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Clin Exp Ath Train A

by: Dudley Huel

Clin Exp Ath Train A AT 200

Dudley Huel
GPA 3.81


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dudley Huel on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AT 200 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/231570/at-200-university-of-michigan in Athletic Training at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Nov 21 2003 Mineralogy 231 Lecture 32 alteration minerals kaolinite pyrophyllite talc serpentine Monday schistrnakers micas and chlorites readings N 244252 K 464469 473 534541 DHZ 279326332343 basic structure of sheet silicates hexagonal net of silica tetrahedra 75 of O in structure sharing vertices Fig 112f compare with pyroxenesring silicates 50 amphiboles 625 framework silicates 100 flawed logic IV Si us replaced by IV Al in most amphiboles sheet silicates framework silicates octahedral sheet ihterlayered with tetrahedral sheet OH sites in between sheets large cation sites between sheets for some sheet silicates all sheet silicates have basal 001 cleavage most have negative optical sign low 2V alteration processes marked by fluid flow through rocks minerals altered to hydrous phases alteration zones often associated with ore deposits solutions undersaturated in alkalis remove them from rocks and make aluminous sheet silicates caused by reactions ofthe form feldspars silica H sheet silicates K Na Ca2 TO structures one octahedral 0 layer brucite Mg3OH5 or gibbsite Al2OH5 one tetrahedral T layer Si205 sheet Fig 133 three layers of anions for two layers of cations Fig 131 combined thickness is 7 A for 001 layer XRD peaks are 7 A 001 35 A 002 23 A 003 etc kaolinite and serpentine related by 3Mg 2Al trioctahedral brucite layer vs dioctahedral gibbsite layer Fig 132 substitution requires one vacancy in brucite layer to form gibbsite layer Fig 132 TO T structures sandwich of two tetrahedral sites and one octahedral site Fig 133 both sides of octahedral sheet have apical oxygens Fig 131 includes pyrophyllite and talc combined thickness is about 9 A for 001 XRD peaks are 9 A 001 45 A 002 3 A 003 etc serpentine Mg3Si205OH4 X ca L to 001 length slow low RI low birefringence Fig on p 239 sometimes a little Fe in serpentine Fe endmember is chamosite in low grade BlFs three polymorphs antigorite chrysotile lizardite mismatch in T and 0 sheets leads to curving of structure structure either rolls up into tube or like a rolled map chrysotile producing fibers Fig 135a or T 0 sites flip to maintain sheet antigorite Fig 13 5b or T sites distorted into near triangle Fig 135c transmission electron microscope TEM images of serpentine K Fig 1138 1139 serpentine fibers used for the common product asbestos Fig 136 K Fig 1251 1252 has insulating properties now removed from most buildings for fear of lung cancer fears overstated and overlegislated unless the serpentine asbestos also has fibrous amphiboles compared w talc Mg3Si4O10OH2 serpentine has more H20 therefore stable at much lower T serpentine forms at low T 200500 C and talc at higher T 500700 C kaolinite AIZSi205OH4 usually submicroscopic forms earthy mixtures found in bauxites low RI very low biref l seldom have large enough crystals for a figure Fig on p 239 can form platelets that are up to 1 pm across K Fig 1253 Lecture 3 Data Analysis Tutorials and other Training Materi Bruce Ravel s nutes un using FEFFIT fur data analysis tures un data analysis EXCURVBB s anng FCA With other methu d5 chantler Uni Melbuume un the absulute deta39mmatmn ufxrray absurptlun Programs er Su thre catalug Athena and Art FEFFIT DL EXCUR WinXAs emis and IFEFFIT V shape a Frequency s bondl gh scatterer Phase s Amphmde a nomination nurnher rot zwerpezt yrppzmm snamanro 4 E 391 Whale szaui Enih n M 1001M a M 3quot ME ME The job ofa leastsquares tting program is to give you the best smallest deviation solution nut to give you the right solution Ifyou see something it tells you something ifyou see nothing it tells you nothing Fourier transformation can be used to visualize frequencies contributing to EXAFS 10 EWexpel aiyxpGZRllju sham k 7116 2 Aksm2kR 4 o a RaaRzag Common errors in EXAFS analysis Leastsquares minimization Fourier Filtering Resolution Iterative refinements are especially Minima give susceptible to multiple minim ver different Phosphorus r structures but mmquotg nearly identical l v arbon EXAFS 5 scattering Nfree VS Nob Nabs N 300 Ak 005 A km 15 A me2AkAR7t sum MO at 20 and 22 A give two apparently well resolved peaks in FT a 40 Fitting each ltered peak gives the appearance of M0 and MS EXAFS a M70 Eak Mrs meak