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Clin Exp Ath Train A

by: Dudley Huel

Clin Exp Ath Train A AT 200

Dudley Huel
GPA 3.81


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Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dudley Huel on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AT 200 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/231570/at-200-university-of-michigan in Athletic Training at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Today s Outline 0 The subject of pragmatics o Lehnert s simple story 0 Some speci c problems Reference resolution and Edinburgh Map Task A text from the Brown Corpus Anaphor resolution Coherence Planning and text coherence a recipe example Some discourse relations Pragmatics The Big Question 0 How do we get so much more out of a coherent extended discourse or text o Than is there explicitly 0 Speakers leave a lot out Deciding how to do this is the biggest hardest problem in NL Generation 0 Hearers have to put it back in Figuring out how to do this is the biggest hardest problem in NL Interpretation A Very Simple Story by Wendy Lehnert When the balloon touched the light bulb it broke This made the baby cry Mary gave John a dirty look and picked up the baby He shrugged and picked up the balloon o The balloon was originally in ated o The balloon broke not the light bulb o The light bulb was on o The light bulb was hot 0 The heat caused the balloon to break 0 The balloon exploded o The explosion made a loud noise 0 The baby was scared o The loud noise scared the baby 0 The baby cried because it was scared 0 Mary was mad at John 0 Mary was mad at John for making the baby cry 0 Mary communicated this to John by the way she looked at him 0 Mary picked up the baby to comfort it 0 John not the baby shrugged and picked up the balloon 0 John was not overly concerned 0 John will throw the balloon away Reference Resolution 0 This is the problem of guring out what realworld object to assign to a referring NP 0 This is not a language gt language task 0 You have to imagine a situation in which the speaker and hearer are managing a collection of objects 0 This collection is part of the common ground that is established and maintained as the discourse moves along An Example from the Edinburgh Map Task Corpus o httpwwwhcrcedacukmaptask The Map Task is a cooperative task involving two participants The two speakers sit opposite one another and each has a map which the other cannot see One speaker designated the Instruction Giver has a route marked on her map the other speaker the Instruction Follower has no route The speakers are told that their goal is to reproduce the Instruction Giver s route on the Instruction Follower s map The maps are not identical and the speakers are told this explicitly at the beginning of their rst session It is however up to them to discover how the two maps differ Sample Dialogue Fragment Stop um beside the s of Saxon Okay And have you got pelicans No No Um go down about three to four centimeters from the Saxon barn vertically downwards So I m above the rope bridge Just a bit above the rope bridge yeah Okay And then go underneath where I ve got pelicans towards the lefthand side What about the banana tree Does it Oh come before the banana tree De nitesInde nites 0 Generally and with lots of exceptions Inde nites are used to introduce a new discourse entity De nites are used to refer to a familiar discourse entity either in the CG of the discourse or the assumed general purpose CG of the speakers From the Brown Corpus Little enough joy was afforded Wright in the spring of 1925 when another destructive fire broke out at Taliesin The first news stories had it that this blaze was started by a bolt of lightning as though Miriam could call down fire from heaven like a prophet of the Old Testament A storm did take place that night and fortunately enough it included a cloudburst that helped put out the flames Later accounts blamed defective wiring for starting the fire at any rate heat grew so intense in the main part of the house that it melted the window panes and fused the K ang si pottery to cinders Wright set his loss at 200000 a figure perhaps justified by the unique character of the house that had been ruined and the faultless taste that had gone into the selection of the prints and other things that were destroyed In spite of the disaster Wright completed during this period plans for the Lake Tahoe resort in which he suggested the shapes of American Indian tepees a project of great and appropriate charm that came to nothing Amid a shortage of profitable work the memory of Albert Johnson s 20000 stood out in lonely grandeur the money had quickly melted away A series of conferences with friends and bankers began about this time and the question before these meetings was here is a man of international reputation and proved earning power how can he be financed so that he can find the work he ought to do While this was under consideration dauntless as ever Wright set about the building of Taliesin Anaphor Resolution 0 An anaphoric pronoun is one whose reference is something previously mentioned in the discourse 0 So you can resolve an anaphoric pronoun like it in it included a cloudburst by nding the NP in the text to which it is linked in this case a storm in a storm did take place that night 0 The general idea is that when a pronoun say he she or it is used anaphorically it is referring to the most salient thing in the discourse domain 0 Recency and position of the NP in its sentence are cues for salience 0 But also common sense plays a role An Example Susan met Mary She asked her a question She answered no The LappinLeass Algorithm 0 Use a saliency measure that Gives subjectposition NPs most weight Then existential predicate nominals Then direct objects Then indirect or oblique objects Then inside adverbial phrases Centering Theory 0 Developed by a number of people most of them associated with UPenn at one time or another 0 Tries to track the single most salient entity at any point in the discourse 0 Preferences are used to do this Coherence A Recipe Grated Zucchini Julia Child Scrub the zucchini under cold running water shave off the ends but do not peel Grate it and toss with the salt in the colander Let steep for a few minutes then twist by handfuls in the corner of the towel to extract excess liquid Heat the butter to foaming in the frying pan toss in the shallots or scallions then the zucchini Toss over high heat several minutes just until tender Serve as is o The coherence of this text comes mainly from the plan it is describing o The discourse tracks the temporal order of plan execution 0 There is a lot of ellipsis o The main problem in generating a good recipe from the plan itself would be deciding what to leave out Some Discourse Coherence Relations 0 Result Max was drunk He fell over 0 Explanation Max fell over He was drunk 0 Parallel Bert stumbled Max fell over 0 Elaboration Max was drunk He had downed far too many beers o Occasion Max fell over He tried to get up 0 Narration Max came into the room He fell over


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