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Clin Exp Ath Train C

by: Dudley Huel

Clin Exp Ath Train C AT 300

Dudley Huel
GPA 3.81


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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dudley Huel on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AT 300 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/231568/at-300-university-of-michigan in Athletic Training at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Nov 19 2003 Mineralogy 231 Lecture 31 zipper silicate health hazards amphiboles Friday alteration minerals kaolin pyrophyllite talc serpentine readings N 239244 K 463465 472 528534 DHZ 324331 357362 classification of Ca and Na amphiboles DHZ 1997 Fig 7 vertical axis is Na in B site replacing Ca via NaAl for CaMg horizontal axis AIV39AIIV for MgV39SiIV very complex and moreover there is yet another name for the Fe equivalents of each species although diagram implies continuous solid solutions there are solvus gaps at low T calcic amphiboles specific name varies with MgFe solid solution for different Al and Na contents vary from colorless in thin section to green olive brown white to green to black in hand specimen 2V from high more commonly high RI medium to high Z 4 c low 1030 compare gt30 for cpx actinolite group Ca2MgFe5Si8022OH2 most common in marbles greenschists calcpelites metamorphosed ultramafic rocks actinolite is group name for tremoliteferroactinolite solid solution Fig on p 283 tremolite CazMg5Si8022OH2 ferroactinolite CazFe5Si80220H2 phase equilibria for actinolite ferroactinolite K Fig 1248 reaction fortremolite decomposition DHZ 1997 Figs 66 67 hornblende group hydroxyl NaCaMgFeAl silicate common in marbles metabasalts amphibolites basalts Fig on p 285 sodic hornblendes pargasite hastingsite edenite are common in marbles amphibolites some evidence for a solvus gap between actinolite and hornblende at 450500 C quadrilateral amphiboles CaMgFe amphiboles analogous plot to that for pyroxenes Ca2Mg5Si3022OH2 Ca2Fe5Si3022OH2 Mg7Si3022OH2 F87Sl3022OH2 14 73 calcic actinolite group separated by wide solvus from ferromagnesian anthophyllite and grunerite grunerite solid solution extends all the way to Fe endmember correct Nesse39s diagram phase diagram for quadrilateral amphiboles K Fig 1121 sodic amphiboles typically pleochroic in blue violet colors variable 2V glaucophane NazMggAIZSi8022OH2 Fig on p 283 riebeckite Na2Fe3FeZSi8022OH2 glaucophane common in blueschists riebeckite common in iron formations some alkaline granites composition plot involving Mg vs Fe2 Al vs Fe3 has four Na amphiboles Fig 1419 glaucophane ferroglaucophane magnesioriebeckite and riebeckite glaucophane breaks down below 68 kbar at BOO400 C with several complex reactions including glaucophane lawsonite albite clinochlore clinozoisite quartz water 5Na2Mg3AI28i3022OH2 12CaAl28i207OH2H20 10NaAISi303 3MQ5AI2Sl3010OH3 60a2AI38i3012OH 7SlO2 14H2O lefthand side is blueschist facies assemblage righthand side is greenschist facies assemblage must correct locus for MgFe2 AlFe3 solid solutions in glaucophane epidote chlorite glaucophaneactinolite solvus also intermediate ss winchite T of crest ca 400 C EJE est glaucophanehornblende solvus also intermediate ss barroisite T of crest ca 500 C EJE est health hazards of amphiboles fibrous amphiboles were a common choice for asbestos what was the use of asbestos fibrous grunerite quotamositequot K Fig 1247 fibrous riebeckite quotcrocidolitequot K Fig 1250 Curvature of the Universe and Two Important Events Formation of the Cosmic Microwave Background Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Curvature in the 4th Spatial Dimension and the Rules of Geometry The geometry you know is valid when drawn on a at surface The rules change if the surface is not at There are three possible curvatures for the