoing hero c Significant in Achilles absence Aristeia in BKs 56 d Aristeia fom Greek aristos arming scebe minor deeds major climax e Accompanies Odyssues on the Dolonieia BK 10 f Gradually recedes from view with return of Achilles V Women and the Domestic World a Meeting of Hector and Andromache BK 6 one of the few glimpses of the hero s life outside of battle b Heros s family roles c Distinctive roles in separate spheres d Men battle public world e Women Household f Weaving childbearing household management 9 Narrative Value of Female Characters h Pathos women completely dependent on me i Lamentations memorialize heroes as real people Homer The Iliad 16 9142012 62700 PM I Hector and Andremache a 0039 DD Meeting of Hector and Andromache one of the few glimpses of the hero s life outside of battle Distinctive roles of each gender in separate spheres Narrative value of Female Characters i Raise level of pathos women reinforce everything men have to lose personal vulnerability ii Lamentations memorialize heroes as real people iii Wailing lamentations increase time of hero Ideal marriage of homo phrosyne like mindedness Compare to Paris and Helen i Bedroom scene ii Offspring sex II Plan of Zeus a b c III 00 Tht D It was the will of Zeus to create the Trojan War to kill people He thought that mankind was a burden on earth Zeus Plan to give glory to Achilles after being insulted i Fundamental to Iliad s narrative structure Achilles withdraws in anger Greeks die Achilles returns with more glory Promise to Thetis in Book 1 Proem 115 Sing Goddess Achilles rage black and murderous that cost the Greeks incalculable pain pitched countless souls of heroes into Hades dark Iliad 7 and 8 Period of difficulties for the Greeks Building of the Wall necessary to emphasize vulnerability of the Greeks Zeus warning to the other gods not to interfere Journey to Mt Ida use of the scales i Scales are physical reflection of Greeks and Trojans ii Zeus is on the side of the Trojans Prediction of Patroclus death Trojans camp on the plain of Troy IVEmbassy to Achilles a b Nestor suggests meeting of the elders Greeks losing badly Trojans emboldened Nestor proposes Embassy after Agamemnon offers to compensate Achilles Odysseus Phoenix Ajax chosen to speak Odysseus Speech i Save your friends or else you may not get the chance ii Remember your father s advice avoid Strife iii Agamemnon is willing to pay 1 Punish Hector s arrogance pity your friends iv Achilles responds Why should I 1 Rewards Brave man and coward get same reward in the end Everyone dies in the end The loot is divided evenly the brave man is not given more c When he does get a prize it s stolen 2 Theft of Achilles Reward a His bride taken like Trojans took Helen 3 Irrelevance of Agamemnon s gifts a It s not about the money or monetary compensation Achilles pride b Agamemnon reinforces his wealth by offering such a large prize to Achilles Agamemnon offers one of his daughters to Achilles it s insulting you get to be my son in law 4 Thetis Prophecy Death and Glory at Troy or Life in obscurity in Phthia f Phoenix s speech 39 Personal appeal to Achilles i39 Paradeigma lessonquotexample of the hero Meleager ii39 Message Let your anger go don t be like Meleager iv Myth inside the myth Meleager and the Boar Hunt in Homer 1 Son of Oeneus King of Aetolia and Altheia capital city was Calydon 2 Oeneus forgot to honor Demeter Virgin goddess of the hunt during a festival 0 DD Um n LA Demeter sends a monstrous boar to punish Oeneus 4 Meleager and friends kill boar War breaks out between Aetolians and Kouretes over the prize of killing the boar Meleager kills maternal uncle Althea curses Meleager who withdraws from battle in anger Meleager eventually returns at the last minute whole city is destroyed he comes back at the end and saves the day but because he didn t come back at first he doesn t get the glory he would have 9 Parallels between Meleager and Achilles i Anger and withdrawal from battle ii Appeals and gifts from friends and family iii Special freidn persuades hero to return iv Hero defeats enemy U39l 01 l Homer The Iliad 1619 I Battle Scenes a Death of Epeigeus b This man was far from the worst of the Myrmidons He once lived C in Boudeum but having killed a cousin of his came as a suppliant to Peleus and silverfooted TheSs who sent him with Achilles to fight at Troy Harpalion killed by Meriones13680 i Harpalion sank into his comrades arms and breathed out his like stretched on the ground like an earthworm in a pool of black bloodThe Paphlagonians tended to him and took him on a chariot to sacred Ilion in sorrow His father went with them weeping Nothing would ever replace his dead son Paris was enraged as his killing Among the PaphlagoniansHarpalion had been his host II Similes a Slows narrative concentrates on event tenor which is compared 039 00 D Comparison of two fundamentally different things using like or as to a different phenomenon vehicle Comparison pivots on a detail shared by the two frames Attack of the Myrmidons 16267 i boys will sometimes disturb a hornets nest by the roadside jabbing at it and infuriating the hive the little fools until the insects become a menace to all and attack any traveller who happens by swarming out in defense of their brood Patroclus kills Thestor 16434 l Thestor son of Enops was next crouching in his polished chariot basketPatroclus eased up alongside him and shattered his right jaw with his spear driving the point through his teeth then gripping the shaft levered him up and over his chariot rail the way a man sitting on a jutting rock with a fishing rod flips a flounder that he has hooked out of the sea Euphorbus dies 17516 i a man has been rearing an olive sapling in a lonely place where it has enough water It is beautiful and growing well quivering in the breeze its white buds blossoming One day a 9142012 62700 PM storm comes with violent winds tears it from its trench and leaves it on the ground 9 Function of Similes in Battle i ii iii iv V Break up battlescenes Distinguish individuals and their fates Martial world compared to world of nature beyond the carnage Cumulative effect destruction ugliness and waste of battle contrasted with creative productive harmonious aspects of natural world World of Similes is world which heroes give up by fighting at Troy h Fight for the corpse of Patroclus 17398ff the two armies fought over Achilles surrogateas a tanner gives his men an oxhide to stretch having first drenched it in oil They stand in a circle and pull at it until its moisture is squeezed out by all of their tugging and the oil has a chance to penetrate the taut leather s poresso too the tight circle of men on either side tugging at the corpse the Trojans with high hopes of dragging it back to Ilion III Aristeiaand Death of Patroclus a BK 16 Enters battle routes Trojans saves the Greek ships b Kills Sarpedon major Lycian hero D110 Increases significance of P s aristeia Zeus considers saving his son decides against it Death of Patroclus i Approaches Walls of Troy pushed back 3 times by Apollo Death Sequence 1 Stunned by blow to the back by Apollo 2 Stabbed by Euphorbus 3 Run through by Hector Mutilation of P s body looks forward the same treatment of Hector s corpse IVShield of Achilles a Ekphrasis graphic dramatic description of an artifact in poetry poetic displaypiece which halts narrative progress b Microcosm of the Homeric world c Descriptions appear to begin with civilized life and move outward to less civilized spheres IliadCthemes i City at Peace murder dispute Agamemnon Achilles argument wedding ii City at War iii Music boy playing lyre dancing iv Harvesting pastoral worlds e The Shield and Similes i Timeless natural