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Clin Exp Ath Train C

by: Dudley Huel

Clin Exp Ath Train C AT 300

Dudley Huel
GPA 3.81


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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dudley Huel on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AT 300 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/231568/at-300-university-of-michigan in Athletic Training at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
ELA gERS M Dunn Hum MT 0 mum RESS REVIEW Wm mmme s m Moetman Flanders quot quot quot must choose innovation u m mm m mum w mmg umwmr M wmwm 5mm mg mm m mmapmmwmm Emwmmmmwgmm mmmmmswumm xv m meg m mm m H mmwm um mm Mm ma 1 mwxmmmm u 5 w a v w m mm m m um me mum maimuu imso 71 km w M Mm mm M v v F semedmxk mm mm mmmmmmmx Mummmd mm omnibusz wa SOCIAL POLICY SOCIAL HOUSING Dutch becomes condition for rentmg soc1al housmg THE RULE IS AIMED MAINLY AT IMMIGRANTS TO ENCOURAGE THEM TO LEARN DUTCH AS PART OF THEIR INTEGRATION O n 2 December the Flemish Gov ernment approved the draft decree for a new Flemish housing code In it Housing Minister Marino Keulen VLD sets out the basic rules for the renting of social housing The Flemish Parliament will vote on the decree next year once the draft has passed the test of the Council of State The most notable requirement for being eligible for social housing is a basic knowledge of Dutch Anyone without this basic knowledge must be prepared to take an appropriate Dutch language course The rule is aimed mainly at immi grants to encourage them to learn Dutch as part of their integration The housing code also introduces a twoyear trial contract for renting social housing Anyone who does not behave and observe the rules of the house can lose their home It is also important that local authorities are giv en the possibility of aiming rented housing more directly at specific target groups or of achieving a social mix in residential districts The tenants associations find the obligation for nonDutchspeakers to take Dutch lessons a step too far They also believe tenants may not be evicted during the trial period without a court ruling According to Iozef De Witte Director of the Centre for Equal Oppor tunities and the Fight against Racism Centrum voor Geliikheid van Kansen en Racismebestriiding the measure is exceeding its objective to improve the quality of life in certain residential dis tricts At the same time the problem is not so much a lack of knowledge of Dutch as it is noise from neighbours refuse and the poor condition of the housing De Witte also warns that the language requirement will only further heighten the discrimination that already surrounds the renting of hous mg Minister Keulen took the inspiration for his new housing code from the prac tice of the Antwerp social housing com pany De Goede Woning FF GUY FRANSEN DE STANDAARD 6DECEMBER Director Benny Forier says he does not understand the political carryon of re cent days because it misses the crux of the matter As a social housing com pany our job involves more than just putting bricks on top of each other and making houses available Policy ex pects us to also contribute to society and to the quality of life of our com plexes To be able to live together you have to be able to talk Our tenants are obliged to clean their hallway If one of them isn t doing so then we expect them to discuss it among themselves If that s not possi ble because of language problems then they come to us the landlord Asking for our help often causes more bad blood among those we have to repri mand than if they can sort it out among themselves The intervention of the landlord just makes the situa tion worse De Goede Woning also organises intro ductory days with coffee and cakes when a new or renovated building is opened Forier It s a good start for the residents but if you have to employ two or three interpreters on such days you re not really doing your job prop erly Officially the company can only com municate in Dutch Folders on fire pre vention are only available in Dutch A case of CO poisoning in AntwerpKiel appeared to be the result of the fact that the resident had not understood the language says Forier W WMARINOKEULENBE SOCIAL HOUSING Franco hones react furious y to Flemish housmg code FF EDITOR The draft for a new housing code from the Flemish Government which im poses knowledge of Dutch as a require ment on social tenants has not gone down very well at all with Francoph one politicians There even appears to be a common front of Francophone politicians in the making who intend to fight the hous ing code politically and legally The MinisterPresident of the Walloon Re gion Elio Di Rupo PS believes the housing code is aimed at foreigners and Francophones He called the code a dis criminatory policy of exclusion and wants to invoke a conflict of interests over the code and put the problem on the agenda of the Consultative Com mittee between the governments Walloon Housing Minister Andr An toine CDHJ has already announced that he will use all legal means avail able to oppose the measure According to him the measure is