universe The sum of the angles The shortest distance in a triangle is equal between two points is a straight line c2nr Lines lhat are parallel somewhere are parallel everywhere at Euclidean geometry The geometry depends on the matter density of the universe Spherical density gt critical density Flat density critical density Saddle density lt critical density saddleshaped curvedout geometry I The sum of the 7 2n angles of a triangle G is less than 180 The shortest distance is a piece of a hyperbola Lines that are parallel at one place eventually diverge I spherical curvedin geometry quotLinesquot parallel at one place eventually cross The shortest distance is a curve that is a The urn of the segment of a angles of a triangle great circle ls greater than 180quot G x 2m Oddly we are close to a Flat geometry The Universe is expanding so each geometry expands also Flat sheets sphere etc become larger With time Even for at sheets lines get closer together as you go back in time Thought experiment Spread out the galaxies today so they are uniform gas Run the universe backwards denser at earlier times Dense gas is hotter due to this compression Universe gets hotter as you go back in time End of Planck time gravity freezes out Life Strong force freezes out in ation begins 103 I 1025 Weak and electromagnetic lorces freeze out Confinement of quarks Universe transparent to neutrinos Synthesis of primordial helium 102 7 10K 1010 V Universe transparent 105 7 to photons i fNOW l 1 I I I l I a I 10 50 1040 10 30 10 20 10 10 1 1010 1020 Time after Big Bang s gt How did the elements form 1940s1950s Hoyle et al all elements He too formed in stars this is not correct Gamow There was a Hot Big Bang in which He formed heavier elements made in stars This is correct Once the universe is about 3000 K like a surface of a red giant star The gas becomes ionized and light is scattered easily The Universe becomes opaque 1 era of atoms J t quot Q 39i quot c i r g 0 39 i 39 J a I a a a 1500 K 4 j 39o 9 O 039 a 9 Q quotvo39 3000 K temperature time gt 6000 K gg urnu uam mumquot aw n 5 ml cm spmmm Flned to am an mm my 204 MB ast Skinning 3m r can only see surlace ol cluud where light was last sca eredr Present The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation39s surfact of last scatterquot is analogous to the ight coming through the c nuds to our on a cloudy day magma Meanwhile back a r ano rher39 r39anch Penzias amp Wilson 1964 annoying 3 degree background noise signal in galaxy obser39vaTions r Vi i 39i quot bir39d poop rr39y cleaning The horn Nebe Prize fer i39iriem The Liiiverse ITSELF i3 3 K everywhere you iook de ieci ion of The hot primordial par iiclepho ron soup Big Bang was a derogaTory name given by Hoyle who ThoughT This was ridiculous before if was deTecTed relative intensity Blackbody radiation from the Whole universe perfect agreement with theory T 27 K wavelength mm AllSky Map Nearly Perfectly Uniform Tiny variations in temperature and density 105 eventually collapse to form galaxies and clusters of galaxies higher densities are the darker parts Collapse cannot start before recombination formation of the CMB at 300000 yr Collapse must compete with expansion of universe not everything collapses simulaTions look like our39 pie diagramsquot of The disTribuTion of galaxies 139 a b REMINDER OF WHAT THE UNIVERSE REALLY LOOKS LIKE Observed distribution of galaxies each point is a galaxy Notice voids and clusters RA 1o quot an Dec 30 Norm w cz 1000 kms 11263 galaxies 20 South 20 12434 galaxies a quot432 n 39 Suppose we found an old astronomy textbook from some ancient civilization that lived about 7 billion years ago about half the age of the universe After translating the book we read the section on the cosmic microwave background whose temperature this civilization measured to be 1 About 27 K 2 About twice the temperature