world which will outlast Trojan War ii Violence and Strife contrasted with peacetime existence iii World given up by warriors esp Achilles iv Prosperity of the Trojans before war Later Ecphraseis i Shield of Heracles ii Achilles Shield in Euripides Electra iii Aeneas Shield V Reconciliation of Achilles and Agamemnon a Greek Assembly b Achilles forgives Agamemnon Agamemnon blames At Achilles and Odysseus argue about the next step 0 n Dan Homer The Iliad 20 24 9142012 62700 PM I Achilles Arsteia Achilles Purpose kill Hector h Other than Human godlike power doesn t want to eat No real attachments Not going home Time no longer the aim Cruelty Contrast with Diomedes Death of Tros 20475 l and then Tros Alastor s son tried to clasp Achilles knees to see if he would spare him take him capAve and let him go and not kill him because they were the same age He actually thought he would persuade him but this was a man with no gentleness in him a man with one purpose Battle by the River Skamander Xanthos BK 21 Kills collects Trojan victims fawns Lycaon pleads for mercy 1 recently ransomed from Lemnos back in battle for one day 2 Achilles response Patroclus is dead he was better than you Battle With Skamander Xanthos iv V Kills Asteropaeus Bodies clog river River gods in Epic Forces of Disorder chaos Skamander protecting 1 himself 2 Troy 3 Cosmic Hierarchy accuses Achilles of being a Theomachoi Hephaestos Fire II Funeral of Patroclus a Patroclus ghost b Cremation sacrifice of 12 youths c Funeral Games iv v independent evidence of games vasepaintings commemoration of warriors Principle of Reciprocity commemoration of warriors Principle of Reciprocity vi Prizes possessions of dead each has its own history d Achilles Reintegration into community III Chariot Race a Apollo knocks lash out of Diomedes hands Athena gets angry and makes Eumelus crash Antilochus bends the rules finishes ahead of Menelaus Antilochus objects to Achilles plan to take his geras Achilles give Eumelus the corselet of Asteropaeus Menelaus and Antilochus reconcile Antilochus acknowledges Menelaus superior status Menelaus gives back the mule IVAchilles speaks to Antiochus a And swiftfooted godlike Achilles smiled He liked Antilochus and was glad for him and the onshore breeze carried his answer Antilochus if you want me to give Eumelus something else from my hut I will do so I ll give him the corselet I took from Asteropaeus It is bronze plated with circles of bright tin and something he will value V Wrestling Match and Sprint a Wrestling i Match needs to be broken up ii Ajax and Odysseus evenly matched iii Contest of the Arms suicide of Ajax b Sprint i Odysseus wins by praying to Athena Ajax the Lesser falls in the dung c Games and Battles i For Time ii Physical violent and Dangerous iii Spoils and Prizes 1 Spoils possess their own history iv Involvement of the gods d Games are not Battles i Rules matter Games are more civilized 1 Not zerosum 2 among friends ii Time can be recognized without victory bowl for Nestor DQOD39 iii Loser is not the Prize iv Cathartic VIPriam and Achilles VII a Gods angered by defilement of Hector i The gods looking on piAed Hector and urged Hermes to steal the body a plan that pleased all but Hera Poseidon and the GreyEyed One who were steady in their hatred for Sacred Ilion and Priam s people ever since Paris in his blindness offended these two goddesses and honored the one who fed his fatal lust b Priam approaches Achilles i He stood close to Achilles and touching his knees he kissed the dread and murderous hand that had killed so many of his sons As when the grip of madness seizes one who murders a man in his own fatherland and flees abroad to foreign shores to a wealthy noble host and a sense of marvel runs through all who see him so Achilles marveled c Priam Achilles and the Human Condition i Suffering and Humanity Achilles cries for Peleus and Patroclus Priam cries for Hector 1 the gods don t suffer ii Jar of Zeus iii Peleus and Priam both blessed early in life Paradeigma Children of Niobe a Priam must eat b Queen of Thebes c Boasted that she bore 14 children Leto only two d 7 boys and 7 girls killed by Apollo and Artemis e Children led unburied because citizens turned to stone f Gods buried children after 9 days 9 Niobe eventually ate after weeping turned to stone h Traditional Story only Niobe turned to stone Hebrew Bible 9142012 62700 PM I Homer and Bible a D39 0 Both Homer and the Hebrew Bible are identitydefining books they were the essential usable past for entire communities They are both texts that directly address the most central issues of human life what are the limits on human freedom How given the fact that we are mortal but don t want to die should we try to overcome death Homeric Heroes Bible Characters The Homeric hero wants to be an epic character and so be remembered The Bible character typically wants to be an ancestor and family is a recurrent theme Like the Iliad the Hebrew Bible is a book that defined an identity For later Greeks Homer was essential to Greekness Both Homer and the Bible provided the basic usable past the core story The Bible however is much more explicit because it starts at the beginning of the world and tells how the people whose story it is came to be One huge difference between Homeric and Biblical narrative the Hebrew Bible is often minimalist It does not tell you much about what characters are thinking Adam and Eve is a perplexing story The deity here is not as we tend to imagine Gd He walks in his garden in the evening He does not seem to be omniscient Also he is like a weak parent He makes threats that he does not carry out that they will die on the day that they eat the fruit which sounds as if it s poison II The Canon 00 The Hebrew Bible is a book with a complex history In Hebrew it is called Tanakh for Torah the Pentateuch or Five Books Nevi im Prophets and Ketuvim Writings Hebrew BibleOld Testament arranges books chronologically Origin and Dating i In the first lecture there was a slide showing the Documentary Hypothesis For our purposes the part of the book known as P the Priestly tradition is not so important we are interested in the stories not the extended genealogies But you want to skim them because this is what the Bible is actually like e Dating i Some of the stories are surely very old How old our actual text of the Hebrew Bible is very disputed but the tendency in current scholarship is to see the compilation of the whole Pentateuch as relatively late after the return from Babylonian exile in 538 or even later The events narrated are much older the Biblical date for Abraham would be about 1800 BCE f The Documentary Hypothesis i The documentary hypothesis saw four basic strands in the Pentateuch J E P and D the Yahwist the Elohist named for different ways of referring to the deity the Priestly and the Deuteronomist ii Scholars no longer think of these as completely independent documents that were just combined There is intense debate especially about the distinction between J and E g P and D i We will read lots of P but not very carefully P is the tradition that cares about genealogies and about how to conduct rituals We want you to see that these are part of our text but we are interested mainly in the stories D is closely connected to the historical books Joshua Judges Samuel and Kings DH the Deuteronomistic History h Genesis 11 i The Masoretes scholars of the 7th 10th century CE cared for the transmission of the text and decided on its proper vocalization The First Verse Genesis 11 The first word is difficult It looks like the construct or bound form in the beginning of Possibilties 1 A First word not in construct independent statement New