unconstitutional and goes against basic European val ues Finally Marie Arena PS Minister President of the French Community feels that the housing code also dis criminates against Francophones in the Flemish periphery around Brussels She announced she would take all measures available to her to defend the Francophones in the Flemish munici palities around Brussels Flemish Housing Minister Keulen VLDJ is not impressed by the protest and does not intend amending the housing code The Francophones can only invoke a conflict of interests when the draft is discussed in the Flemish Parliament says his spokes person What is more according to the Minister s office Belgian Francopho nes have sufficient knowledge of Dutch to be exempt According to constitutional specialist Paul Van Orshoven the measures can easily be defended De Standaard 5 December In the first place because it is not a measure that concerns merely French or Germanspeakers but all nonDutchspeakers Also he says there is no question of the princi ple of equality being violated because the government is employing objective and pertinent criteria focus on FLANDERS 0 3 December 9 December 2005 0 Number 46 POLITICS AND JUSTICE n Ghent the Flemish Liberals of the VLD kicked off a series of confer ences on the hardworking Fleming The party wants to hold a total of four conferences on Four pillars for the future each of which will address a topic of interest to hardworking Flem ings Those who work should be better rewarded was the topic on 4 December The other conference days will be devoted to commuting creativity and the homework combination respec tively Party Chairman Bart Somers was especially pleased that there was no sign of t e many internal rows between party agents in recent months The conference also signalled the start of the campaign for the local elections of October 2006 FF VLD becomes the party of the hardworking l eming PARTY CHAIRMAN BART SOMERS WAS ESPECIALLY PLEASED THAT THERE WAS NO SIGN OF THE MANY INTERNAL ROWS BETWEEN PARTY AGENTS Opinion WIMWINCKELMANS HET NIEUWSBLAD 5DECEMBER People laughed long and hard over Lit tle Bart Somers the lightweight that chairman was allowed to become in the shadow of the real Liberal greats Ver hofstadt Dewael De Gucht but also De Decker ed Somers was not taken seriously had to thrash about to survive in a party torn apart by internal rows Now the greats have seen what they cre ated with their constant wrangling it appears that Somers was one of the few who was still concerned with his party s Liberal line And that pays off The results cannot yet be seen in the opinion polls but internally the Violins are tuned to the line that the VLD must be the party of the hardworking Fleming the modern dualincome couples who are the engine of our economy with thanks to the new party strategist behind the screens Fons Van Dij ck who until last year was still active for the Flemish Socialists A new stepping stone has been found with which the VLD can again appeal to a wide range of voters What were the people for the Flemish Socialists under Stevaert is gradually being eclipsed by the hard working Fleming of the VLD and the families of the CDedV All these are paraphrases for the broad middle class es who will be dished up one tempting offer after the other over the next few months tax cuts ways of combining work and family service cheques for childcare you name it The local elec tions are on the way WWWVLDBE ast week Flemish MP Iohan Sauwens announced he wanted to use the parliamentary discussion of the new Municipalities Act to question compulsory voting By so doing Sauwens wanted to put a stop to dis satisfied voting I ve had enough of politics as it only leads to unbridled populism But it appears he spoke out of turn His party the CDELV does not want to put the abolition of compulso ry voting on the political agenda at least not before the local elections of October next year Up to now only the VLD Spirit and Groen were in favour of the abolition of compulsory voting The CD ampLV and SPA were and still are in favour of retaining it The Liberal VLD does however support a debate in the Flemish Parliament FF FILIP ROGIERS DE MORGEN 3 DECEMBER Some time ago we decided with the parliamentary groups and the party to discuss the matter thoroughly says Peter Poulussen spokesman for CDSLV Chairman Io Vandeurzen But ELECTORAL LAW CDampV also wants compulsory voting in 2006 the arrangement was also not to do it now a year before the local elections For the CDSLV now is not the time to be changing the rules in a rush Also there has been no consultation on this matter with the coalition partners in the Flemish Government Up to now only the VLD Spirit and Groen were for the abolition of com pulsory voting The CDampV and SPA were and still are in favour of retain ing it Like the CDSLV the fact that compulsory voting has only made the Vlaams Belang even bigger is no reason to change the rules as far as SPA Chairman Iohan Vande Lanotte is con cerned Compulsory voting is a princi ple for us Until further notice it s still the best way to make the political rep resentation of the people as democratic as