an a E u A A A A V a ajvvvv u 10 g A l 139 E5 VVVVV a 00 1 Z V MM 6 W335 m 2 2 W Further explorations E of the difficulty of resolution is g g multlple mmima nZ k i 4 013 A Rimsnx m mam N and 67 2 quotW RandE Analon Frankel 72 EXAFS Data Collec on and Analysis Workshop 4 a s HA5 Fxt Results Hnw m mndel metal Pt fml data am a 5 mm u may mm mm nnnwlz mm NS g mm mm mum mm mm k n a k M E phyacally 10 b I 0 t x mm xsm2br C3k3Ek Vlhntcame 2m n I i x m b mam mu K a maxim 4 n rcmelmmthh m P g maxmm a 1 n n a 1 m a a a 1M t f ltkgte W m 1 ssnmmmy k a m w 1 Wu m xsmzkAc k3 500 m m u 3 3 Hnwm break Lhe nmelaunr m NS KM W a m quot 1kk 392 f kle 2 smZkr c3k35k I om Fumble mm n wwwmnmm ammupladaursetmdsjm Wtwnables are m expecudm ssnu mm quotmm quotwas charmed mgmmg change at a exemmpumw m m 3quot quot x magmas m m AE N U2 9 m mm mm m lyclusclm am mm g W mm 1 Debyetzmpumxe mmm 03 a of 033 an mm As abtmealtmuah agt man an mm EX 9 D an I 5quot 39 a quot 2mwaexplta am an 3 Omewanmawrhmw m mum nnnnnzx mu mm mm A Thnmalexpanam mm Aquot W Hm 5 Sn msmamemmnmmxm MDS a lshell m the nannpamcles EXAFS Camdnmuannunbensnwwg essedamahle Hnw m mndel XAFS data m nannpamcles7 Avva humledge ax awmkng hypn39hessmus exxs thz ma appmxnna aam a s smm be equaltathatmnfad EXAFS mhexwxse m kansfexahhtyafamphtuddphase wxll m1 waxk x ED xs xedtabe equal on mmnmm EXAFS 1 Hemwphzncal 4 mm ax 4 szs manx wannamr WWW umnamsmss l u smmepammmm a 3 333g 33 a Damsmmmm m W awn a W an 2 saucasmauocasmam quot W7 7 ml mum mama mumm an mmxm Wm Mummmm gquot 7 d Summary However ability to reliably determine A case study in data underdetermination ClarkBaldwin et al quotThe limitations of Xray absorption spectroscopy for determining the structure of zinc sites in proteins When is a tetrathiolate not a tetrathiolate J Am Chem Soc 1998 120 8401 8409 geometry is limited g a a g S o 2 E 2 AR H TN 0 Nc7T c1 0 o R O 3 m 02 N E f R2 L1 SR Z 3914 quotSR E L2 33 Zn EXAF S is remarkably kt insensitive to 5 changes in ligation m E D Z i 10 7 ZHSNZ 1s 3 5 5 RuA XANES spectra are sensitive to ligation but show greater variation between different compounds than with changes in ligation Nonnahmd Absorption Jg Peptide Nmma Absorption cruxg Z Em SWEV Inorganic u 1 955m 9m 9st 959m 97mm 1 9 1 955m 9m 9st 959m 97cm Ensr Ne ZnS and ZnN EXAF S signals are approximately out of phase ZnS ZnN k3 EXAFS O 1 The observed EXAF S for mixed SN sites is dominated by ZnS scattering ZnS ZnN ZnSN 5 2 2 Q 0 mg 107 1J 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 8 1 1 14 HAquot One solution is to measure data over wide krange ZnSZN2 inorganic High resolution EXAF S is required to reliably distinguish ZnS from ZnN ZnS ZnN ZnS N 5 z z E a m 04 E Ak2714 a m 7 757 Ak2715 A m k 7107 O 15 3 45 6 7 5 R a A ilJ l l l l l l NoteiARN025an2Ak025AaAkminNGS 2 4 SW 1 1 14 and even with high resolution data It is possible to S N extremely high signalnoise ratios are required reliably distinguish Z ZS NH39H to detect ZnN in the presence of ZnS between Z1134 5 S 3 s a a D ZnS3N and ZnSZN2 mu Peptide 1fvar1able para 39 m meters are carefully 3 4 53553 3 9 LL g controlled m I ZnS N ZnS N an Note that t quahty r M always improves for Eisu mixed ligation fits 4m Inorganic 2 4 8 71 ClarkrBaldWm K at if Am Chem 06 1598 kA 120 84U1784U9 an 40 5 an 7 m an ID sulfur ThI h ld ha tl39 t39 In add1tlon to Pi 62 depends on 11gatlon es 0 energy c nges apparen lga Ion 100 10 2115 ZnsaN S ZnS NZ 2 A 80 3990 6 x 4 w 70 39 o 39 50 Calibrated E0 0 so i i i i 39 39 4 5 8 12 14 15 10 M 60 smfm 5 eV is enough to change a sulfur into a nitrogen Distinction between S and N rests largely on phase which depends on EU As anS anN 2 4 5 x 10 12 MAquot XANES spectra contain useful information regarding structure Quantitative comparisons eg titration requires accurate normalization Correction for various artifacts self absorption requires accurate normalization Common normalization procedures we e developed for extracting EXAFS and do not necessarily work well for XANES Normalization Schemes r m Conventional in MBACK m D 5 Conventional normalization is sensitive to range of data MB ACK shows only slight sensitivity for EmaX2 150 eV above edge Absorption chg Q Energy 5V R changes is 4 possible difference specta 7 should 2311 be the same unvemmna EVEWHEV With new normalization difference signal is detectable Dependence of XANES on Oxidation State Normalize d Absorpu39 on o 6535 6555 6575 6595 Energy eV Edge energy is poorly defined dAbsdE I39IIz m I will y VImar 6 mm mm WWW WW lquot mi m g 5 gm WWW m m mwwmmw w u uucunu WWW 53mm Em NSISontUPvp


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