Jerusalem 2 B First word in construct 11 depends on 12 New Revised Standard III 3 C First word in construct 11 depends on 13 and 12 is parenthetical 4 A New Jerusalem Bible Catholic 1In the beginning God created heaven and earth 2 Now the earth was a formless void 5 KJV In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth 6 B In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth the earth was a formless void 7 C New JPS When God began to create heaven and Earth the Earth being unformed and void People are created twice These are profoundly different stories i The First Creation 1 In the first creation humanity is the climax of a process of organization Human beings are made to rule the world and they are commanded to fill this world 2 They are in Our image whatever that means 3 In the Adam and Eve story Adam is apparently intended as the gardener Good and Evil a D39 What is the tree of the knowledge of Good and Evil and why is it in the garden It can hardly mean that they have no moral awareness since then how would they know that they should obey Gd So knowledge of good and evil seems to be something like mature understanding What about the tree of life Adam and Eve know what death is Are they mortal The tree of life seems not to be a concern they aren t forbidden to eat it until after they eat the tree of knowledge of good and evil What is the tree of life for anyway Gd doesn t need it The Outcome i Adam Eve and the serpent are all cursed Adam s curse is the most interesting because it is about agriculture and why farming is hard IVCain a Pquot n D D n ii cursed is the ground for thy sake in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life 1318 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee and thou shalt eat the herb of the field 1319 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return unto the ground for out of it wast thou taken for dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return and Abel This story is set immediately after Adam and Eve at least in part because the author wanted violence to happen right away However it clearly requires a wider social world Cain founds a city he couldn t do that if younger siblings are the only people The book is largely about families but they are mostly not happy families The first murder is a fratricide Cain is a farmer Abel is a herdsman They both bring offerings G d accepts one and not the other No reason is given 4 6 And the Lord said unto Cain 39Why art thou wroth and why is thy countenance fallen 47 If thou doest well shall it not be lifted up and if thou doest not well sin coucheth at the door and unto thee is its desire but thou mayest rule over it39 notice a difference between not doing well and sin Things we don t know Did Cain and Abel have a good relationship before this happened What actually happened when one offering was accepted and the other not ii39 How did Abel react The point at which the text becomes unequivcoal is the murder Cain did not have to act this way V Similarities a 000quot Both the Adam and Eve story and CainAbel are cleareyed about certain human characteristics Adam blames Eve Eve blames the serpent Cain tries to evade the question about what happened to his brother VIThe Only Ancestor a With the Flood things almost start over we are back at a single ancestor Noah b The text has no real interest in the kinds of wickedness that led to the Flood c Gd regrets the creation not only of humanity but of animals And the LORD said 39I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth both man and beast and creeping thing and fowl of the air for it repenteth Me that I have made them The Patriarchs 9142012 62700 PM I From Everyone to a Special Group a Already in Cain and Abel and in Noah God selected people to favor for a good reason in Noah s case But now the story goes from everyone s past to a particular past b The Lord said to Abram Go forth from your native land and from your father s house to the land that I ll show you c I will make of you a great nation And I will bless you I will make your name great And you shall be a blessing d I will bless those who bless you And curse him that curses you And all the families of the earth Shall bless themselves by you II Blessing in this Text a Notice that the afterlife is not mentioned here or elsewhere Blessing includes success and prosperity in your own life and having many powerful descendants b Also however God communicates nobody is in doubt about who it is Only in the episode at Mambre where there are three men is there any hesitation This is remote from our experience III Biblical Poetry a This message to Abram is typical of the style of Biblical poetry 39 And I will make of thee a great nation And I will bless thee i39 And make thy name great And be thou a blessing And I will bless them that bless thee And see him that curseth thee will I curse iv And in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed b Different from Homeric technique c Heard from fairly large audience d Repetitive redundant but because orally told mostly IVDate again a The Iliad is probably eighth century maybe 725700 b The core stories of Genesis are at least that old some much older c The text that we have was probably not written until after 600 CE V Abraham and the Covenant a Already the Flood story ended with a promise b The Abraham story is about the promise that Abraham will become a great nation Recurring theme but constantly under threat 0 VI She is my sister Abraham and his wife Sarai go to Egypt because of a famine that will happen again and she is taken into the Pharaoh s harem It takes divine intervention to get her back i No wife no great nation There is a doublet at Genesis 20 VII Hagar and Ismael a The story of Ishmael is for the Bible itself a false tale b Hagar begins to think highly of herself which angers Sarai VIII Covenant Again a In 17 the promise becomes a covenant that is a contract with two sides b God promises Abram now renames Abraham to bless his family if everyone in his family is circumcised IXFinally the specific promise that Sarah will have a son a This is a mysterious passage where the Hebrew goes between the singular and plural b Christians take it as a symbol of the trinity c The promise is so late in their lives that is has become incredible i That is typical X A famous fine touch a When Sarah laughs asking whether she will still have sexual pleasure when her husband is so old God asks Abraham why she thinks that He cannot make her have a child although SHE is old b Even though Hagar s son is not the heir the text gives Hagar and Ishmael an almost lost story XIThe Sacrifice a Again a minimalist narrative b The whole point of the covenant is that Abraham will be the ancestor of a nation c The demand of he sacrifice makes it all seem pointless d Sacrifice Isaac XII The next choice a In the next generatio Isaac is not an interesting character b The decider is Rebecca 0 Pquot n c First the servant is given a sign that she is the right one Then she herself chooses to go i Again we are not told why d Lineage endogamy i important in this story ii foreign custom may be hard to understand XIII This is a love story XIV XV XVI a Rebecca is a powerful character b The word behold often tells you that you are getting a character s point of view c Since the narrative tell you so little about what the characters are thinking you want to catch this d After a long wait Rebecca has tins e The one who is chosen in the younger one and Rebecca is instrumental in that choice f Again we have dissimilar brothers who do not seem to get along Love and its absence a Isaac loves Esau more than Jacob Rebecca loves Jacob more than Esau b Esau