possible If you don t like the result then that s a problem but no reason to abandon your principles Vande Lanot te also sees no reason whatsoever to open the debate over voting rights compulsory voting in the Flemish Parliament let alone in the Flemish Government l Adoption rights for gay and lesbian couples approved in the chamber FF EDITORS The bill tabled by SPA MP Guy Swen nen which gives gay and lesbian cou ples adoption rights was approved in the Chamber on 1 December The SPA Spirit PS Ecolo and NVA voted for the bill the CDH and Vlaams Be lang against Most MPs belonging to the Christian Democratic CD V voted against a substantial majority from the Flemish Liberal VLD were in favour and opinion was divided in its French speaking sister party the MR The act still has to pass through the Senate before it comes into force Ob servers are assuming that the pro ma jority will be much narrower there In principle the Senate can only evoke the bill for amendment In that case it has to return to the Chamber where it risks being put on the back burner WWWFEDPARLBE focus on FLANDERS 0 3 December 9 December 2005 0 Number 46 o POLITICS EDUCATION AND ECONOMY w Verhofstadt threatens to veto Blarr ACCORDING TO VERHOFSTADT THE PUBLIC WANTS A STRONG EUROPE FF EDITOR Iust before the decisive discussions on the European multiyear budget for 20072013 Premier Verhofstadt came out with some surprisingly strong words at his party the VLD s confer ence He warned that a budget that dropped further to 102 to 103 of gross domestic product would be unac ceptable to Belgium Verhofstadt is thus opposing Tony Blair s proposal to accept an extremely frugal multiyear budget of 103 According to Verhofstadt the public wants a strong Europe that tackles problems such as crossborder crime or terrorism But also a Europe that can adopt a strong foreign policy that has its own defence and that has an eco nomic answer to the Asian boom Last week Verhofstadt presented his mani festo The United States of Europe in which he calls for greater European collaboration He believes a wall of si lence and shame was erected after the failed European referendums in the Netherlands and France He feels the analysis that people no longer want to hear about Europe is wrong For many novoters there was precisely too little Europe after all there was no socio economic policy He is therefore proposing taking a new step in terms of socioeconomic policy with the cur rent eurozone countries The book opens with a quote from Winston Churchill and has already been translated into English French and German Flemish education will soon be struggling with a surplus of teachers THE SURPLUS IS PARTLY DUE TO THE INCREASED RETIREMENT AGE ver the next four years there will be a surplus of teachers in Plan ders according to the Iabour Market Report 2005 of the Department of Edu cation This shows that between 2005 and 2008 there will be a surplus of around 7000 teachers That surplus is partly due to the rise in the retirement age which was increased from 55 to 58 under the former Education Minister Marleen Van deipoorten VLD In addition more and more employees from other sectors are training to be teachers FF PIETER LESAFFER DE STANDAARD 8DECEMBER According to the report government campaigns such as Word leerkracht Become a Teacher and the now abol ished replacement pool also con tributed to the rise in the number of teachers This global reserve of staff does not mean that schools are not still having trouble finding teachers for certain subjects Not all vacancies are being filled for Catholic religion Dutch French mathematics nursing and me chanics Cities such as Antwerp and Brussels are also not finding it as easy to attract teachers In the capital in 2004 around half of primary school teachers threw in the towel within five years In Brus sels secondary schools that figure was as high as 64 around the same as in previous ears Flemish education is also experiencing a significant outflow of young teach ers The data from 2004 confirm this trend One in three teachers in sec ondary education leaves within five years In lower schools that is approxi mately one in five A survey shows that in particular un certainty over a permanent appoint ment is what plays tricks on these young people Often this permanent appointment is a long time coming And for new teachers that was pre cisely one of the reasons for choosing education In addition the pressure of work also drives these young people out of education From I Ianuary the Education Minister Frank Vanden broucke SPA is releasing around 3000 experienced teachers to assist their young colleagues These mentors must keep the young people interested in a career in the classroom DREDCINC Dredger DEME recruits 220 people 0 ver the next few months the Flem ish dredging company DEME is taking on 150 site workers and 70 crew members for its worldwide dredging activities The company s order book is growing steadily On 2 December DEME signed its eighth contract in Spain and its 55th worldwide In total DEME employs 2600 people 750 of them in Belgium FF GAZET VAN ANTWERPEN 7 DECEMBER Since 2000 DEME has invested