that we measure today 3 About half of the temperature that we measure today Big Bang Nucleosynthesis 1 second 3 minutes after the Big Bang Universe has the temperature of the center of a star 107 109 K Before 1 second just photons y electrons protons and neutrons too hot for atomic nuclei to exist If T gt 1012 K matter y p n e y 39 p I1 6 antimatter o lt Starting Point 1 sec 202 Neutron Electron Photon y Ogen Very hard to make these jumps very Temperature drops during BB Nucleosynthesis little Li Be nothing heavier The opposite of What you want Only signi cant 9Be I new element I l l f 7 6Li Hydrogen Helium A er BBN 75 H and 25 He He 3He 1H Most He forms here not in stars N0 stable nuclei April 14 2003 PETROLOGY 310 Metamorphic Lecture 19 Blueschist Facies Friday PT paths of metamorphic rocks and their tectonic environments readings B 564576 582586 600604 Y 187216 blueschist facies why distinguish from greenschist facies blueschists higher P generally lower T different assemblages in greywackes and metabasalts Figs 1827 1829 greenschist facies albiteepidotechloritecalciteiquartz lower pressure blueschist facies glaucophanelawsonitejadeitearagoniteiquartz higher pressure important blueschist minerals aragonite rare in Franciscan Fm CA S Greece W Crete N Turkey parts of Indonesia pyroxenes includingjadeite formulae omphacite ca Di50Jd50 lawsonite quotanorthite2H20quot actually CaAl28i207OH2H20 nearly pure a little Fe3Al SrCa sodic amphiboles including glaucophane have extensive MgFe2 and AlFe3 exchange Na2Mg3AI28i3022OH2 Na2Fe23AI28i3022OH2 Na2Mg3Fe32Si3022OH2 Na2Fe23Fe32Si3022OH2 glaucophane ferroglaucophane magnesioriebeckite riebeckite DHZZB Fig 367 intermediate solid solution sometimes called crossite epidote group zoisite clinozoisite epidote Ca2AlFe3AI28i3O12OH pumpellyite Ca2MgFe2AlFe3Al4Si5023OH32H20 extensive MgFe2 and AlFe3 exchange on bracketed sites chlorite extensive MgFe2 some AlFe3 exchange MgFe25XAlFe3XSi4XAIXO10OH3 muscovite to phengite ss K2A4Si5AI2020OH4 to K2AlFe33MgFe2Si7A020OH4 phengite stable at high P but phase equilibria still not well established paragonite quotNamuscovitequot Na2Al4Si5AI2020OH4 common in some blueschists rare in others stilpnomelane complex KMgFeAl silicate hydrate resembles biotite optically common in blueschists important reactions in blueschists calcite aragonite at P gt 5 kbar at 300 C aragonite backreacts to calcite during uplift except when rocks are cold lt200 C dry Fig 1833 albite jadeite quartz requires 810 kbar at ZOO300 C applies to jadeitebearing blueschists some Franciscan Cyclades ls Greece Corsica laumontite lawsonite quartz water at P gt 3 kbar and ZOO300 C separates lower P facies rocks zeolite prehnitepumpellyite facies from blueschists albite lawsonite paragonite zoisite quartz water jadeite lawsonite paragonite zoisite quartz water these two reactions located at 810 kbar 350450 C separate lower T lawsonite blueschists from higher T epidote blueschists glaucophane stability not well established quotsimplequot reaction in system NCMASH glaucophane lawsonite albite clinochlore clinozoisite quartz water 5Na2Mg3Alzsi3022OH2 12CaAl28i207OH2H20 10NaAlSi3OB 3Mg5Al28i3O10OH3 6Ca2Al3Si3O12OH 7Si02 14H20 provides reaction for greenschists vs blueschists located at 68 kb at 300 C Evans 1990 position will depend on MgFe2 and AlFe3 solid solutions in glaucophane chlorite epidote results of thermobarometry in blueschists 512 kb ZOO450 C Tectonic Implications of Blueschists subducted slabs as refrigerator depends on rate of subduction distance from spreading ridge and on time before subduction moves outboard problem for continentcontinent collision ccc metamorphism during subduction prob before collision Tethyan Alps to Burma blueschists all in ccc older blueschists eclogites also associated with 39ccc39s


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