maries Canaanite women and his parents are unhappy but only after Jacob goes to his relatives to look for a wife does Esau realize this c Jacob loves Rachel but not Leah Sibling rivalry a Competition between brothers becomes competition betweem the sisters co wives b Rachel is so jealous of her sisters children that she gives her maid as a concubine and Leah then retaliates and does the same c They trade a night of sex with Jacob for a plant with fertility enhancing properties i Nobody seems to be happy Shechem a The story of Dinah shows that Jacob s sons are even less honest than he was They take vengeance for their sisters rape under cover of an agreement and massacre helpless victims 039 c God s choices are perplexing From Joseph to Moses 9142012 62700 PM I Getting to Egypt a The story of Joseph is a little different because Joseph is not the main ancestor His story though forms the transition from the ancestorstories to the herostory He brings us to Egypt and he is the one in whom Gd is most interested It continues one of the great themes of the Jacobstory however Jacob was not an admirable person Joseph isn t either c Joseph is not just the favorite i Joseph is pretty obnoxious He is a tattletale and a showoff Jacob like other characters we have seen is not a wise parent ii So again we may wonder about why he is the center of the story II The Brothers a On the other hand his brothers are not the people you d want in your family either Even if you hate your brother planning to kill him is not good Notice that Reuben does not directly try to convince his brothers not to kill Joseph Instead he hopes to rescue him later Then the caravan comes by and Judah suggests selling him c Jacob s sons 39 Jacob has probably antagonized his sons by favoring Joseph but he hasn t done anything outrageous promised all his wealth to Joseph for example Yet they fake his death to their father ii39 If they hope that their father will now love them more they aren t successful III The lessMinimalist Narrator a Typically the narrator tells us nothing about Joseph s feelings during this entire time We only learn later when the brothers berate each other in Egypt that he pleaded with them In 4243 we get more information about the family dynamics The last part of the Josephstory is on a completely different scale from the rest of the book IVDreams a Joseph is both a dreamer and a dreaminterpreter D39 D39 D39 00 b His own dreams are selfinterpreting the first one has his brothers with their sheaves and that enables them to understand the second 0 Later though his success depends not his having dreams but on understanding them Small Mysteries 39 It is a basic fact about how we hear stories that we assume that the details are meaningful So why is it that Joseph goes to find his brothers at Shechem and is told that they are at Dothan It makes the plot easier people know them at Shechem And Dothan is on the caravan route The first part of the Joseph story is told mainly from the brothers point of view We don t know whether Joseph knew how much his brothers hated him or whether he cared V Joseph Ups and Downs a Joseph is a story about changes of fortune c d e f g U39lPLAJNH He is the spoiled baby good He is sold into slavery bad He becomes the boss of Potiphar s house good He is accused of rape and imprisoned bad He becomes the chief minister of Pharaoh good Joseph is a golden boy h He is the only male in the Pentateuch who is explicitly said to be goodlooking He is also an exceptionally skilled administrator when he runs Potiphar s household Potiphar doesn t need to think about anything except what he wants for dinner Even when he is in prison he ends up running the place VIPotiphar s Wife is a Famous StoryType a In the Iliad Glaucus told the story of his ancestor Bellerophon which is also a Potiphar s wife story b It was common in Greek tragedy Euripides Hippoytus survives c The Potiphar s Wife Episode Joseph is in a situation most of us will never experience but his dilemma is not unfamiliar VII a b C ii His boss trusts him and has treated him well and he wants to reciprocate This is perhaps another poetic justice story like Jacob s he used to tell on his brothers but in this situation he cannot tell Potiphar that Potiphar s wife is trying to seduce him The second half The Josephstory after Joseph becomes the vizier is the kind of story we associate especially with Greek literature it s a recognition tale Many Greek tragedies were about separated relatives and so is the Odyssey Such stories often present an imbalance of power as here Joseph knows his brothers but they do not know him VIII Joseph and Pharaoh a b Joseph does not just tell Pharaoh what his dreams mean and create a strategy for getting through the bad years he makes it a good outcome for Pharaoh by enabling the king to take over all the land in Egypt Good for Pharaoh bad for ordinary Egyptians IXJoseph the Manipulative a 0039 Joseph knows very quickly that his brothers regret what they did because he overhears them Yet he causes them severe anguish He does not seem concerned to alleviate the pain even of his father and he involves Benjamin who is innocent The narrator tells us that he weeps but does not explain his motives for testing them This kind of testing is typical of folktales It could be there mainly because it makes the story exciting prolonging the suspense before the recognition It may also reflect Joseph s desire to get revenge before he forgives his brothers or simply that he likes to manipulate people even though he again cries when he sees Benjamin Odysseus in the Odyssey raises similar questions X A last reversal a Jacob blesses the younger son above the older b C Unlike his father he does this deliberately with prophetic knowledge This marks the end of the family saga XIThe Righteous Midwives XII a 0039 When a later Pharaoh becomes worried that the Hebrews could become too powerful first he enslaves them collectively not individually Then he tells the midwives to kill male children They lie and say that Hebrew women give birth too quickly d They are blessed as a result Moses 0 n LO Moses is a different kind of hero Leader not ancestor It is common in folktale to have a great leader who is exposed at birth and then recovered Moses is an unusual version because he always knows his origins His fostermother probably knows that his nurse is his real mother Moses and the Egyptian Moses kills the Egyptian with premeditation he looks around to see if there are witnesses The next day though when he tries to break up a fight it turns out that everybody seems to know already Moses the Outsider 39 Moses is the leader and liberator but the narrative makes him an outsider First he is brought up by Pharaoh s daughter Then he flees to Midian after killing the Egyptian and he must return to assume leadership iv He does not initially circumcise his son which suggests that he is not really part of the group v His authority is initially far from unquestioned The woman at the well i Moses meets his future wife at a well ii He shows his heroic side iii While Jacob pushed away the heavy cover so that Rachel could water her flocks Moses fights off the shepherds who interfere with the flocks of the daughters of the priest of Midian iv He is defined as a defender of the weak v Zipporah however is not especially hospitable her father has to tell her to invite this man home h The hero called i One link between the ancestorstories and the leaderstory as I am calling them is the direct but deeply mysterious encounter ii These take different forms Jacob s dream of the stairway or ladder between heaven and earth his wrestling with the divine being at the ford and Moses