an av erage of 80 million euros each year in the construction of new dredgers As the fleet expanded so the order book grew Last Friday DEME landed an other contract for 40 million euros to develop the Spanish port of Sagunto the group s 55th contract worldwide All of which has been translated in re cent months into 180 mainly Belgian jobs and at least 220 more next year Permanent contracts says Personnel Director Patrick Demoor The main problem remains the recruitment of ships crews as too few young people are choosing a career at sea WWWDEMEBE focus on FLANDERS 0 3 December 9 December 2005 0 Number 46 ECONOMY AND MOBILITY he restructuring plan of Belgian Railways NMBS for its logistical subsidiary ABX is not government sup port and is therefore in line with Euro pean rules according to a ruling by the European Commission The NMBS may inject the planned 175 million euros into its German and Dutch sub sidiaries The only condition for the capital increase is that ABX comes into private ownership within twelve months That too will happen Next year ABX Germany is being sold to the British investment fund 3i An agree ment in principle already exists in this connection ABX Francewas sold to the local management at the beginning of this year Without the approval of the capital increase ABX Germany and the NMBS would probably have gone bank rupt and the question is whether 3i would have still been interested in a takeover The value of ABX is current Europe approves ABX restructuring OVER THE YEARS THE ENTIRE ABX ADVENTURE HAS COST THE NMBS AROUND 12 BILLION EUROS but that amount does not include debts De Standaard 7 December In 2004 the group made an operational profit for the first time against a turnover of 25 billion euros Over the years the entire ABX adventure has cost the NMBS around 12 billion euros FF GUY MEEUSSEN DE TIJD 7 DECEMBER According to the Commission this fi nancial injection is acceptable because ABX is once again viable and activities have been significantly reduced mainly in France and Germany The Commission is only attaching one condition to its approval ABX Logis tics must be entirely privately owned within twelve months The buyer must pay the market price and invest heavily in ABX In March NMBS Hold ing concluded an agreement in princi ple with the British investment group The agreement in principle and the fact that ABX has reduced its staff lev els by 40 undoubtedly won over the Commission The future owner of ABX is undertaking to keep the head quarters of ABX in Belgium for the first three years The sale is expected to be completed in March 2006 Apart from the restructuring plan ABX also received around 126 million euros from the NMBS According to the Commission this contribution is also OK and does not fall under the la bel of government support This means that the EU Commission will not de mand any money back from ABX The total amount involved is therefore 302 million euros Had Europe demanded money back million euros into its subsidiary in the form of takeover costs capital in creases claims and reductions in value A line is now being drawn under all this WWWNMBsBE WWWABXLOGISTICSCOM N ext year the Belgian economy will experience greater growth than the eurozone as a whole claims the Nationale Bank Governor Guy Quaden is predicting growth of 22 in 2006 compared with 19 for the euro zone This year s growth of 14 is in line with the average for the eurozone Families real available income will also rise next year to 18 so families will also spend more 16 while saving will stagnate at 123 of avail able income Only employment growth seems not to be profiting from the eco nomic growth Only an increase of 05 in 2006 compared with 06 in 2004 and 07 in 2005 or 74000 new jobs over three years Unfortunately this is not enough to force the 84 unemployment level down since the working population will also continue to increase In this connection Quaden expressed his particular concern over National Bank calls for more competitive strength in Belgian businesses the worsening of Belgian firms com petitive strength The Central Business Council Centrale Raad voor het Be driifsleven earlier reported that the increase in labour costs this and next yearwould be 2 higher than in neigh bouring countries The lapse is down to higherthanexpected inflation and wage indexing while neighbouring countries have moderated their wages Quaden is therefore calling on the social partners to scale down the wage handicap by negotiating a competition pactlFF Opinion WOUTERVERVENNE 39 DE TIJD 39 6 DECEMBER One of our national symbols the link ing of wages to consumer prices is therefore once again up for discussion ly estimated at 300 to 400 million euros 3i over the sale of ABX l ECONOMIC POLICY Guy Quaden Governor of the Nationale Bank called yesterday for the wage index to be modified to pro tect the competitive strength ofBelgian businesses A generalisation of agree ments on nominal wages must help pre vent the further derailment of wages It is not the first time the indexing of wages has been up for discussion Each time inflation rises or competitive strength comes under pressure