vision of the burning bush Exodus 4 21 9142012 62700 PM I Later Greeks a Pquot 0 Sometimes before the first century BCE Ezekiel wrote a Greek tragedy about Moses It is hard to imagine how it was staged if it ever was There are also some fragments of an epic poem in Greek based on Genesis the surviving fragments concern Dinah and Shechem There is also a short Greek novel about Joseph and his Egyptian wife Jospeh and Asenath II The Exodus D D39 n D D n LO The Exodus is the great story for Jews It is also immensely powerful in other contexts Martin Luther King really related to Moses and the exodus from Egypt For Americans the Civil Rights Movement is the great evocation of the Exodus i the promised land Two things are very disturbing about this story First Pharaoh makes all the decisions but ordinary Egyptians suffer through the plagues This is a fact of life everyone suffers for a king s mistakes but a harsh one Three times the text says that Pharaoh hardened his heart or made himself stubborn But God also says that he will make Pharaoh stubborn and he does this Mental interference The Bible thus begins to look a little more like the Iliad We have double motivation If Pharaoh had not been open to mental interference it would not have happened but God makes him more the way he is Similar to the Iliad the Gods heighten characters already existing characteristics Lies Moses does not say that he is going to take the people out of Egypt permanently but only that they are going to sacrifice This leads to a variety of negotiations Different deals Pharaoh agrees to let all the men go but not the women and children all the people but not the livestock In the end they work for the Pharaoh but get payment from their neighbors h Egyptian customs 39 One small recurrent theme is the Egyptians find abhorrent practices that are normal to Hebrews They can t eat together in the Joseph story ii39 They get their own district because the Egyptians don t like them i Miracles i This is a story about miracles ii Trying to naturalize it is a mistake because the miracles are the point it is set up so that miracles will be necessary iii Civil Rights leaders who were inspired by the book of Exodus were deeply religious people but they did not believe that divine powers were going to intervene on their behalf iv This is a great book in part because you can place empathy differently v So miracles are essential to the story vi There are other stories read that out of context could be entirely secular Joseph requires that we believe in prophetic dreams the way in fairytales we believe in good fairies but it becomes a story about Providence because it is where it is vii The story ofJudah and Tamar can simply be a story Christians often read typologically j Canons i We need stories to tell us how to live ii In oral tradition tellers can change the stories themselves to make them fit new situations iii When you have a written canon you reinterpret the stories you already have k Paul on Isaac and Ismael i This is an allegory ii These two women are two covenants one is from Mt Sinai bearing children for slavery she is Hagar iii Now Hagar corresponds to the present Jerusalem for she is in slavery Translation i All translation is to some extent interpretation ii The translator needs to decide what matters most the sound of words the rhythm the story iii The translator may decide whether oto make the text sound familiar or strange whether the tone of the language is grand or ordinary iv Sometimes translators add notes v Sometimes even layout is interpretation like the order of biblical books vi When Joseph s brothers see him coming at Dothan they say Behold that dreamer comes Robert Alter stranslations says that dream master with a note that argues that in context the Hebrew is stronger and more sarcastic It is a very small difference but such differences add up Do Not Micromanage i Chapter 18 is a little inserted story in which Jethro the father inlaw od Moses brings his family to join him and realizes that Moses needs to learn how to delegate i He is judging disputes all day Second climax the ten commandments i Two versions one at exodus 20 another quoted by Moses i The first commandment in some versions is not really a commandment but is a statement iii The moment at Sinai is a moment for the whole people like those for Moses and Jacob that I discussed last week iv Chapter 21 was assigned because it is so different from the Ten v The ten however we divide the are a basic set of rules about the relationship with God and with relationships with other people vi What follows is a typical ancient lawcode vii Different kinds of rules are mixed together and there is no distinction between what we would consider criminal law or civil law Homer The Odyssey 16 9142012 62700 PM I The Nostoi Returns of the Epic Cycle a Nostoi homecomings b Individual poems on each departing hero c Menelaus and Agamemnon after quarreling the brothers leave separately i Athena s anger death of Oilean Ajax due to raping Cassandra ii Agamemnon arrives safe killed by wife iii Menelaus ships scattered by a storm marooned on Egypt d Poseidon mad at Oddyseus so it takes him ten years to get home II Odyssey Proem a A different type of hero i Gradually learns to cope with unfamiliar challenges which conventional heroic behavior cannot overcome b Nostos bigger world than the Iliad i Travel narrative exploration of lands peoples ii Folktale homecoming husband fantastic elements iii Survival is goal c Sight and blindness i Intelligencesurvival ignorance death ii Theme of appearance vs reality issues of identity III Council of the Gods BK 1 Theodicy a Gods are more removed Epic features fewer gods b Zeus Mortals are responsible fo their own suffering Aegisthos seduces Clytemnestra kills Agamemnon Orestes kills him Recklessness Atasthalia in the face of he gos warnings lead to punishment Suitors followers of Odysseus Gods as guardians of Justics cf gods in Ilias IVAgamemnon as the foil for Odysseus a Develops characterization of Odysseus i Endurance after an easy Nostos Agamemnon killed in his own house Odysseus nostos is drawn out ii Intellect Odysseus uses cleverness deception strategy b Orestes and Telemachus c Clymnestra and Penelope will Penelope remarry n D Tht D d Agamemnon s fate shows what could happen to Odyssseus V Ithaca and Scheria a Pquot n D D Geographical settings correspond to parallel narratives which meet in book 13 Ithaca i Suitors are agents of disorder threat to Odysseus family and identity ii Athena rouses Telemachus to action iii Rite of Passage Telemachus goes to Pylos and Sparta to win glory and see what heroes look like iv By later books Telemachus truly becomes Odysseus son Xenia i Law of guest friendship obligation to welcome give food shelterprotection to guests ii Primary culture norm of Odysset good people Telemachus in Sparta i Menelaus narrates his nostos ii Menelaus Helen recognizes Telemachus iii Helen drugs the wine narrates Odysseus infiltration of Troy in disguise Scheria i Odysseus stuck on Ogygia 1 Calypso wants Odysseus as a husband 2 Choice for Nostos is a choice to be mortal ii Shipwreck on Scheria 1 Athena visits Nausica maiden looking forward to her marriage Homer The Odyssey 712 9142012 62700 PM I Scheria and the Phaecians a Folktale Arrival departure and location unclear Stranger arrives contests wins offer of marriage b Xenia Gifts offer of marriage pampering of 0d Utopian setting of Scheria c Storytelling iv Demodocus Song of Ares and Aphrodite Story of Horse Odysseus excellent story teller master of deception and lies Guile and brains overcome to brawn II The Adventures 912 a Themes iv Cave of the Cyclops III Folktale monsters disguise recognition tricks Exploration ethnography Civilization vs savagery Recklessness Cicones 9 Cyclops Bag of Winds 10 a Paradigmatic episode of civilized savage polarity in Greek thought culture nature b Codes of savagery Geography margins i39 Law society labor technology techne none Don t believe in Xenia gods Ignorance of heroic deeds Raweating c Odysseus paradigm of civilized Odyssean Heroism vs battlefield heroism killing the Cyclops ii Relies on nous intellect technology teamwork community animal labor Similes of blinding express civilized technology Odysseus taunts of Polyphemus Curse of Cyclops IVUnderworld a Katabasis journey down i Conquest of death eg Heracles ii Journey Necromancy b Geography of underworld i Dead warriors people ii Catalogue of women iii Heroes ofIliad Discussion Close Reading 9142012 62700 PM I Book9 a Cicones i They raid the Cicones rather than run away with their ill gotten gains they wait too long and the Cicones call for help b Lotus Eaters i Eat flowers all day c Cyclops i Lock them in a cave and try to eat them II Book 10 a Aeolians i Odysseus gets a bag of winds not supposed to open it but the crew does and they get sent all the way back to Ithaca b Laestrygonians i Giants who eat people ii Critically different from Cyclops because they have an idea of hospitality their guests c Circe i Turns them into pigs III Book 12 a Sirens i Odysseus tells the crew he s supposed to listen to the sirens even though Circe never told him to do that b Scylla i Monster that lives by a narrow strait of water c Helios cattle i Odysseus tells crew not to eat cows they do IVPatterns a Three monsters that try to eat you i Cyclops ii Laestrygonians iii Scylla b Three that get you into trouble betray i Cicones ii Aeolians iii Helios cattle c Three try to make you forget you want to go home Lotuseaters ii Circe ii39 Sirens Gods orders ignored o Cicones o Aeolians o Circes o Helios Cattle Achilles shield o First ring city o Second ring agriculture o Third ring livestock o Fourth ring river that runs around the world also the underworld Homer The Odyssey 1318 9142012 62700 PM I Underworld a Wmano 339 Circe instructs Odysseus to sail beyond Ocean consult Teiresias the blind seer Underworld inhabited by bloodless souls Odysseus does not appear to enter Hades Blood in the trench draws ghosts who can only then speak Odysseus encounters his dead friend Underworld Odysseus Past and Future i Teresias mentions 1 Poseidon s anger 2 Warning cattle of the sun 3 Killing of suitors 4 Cult of Poseidon 5 Death of Odysseus Dead Soldiers i Agamemnon a warning 1 Made it safely home but killed at dinner 2 Will Penelope be Clymnestra 3 Recommends Odysseus put ashore quietly test his wife Achilles Life better than death Heroic achievement not everything ii39 Endurance survival prized over death glory in battle iv Nostos Kleos Perseus decapitates the Gorgon II Disguise and Recognition a b c d Primary theme of events on Ithaca Programmatic Meeting with Athena i Odyseeus Special Qualities ii Their special relationship iii Gameplan Compare disguise deception subplot with Iliadic approach Odysseus reclaims identity i From periphery to house to olive bed 1 Odysseus reclaims identity 2 Impact od suitors recognized ii Swineherd 1 World of Iliadic similes 2 Xenia suitors iii Telemachus Recognition scene 1 Two narrative strands meet 2 Telemachus becomes a man e Disguise and Theoxeny i Disguise Odysseus has privileged vantage point sees but is not seen ii Theoxeny 1 Gods in disguise visit mortals test them 2 Righteous are rewarded evil are punished 3 Sudden transformation epiphany manifestation of powers distribution of reward punishment iii Divine apparatus of Justice drives Odysseus revenge Discussion o How do you get honor if you re a hero in the Iliad 0 Kill people 0 Have money and prizes 0 Die a glorious death 0 Brute force o How do you get honor in the Iliad 0 Kill but differently than before 0 Have money and prizes 0 Survival 0 Cleverness Homer The Odyssey 1924 9142012 62700 PM I Women in the Odyssey a Circe and Calypso 39 Helpers and Hinderers i39 Beautiful Seductive Dangerous Circe knows magicdrugs and Calypso knows how to persuade iv Untrustworthy Odysseus trusts neither Circe nor Calypso s offers of freedom v Eventually both women become Helpers and aid the hero b Helen and Clytemnestra i Daughters of Tyndareus ii Helen perfect housewife yet still dangerous manipulative iii Opposed stories of Odysseus by Helen Menelaus iv Clytemnestra instrument of Zeus will c Penelope i Ideal wife ii Powerless from books 116 1 Telemachus rebuke of Penelope in BK 1 song is for men weaving for women iii Penelopean Virtues 1 Beauty 2 conjugal fidelity iv Odyssean Qualities 1 wisdom 2 cleverness 3 caution 4 endurance II Key Moments a Appearance before the suitors BK 18 i Deception of Zeus II 14 b Interpretations i Penelope is attracted to the suitors ii Manipulating suitors to increase her glory iii Instrument of Athena s plan c Meeting the Beggar 19 i Eurycleia s recognition scar ii Penelope s delayed recognition brooch iii Recognition Tokens influential in later tragedy comedy iv Test of the Bow III End of the Odyssey a Killing of the Suitors Iliadic ending b 3 Parts i Recognition stringing the bow ii Massacre iii Aftermath Punishment of good and bad test of Odysseus c Battle Narrative in Odyssey 22 i Iliadic Elements arming scenes boasts challenges similes divine interventions catalogue supplication scenes ii NonIliadic Elements Enclosed Battle 1 120 against 4 2 Suspense Athena only arrives after start Odysseus forgets armor for his men Suitors arm themselves Telemachus screws up Aftermath Crime and Punishment i Odysseus as instrument of divine Justice ii Eurycleia s boasting 1 Sparing of Phemius herald 2 Execution of the maids iii Punishment of Melanthius e Penelope s Test 39 Delayed Recognition Olivewood bed secret immovable symbol of marriage Homophrosyne likemindedness of marriage Odysseus and Penelope ideally matched iv Cautious clever Penelope tests cautious clever Odysseus v Simile of the shipwrecked sailor Odysseus and Penelope suffered alike 0 Aeschylus Agamemnon I 9142012 62700 PM Genre of Greek Tragedy o Festivals of Dionysus o Vegetation god god of wine ecstatic revelry dramatic poetry 0 Athens C 500400 BCE o Tragedy s inclusion dated to 534 BCE 0 City Dionysia in the spring Lenaia in January countless rural festivals o Mass Entertainment 0 Festivals provided rest celebration for Attica s 200250K inhabitants No public business Public organization and funding Public Participation citizens wrote produced plays served as actors choreutaidancers in choruses judges musicians stagehands etc and attended performances o Slaves and women likely allowed to attend o Competitions for Prestige 0 Arch nselected three poets each of which would perform a trilogy of tragedies PoetProducer trained chorus members actors musicians etc for months Prizes awarded Form and Content Content Heroic myth epic cycle Homer divine myth 0 Stories of great families told in new ways and in new cultural 5th century context 0 Form Direct Speech and action episodes broken up by choral song parodos stasima exodus etc Costumed masked actors all male Aeschylus featured 2 speaking actors onstage which Sophocles increased to 3 0 First performance is publication 0 O O O O O O O Aeschylus o First of the three canonical Athenian tragedians o b 525 in Eleusis outside Athens d 4565 in Sicily o Upper class family Lived through 0 Peisistratid tyranny beginnings of democracy c 507 o Persian invasions Marathon 490 Salamis 480 Works 90 plays first production in 499 only 7 extant plays Agamemnon lst play of Oresteia trilogy 458 BCE about Agamemnon s