voices call for the indexing mechanism to be changed or even abolished And yet the Governor s warning is sig nificant If wages rise more quickly than in neighbouring countries many jobs will be lost Negotiations on nomi nal wages have the advantage that Bel gium will tailor its policy more to neighbouring countries Wage restraint on the part of employees is required to restore our competitive strength but it is not enough Employ ers also have to make more of an effort The Nationale Bank announced that businesses are spendingmore and more money on training their staff Perma nent training is needed to keep people in work longer WWWNBBBE focus on FLANDERS 0 3 December 9 December 2005 0 Number 46 ECONOMY Belgian capital market completes strong year THE LISTING OF THE FLEMISH CABLE AND TELECOMS OPERATOR TELENET AND THE HIGHVOLTAGE NETWORK MANAGER ELIA ACCOUNTED FOR THE LIONS SHARE With five introductions on the reg ulated market of Euronext Brus sels four capital increases and five bids for listed companies 2005 was a strong year on the Belgian capital market according to the annual review of Fortis Bank In total 18 billion euros in fresh capital was contributed The listing of the Flemish cable and telecoms operator Telenet and the highvoltage network manager Elia accounted for the lion s share of the money contributed FF PASCAL DEN DO0VEN DE STANDAARD 7DECEMBER Max ladot Head of Business Banking at Fortis said yesterday he expected three to four introductions in 2006 But I don t see any major introduc tions happening That may have to do with the availability of cheap credit or the option of selling the company in its entirety Laminates group Unilin for example opted for a sale instead of ap plying for an official quotation This trend will apparently also con tinue this year Venture capital funds are sitting on considerable funds and the banks continue to be lavish with credit The mergers and acquisitions market also continues to do well for What is striking is that a great man small Walloon and Brussels companies have recently discovered the nonregu lated market and are getting them selves listed on the free market This year the segment acquired a further seven companies Up to now it was smaller stock market houses that were interested in this market because of the limited critical mass Next year Euronext Brussels will also add the French model of Alternext Al ternext is a stock market segment with a minimum of rules aimed at medium sized companies In France this model works well Via Aim Alternative In vestment Market the London stock exchange has a market with few rules Bel ians are the wealt iest in Europe FF EDITOR According to the halfyearly invest ment barometer of the research and consultancy agency GfK Worldwide Belgians are Europe s wealthiest citi zens 31 of Belgians say they possess more than 50000 euros not including property In the spring of last year that figure was just 23 The Belgians have thus overtaken the Swiss GfK attrib utes the rise to the fact that last year many Belgians brought money back from abroad during the fiscal amnesty Another part of the explanation is that the Belgian stock market has per formed very well over the past two years In recent years Belgians have in vested extremely diligently says GfK Director Mark Hofmans in Knack 7 December particularly in property shares and stock funds After all the alternatives such as savings accounts and bonds are still producing hardly an returns at all Click funds with guaranteed capital in particular are very popular here Hofmans attributes this country s wel fare partly to the excellent perfor mance of the Belgian economy There is however a flipside namely the everwidening gulf between rich and poor 15 of Belgians and 8 of Flem ings say they have not been able to put any money aside in the past six months A further indication of this is that the number of bad payers is also on the rise The difference between Flanders and the rest of Belgium is marked Almost twice as many Flemings 38 possess more than 50000 euros compared with only 20 of Francophones and that also includes the wealthy inhabi tants of Brussels 84 of Flemish 1 1 1 1 have savings deposits compared with only 53 of Francoph ones Financially and economically they are two different countries con WWWIGFKIBE the same reasons I Belgian IPOs introductions on Euronext Brussels Regulated market Free market GALAI AGOS 2260 I ROXIMEDLA I 52 VGEN 3450 EIBEL 05 1 59498 NEWTREE 150 TELENET 105986 N1 TILL ZETES INDUSTRIES 6136 NE 21 1111 RIYN39NTNC TAL 177230 VAL s39r LAMBERT LNT L STILL RUNNING SODII LAN STTLL RUNN39JNG AL 53 cludes Hofmans Capital increases in million euro 15 00 MITISKA 1200 I ROI I LAREX I 03 SI ECl39OR STILL RUNNING Bids for listed companies in million euro Target Buyer amount paid SOLVUS UNTTED SERVICES GROUI Docpmm MATRrx r ARORATORIF 15791 VTRADF RANK 2251 ELECTRABEL SUEZ 1063483 TELINDUS BELGACOM THY RIYN39NTNC SOURCE DS INFOCRAFIEK focus on FLANDERS 0 3 December 9 December 2005 0 Number 46 MEDIA AND CULTURE FF EDITOR On the evening of Thursday I Decem ber televisionwatching Flanders chose Father Damiaan as the Greatest Bel giant