death Orestes killing of Clytemnestra Libation Bearers and THE latter s eventual acquittal in Athenian court Eumenides o Nostosplot action is Agamemnon s arrival and death in Argos 0 Main Theme Justice and competing claims to Justice in story of House of Atreus Prologue The Watchmen 0 Setting the scene at Argos 10 years sleeping on the roof of the palacewaiting for the beacon from Troy 0 Misfortunes of the house would tell stories secrets if it could o Clytemnestra ruling Argos Parodosentrancesong of Argive Elders chorus o Longest and hardest choral movement in extant tragedy o Dense imagery abrupt transitions and shifts in thought 0 1 Prelude The Just War in Troy Vulture Simile Atreids are wronged Vultures cries heard by gods who sent an erinys fury Atreids from victims to avengers of Xenia and Zeus Xenios Zeus Protector of Suppliants Suffering ordained for both Trojans and Greeks Omen of the Eagles Hymn to Zeus Sacrifice of Iphigenia Eagles At departure of Greek fleet Calchas interprets the omen Troy will fall to Atreids Artemis angry at eagles slaughter of pregnant hareTrojan innocents sends winds preventing Greeks departure Sacrifice of Iphigenia daughter of Agamemnon becomes necessary Agamemnon must sacrifice his daughter and risk cursing his own house with bloodguilt childavenging fury Ode O O O O o Hymn to Zeus Cosmic force of order who sets men on the path to good sense 0 criminals fear retribution from Zeus Sacrifice of Iphigenia at Aulis Greek ships gathered at Aulis Calchas discovers anger of Artemis Agamemnon s doubIebind 206 can he dissolve his army and ignore Zeus wishes to punish the Trojans yokestrap of necessity changes Agamemnon Sacrifice of Iphigenia manifests ancient Curse of the House of Atreus Aeschylus Agamemnon II 9142012 62700 PM I Crime and Wealth a Clytemnestra s Beacon Speech and Prayer i Fire Justice from Troy coming to House of Atreidae ii Prayer that conquerors won t become conquered 340 and Greeks don t obliterate the altars of the gods at Troy iii Herald Greeks destroyed altars of gods b Dangers of Wealth i Wealth gt arrogance gt crime ii First Stasimon The Net Gods care about mortal iii affairs 1 Paris crime bred of arrogance resulting from wealth 2 No Trojans escaped consequences of Paris seduction of Helen Agamemnon also ensnared in a net by Clytemnestra for slaughter of innocents c Helen StasimonZ i Destructive Marriage 713 Marriage in Tragedy 1 Helen is a symbol of wealth 739 possessed 2 Fable of the Lion Cub Helen welcomed to Troy becomes source of destruction 3 Helen Occasion and instrument of Zeus wrath Fury comes to Troy ii Summary 1 Great Wealth leads to insatiability 2 Insatiability leads to arrogance 3 Hubris gives birth to Hubris a Paris bridetheft leads to war b Agamemnon childkilling Iphigenia leads to mass slaughter 4 Agamemnon and the Dyed Cloth a Cloth represents unfailing wealth of the house b Destruction of cloth causes resentment 9quot II Agamemnon a Characterization i Regal triumphant ii Ironic elements of his speech Lion lapping king s blood smoking wealth of Troy fear of envy of men urn metaphor iii Hubristic bringing another woman into his house b Confrontation with Clytemnestra i sole passage of Agamemnon with Stichomythia ii treading on purple symbol of wealth demonstration of hubris iii Agamemnon submits III Curse of the House of Atreus a Cassandra s Visions i Means of contextualizing Agamemnon s death ii Visions 1 Children crying over their deaths 2 Flesheating 3 A Choir of Furies ernyes on the roof 4 Curse of Thyestes b Atreus and Thyestes sons of Pelops 39 Thyestes seduced Aerope wife of Atreus Atreus exiles Thyestes plots revenge ii39 Banquet for Thyestes iv Curse on the House of Atreus Aeschylus Agamemnon III 9142012 62700 PM I Cassandra a Cassandra s visions i Banquet of Thyestes drinking blood not wine and dancing ii New evil murder of Agamemnon 1 children must pay for their fathers crimes 2 Sees her own death her fate attached to Agamemnon s An avenger will kill Clytemnestra 1279 Orestias Clytemnestra s son will avenge his father iv Gods are avenging Troy Cassandra achieves peace of mind because her house was wiped out by the house of Atreus b A Sympathetic Figure i Victimized by Apollo Agamemnon and Clytemnestra ii Defiant before Clytemnestra Apollo rejects them iii Noble Death 1 A foreign powerless slave 2 More knowledgeable than all other characters grasps significance of events 3 Not manipulated by Clytemnestra c Cassandra the Slave i She has good masters kind old money assured by Clytemnestra ii Clytemnestra questions Cassandra s intelligence barbaric II Others in Tragedy a Other an outsider someone perceived by dominant group as not belonging to that group Societies use perceived weaknesses of marginalized groups as a way of stressing the alleged virtues of those in power Dominant social group Athenian citizen male Athenian others women slaves foreigners those excluded from public life in Athens e Others have voices in Greek Tragedy makes tragedy unique and allows them to talk about their lives their anxieties their hopes f Your household judged and given reputation based on its members actions i Adultery by the wife not producing legitimate citizens ii Unhealthy weak citizens D39 00 III 9 iii Only citizen if born of citizen male and citizen female must be able to absolutely prove that its an heir iv If you re a Greek man can t pass on any legacy if children are illegitimate Household Setting of Greek Tragedy i Oikos is basis unit of the polis ii Interconnection of Polis Household man s public identity partly depended on status of his household iii Women have privileged Clytemnestra a D39 00 Good at playing her role wife convinces chorus and audience that she has been a good wife she is the victim The Good Wife 85976 i Sitting at home alone in fearful grief ii Rumors of Agamemnon s wounds of death iii Attempted suicide iv Plays the role of a helpless beautiful wife needing to be saved Chorus dismissal Aeschylus Clytemnestra Being a Man i Clever and treacherous manipulation of the chorus characters man contriving heart ii Persuasion the purple cloth iii Rule Clytemnestra takes power in Argos as a King v Force She not Aegisthos kills Agamemnon with her right hand 1 Purple cloth would have presented a bleeding house v Revenge her dispute is a contest with Agamemnon 1 Physically challenges the chorus vi Visually takes the place of her husband when killing him with the ax brutal and violent weapon vii Wheeled out on ekkuklema reveals Clytemnestra covered in blood standing over the bodies of Agamemnon and Cassandra with Aegisthos Clytemnestra s Claim to Justice i Avenging Sacrifice of Iphigenia ii Punishing Agamemnon s adultery iii Preserving the integrity of the household iv Aegisthos Justice brought him back to help kill Agamemnon Thucydides I 9142012 62700 PM I Significance a Greatest historian of GrecoRoman Antiquity b Modern influence students of war international relations i West Point reading list ii Father of realist foreign policy iii George Marshall Colin Powell c Neoconservatives Iraq War d First modern historian II Thucydides Bio a Birth 460 death 404 b Athenian citizen son of Olorus c Athenian general i Loses battle of Amphipolus 424 exiled for 20 years III Subject Peloponnesian War 431404 a A different war a study of war s destruction of Greek values cruelty inhumanity b Scope greatness i Two leading states at height of powers ii Suffering and disaster world had not known IVMethodology a Medium text to be read vs performance eg Homer Herodotus i Herodotus fifth century historiographer wrote about Persian Wars ii Ktema esaiei a possession for all time 122 Evidence eyewitness testimony documents archaeological