This missionary who in the 19th century gave up all his worldly goods to go and live among the lepers on the island of Molokai Hawaiian islands and ultimately died of the disease him self is an icon of charity for Flemings In contrast to our large neighbours the United Kingdom France and Ger many who all chose heads of state Churchill De Gaulle and Adenauer respectively Flemings chose someone RADIO AND TELEVISION POLL Father Damian is the greatest Belgian THE MISSIONARY WHO WENT TO LIVE AMONG THE LEPERS ON THE ISLAND OF MOLOKAI IS AN ICON OF CHARITY FOR FLEMINGS who could have been their nextdoor neighbourt According to former CDBLV Chairman Herman Van Rompuy the choice says a lot about our national character Flemings do not appreciate grandilo quence or theorisingt They prefer someone who does real things for peo ple in an inconspicuous fashion The ten candidates for Greatest Bel gian were each defended by a Flemish TV celebrity For Damiaan that advo cate was Ief Vermassen who in his de fence emphasised the rebel character of Damiaan who was much more con cerned with the living conditions of the lepers than with converting them to Christianity Witness the obstinacy with which he disregarded most of his clerical superiors instructions and ad vicet According to Etienne Vermeersch moral philosopher and figurehead of the Flemish freethinkers there is no need to look for a Catholic lobby be hind Damiaan s selection Gazer van Antwerpen 3 DecemberJI Flemings still attach considerable importance to peo ple who selflessly devote themselves to their fellow man says Vermeerscht Also according to most commenta tors Belgium does not have any great statesmen who would be eligible for the title Damiaan won it in the first round with 40 of the votes com pared with 18 for Paul Ianssen the founder of Ianssen Pharmaceutica and cyclist Eddy Merckx with 13I WWWIDEGROOTSTEBELGIBE he Groeninge Museum in Bruges is exhibiting sixty drawings and a dozen panel paintings by the Flemish Primitives The drawings in particular are hidden treasures In the entire world only around 600 such drawings from the fifteenth centu have sur Staatliche Kunstsammlungen State Art Collections of the German city of Dresden which house the collections of the dukes of Saxony From the Six teenth century on these dukes collect ed paintings and drawings by the Flem ish Primitives FF BERT POPELIER DE TIJD 7 DECEMBER The Flemish Primitives regardless of where they came from worked in Bruges Ghent Brussels and Leuvent They found the breeding ground for their Gothic art in these flourishing mediaeval cities and worked in the artistic tradition of their predecessors EXHIBITION Drawings of Flemish Primi tives in Groeninge museum ALL OF THEM COME FROM THE STAATLICHE KUNSTSAMMLUNCEN STATE ART COLLECTIONS OF THE GERMAN CITY OE DRESDEN WHICH HOUSE THE COLLECTIONS OF THE DUKES OF SAXONY the Flemish book illuminatorst The Flemish Primitives never intended their drawings to be independent works of art Nor are the sheets signedt Often they were drafts or preliminary studies for paintingst We know from documents that some Flemish Primi tives such as Gerard David stored their drawings carefully They served as a basis for later compositions and as a store of motifst In a painter s studio the drawings of the master could also be used as models by his employees Even in the fifteenth century the sheets were seen as a major source of working capitalt Misuse by third par ties even led to civil action Because scholars want to do away with the nineteenthcentury name Flemish Primitives the drawings were labelled Old Dutch Yet more discoveries await the visitor Several of the drawings contain sym bolic representations of monsters and planets Representations of planets are fairly uncommon among the Flemish Primitives who mainly dealt with reli gious subjects The sheets were proba bly produced around 1410 by a Franco Flemish artistt It shows that some Flemish Primitives did indeed have contact with Italy where such repre sentations under the influence of the emerging Renaissance were in vogue Perhaps the drawings were produced by a travelling artist who copied mu rals in Italy Several other drawings from the Dresden collection show that in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the Flemish Primitives did not limit themselves to religious subjectst Hunt ing scenes and love gardens can be seen in Bruges For the first time the reverse of some of the drawings can also be seen and these reveal somewhat unexpected motifst On the reverse of an uplifting scene of a Madonna with Child an important drawing after a lost original by Rogier van der Weyden porno graphic subjects are depicted It was evidently not unusual for some pupils in an artist s studio to put their sexual fantasies down on paper despite their master having given them the task of copying a crucifixion for example The young Flemish Primitives were not all that devout after all OLDDUTCH MASTERWORKS FROM DRESDEN VAN EYCK TO BOSCH UNTIL 26 FEBRUARY 2006 WWWMUSE ABRUGGEIBE focus on FLANDERS 0 3 December 9 December 2005 0 Number 46


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