evidence Application of rigorous standards Tone no romance no fantasy Not totally objective Thucydides selects edits material of his history V The Archaeology 119 a Demonstration of method and his narrative style b 1 Rise of empires in the 5th century Mediterranean c 2 Disclose important themes in approaching conflict i ships and sea power ii commerce and the accumulation of new capital 039 D110 iii walls d Thucydides rationalizes Greek myths VIMythical Minos a Tyrant of Crete b Strong navy c Athenian tribute of 7 boys 7 girls d Labyrinth and Minotaur e Theseus Athens national hero kills Minotaur saves youths 39 Important Greek myth ii Somewhat fantastic iii Really powerful tyrannical had dysfunctional family iv Ruled Mediterranean with his ships v Angers Poseidon Minos wife falls in love with the bull he sends Minos has sex with bull which the result is a minotaur VII Thucydides Minos a King of Crete b Naval innovator c d S Eliminated Piracy accumulation of capital increase of Colonizalon Sea power is means to an empire e Pericles strategy use navy and walls VIII Trojan War a Caused by fear made possible by money i Troy too powerful ii Smaller states pursue their own interests in support of Agamemnon b Economic factors used to explain duration of war IXThe Trireme a Corinthians invented trireme b Athens used triremes against Persia in battle of Salamis c Plan of the Athenian leader Themistocles d Trireme as basis of Athenian empire X The Athenians are Crazy a The good side bold daring hopeful aggressive industrious innovative optimistic i Athens acquires empire in the Pentacontaetia 189117 The Fifty Years b The bad side always seeking more Sicily cruel and excessive Melos prone to extreme and unpredictable behavior unrealistic XIThe Spartans a D39 The bad conservative slow to adjust oldfashioned backward neglectful secretive landbased The good steady and persistent stable society with ancient institutions disciplined Sparta wins the War Thucydides II 9142012 62700 PM I The Persian Wars a Summary i Shared themes of Archaeology and Main Narrative 1 Ships and Empire 2 Fear and Ambition as driving forces of war and characterize Athens 3 Athens success in Persian Wars used as Justification for its Empire b The basics i Herodotus Histories ii Ionian Revolt 499 1 lst Invasion by Darius I Plain of Marathon 490 BC 2 2nd Invasion by Xerxes b 518465 iii Thermopylae in 480 Battle of the 300 Spartans iv Salamis in 480 sea battle off island of Salamis 1 destroyed Persian Navy Plataia in 479 land ba ttle in Boeotia 2 destroyed Persian Infantry II Greek vs Barbarian a AtheniansSpartans Make Demands on each other Expunge the Curse of Cylon Curse of the Bronze House b Pausanias Spartan General at Marathon Died c 470 BCE i Attempted to betray Greece to Persia ii Pausanias Exposure Implicated Themistocles famous Athenian general and hero of Salamis Why Does Thucydides discuss them here Hellenism i Collective Greek identity largely missing in Homer ii Rise of Persia is key 1 Sustained contact with other Greeks Easterners 2 Victory over superior numbers iii Greekness expands to other Codes beyond language e Medizing Pausanias 1128 34 i Violence and Arrogance alienates the Greek allies after Persians leave ii Assumes Persian Dress 00 iii Pausanias Leder to Xerxes 1 Offers service to his king 2 Promises subjugaDon of Greece 3 Proposes Marriage with his daughter f Cultural Codes of Barbaroi i Hierarchical Society vs Greek Egalitarianism and Democracy ii No citizens Only slaves with masters iii Megalomania of Tyrants iv Proskun sis bowing down v Pausanias Behavior 1 Contempt for the Laws 2 Use of Bodyguards 3 Tripod at Delphi 9 Other Codes i Luxury ii Effeminacy iii Sexual Deviance iv Psychological 1 Unrestrained emotion 2 excessive anger sadness lamentation h Pericles i Model of Restraint and selfcontrol ii Perfect Statesman Controlled the Athenian demos people iii Visionary Leader Athens would have won if he had lived i The Delian League i Confederacy of Greek states Ionian states island states Northern Greece led by Athens ii Founded 4787 treasury and council held on island of Delos iii Goal push Persians Eastward compensate themselves for losses iv From Contributions of Ships and Men to Contributions of Money Treasurers of the Greeks 196 v Treasury Moved to Athens 460s III Plataea Emblematic of Thucydides War a Setting of Hostilities Emblematic of Thucydides new conflict b CivicRegional Dispute n ITO D11 i PlataeansThebans hate each other ii 0 Thebans wanted to take their enemies by surprise let inside by political party iii Cf Dispute between CorcyraCorinth AntiHeroic Aspects i Thebans come at night ii Conciliatory Appeal to Citizens iii Plataeans use m s iv Woman and slaves join battle v Confusion and terror Importance of Tuch chance accident Thebans lose advantage because of rain mud darkness Thebans can t escape Delay of Theban reinforcements Delay of Athenian herald Thucydides III 9142012 62700 PM I Pericles Funeral Oration 431 30 0 DUB ht D LO 339 Public funeral for dead at the end of the first year of the war Prosthesis ekphora burial Pericles Eulogy for Dead becomes speech in praise of city they fought for Primary topics Athens democracy culture and national character Exols Athens as education for all Hellas Primacy of the individual i Equal rights and opportunity ii Social life freedom to live without control and judgment iii Public dispersion often at civic expense An Open Society Athens as multicultural center Inclusiveness not a weakness ii39 Heroic character of Athenians iv Dominance of Athens abroad Wealth and Civic Obligation i Athenian refinement is not excessive ii Wealth for practical purposes Public obligations for all citizens participation in performances funding of liturgies The Spartan Other i Archidamus Speech 1805 virtues of Spartan education ii Avoidance of insolence in success arrogance leading to mistakes iii Spartan education sustained military training The severe school i No individualism highly structured conservative totalitarian society 1 Basis in military education combat training survivalist skills limited reading writing Control males segregated until 30s limited spousal contact 3 Susitia communal meals ii Discipline and punishment fosters respect for laws gods 1 Inured to hardship N 2 Control of appetites iii Limited education no time for useless matters 1 Action not talk no free exchange of ideas iv Secrecy and brutality 1 Exclusion of foreigners subjugation of Helots k Helots 39 State serfs ethically Greek largely Messenians Subjugated by Dorian ancestors of Spartans Lived under control of individual Spartans in sharecropping system iv Permanent internal threat to Spartan state II Plague in Athens 24754 III a 1St great reversal of Peloponnesian War b killed 13 of the population Pericles c came from Libya started in Piraeus d Single account Thucydides collapses several outbreaks of the plague e Thucydides intellectual world medical science i Thucydides method description show awareness of contemporary science emphasis on visual confirmation of symptoms development of disease possible cures psychological impact ii Hippocratic texts c 450 early 4th BC records symptoms patient psychology treatment of patients f Social and political disintegration i Failure to observe proper burial rites ii Seclusion antisocial behavior iii Indifference to the proper application of wealth hedonism iv Perversion of the noble and beautiful pursued by citizens Thucydides Pericles a Eulogy 265 b Died 2 12 years after the war s outbreak c True leader of the demos i Motivated the people was repeatedly elected ii Excelled because of his rank ability integrity d Far superior to his successors in Athens