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The Mass Media

by: Mrs. Devonte Stoltenberg

The Mass Media COMM 101

Mrs. Devonte Stoltenberg
GPA 3.87

Rossie Hutchinson

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Rossie Hutchinson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Devonte Stoltenberg on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 101 at University of Michigan taught by Rossie Hutchinson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/231576/comm-101-university-of-michigan in Communication Studies at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
10112011 62900 AM Research on Media Effects Mass media research followed several models 0 HypodermicNeedle Model aka Magic Bullet TheoryDirect Effects Model powerful media affecting weak audiences ex Hitler used radio film print as propaganda 9 mostly affects children o MinimalEffects Model aka Limited Mode belief that people engage in selective exposure and selective retention with regard to the media expose themselves to familiar media messages amp retain messages that confirm their current values and attitudes o Reinforces existing behaviorsattitudes rather than change them Has greater impact on pooruneducated audiences Occurs largely at an individual level with no direct effects on society as a whole Viewers esp young children are actively engaged in using media o Uses amp Gratifications Model contest notions of a passive media audience studies the ways in which people use the media to satisfy emotionalintellectual needs 0 Individuals use media to see authority figures elevated to seek sense of communityconnectedness fulfill a need for dramastores confirm moralspiritual values Asks question of WHY we use media instead of the EFFECTS media has on us Addresses functions of the mass media for individuals but not the impact on society 9 this model never became dominant in research Conducting Media Effects Research o Media research comes from private amp public sector 0 Private Research Proprietary Research conducted for a business corporation political campaign 9 known as applied research because it addresses a reallife problemneed 0 Public Research takes place in academic amp government setting involves information that is more theoretical than applied explains effects of mass media rather than address consumer problems 0 O O O O 0 Research utilizes the Scientific Method identify review develop determine method collect information analyze interpret implications Relies on objectivity eliminate bias reliability getting same answers in multiple tests validity study measures what it claims to measure 0 Poses hypotheses statements predicting the influence of an independent and dependent variable Methods for studying media effects uses 2 forms EXPERIMENTS amp SURVEYS o Experiments isolate some aspect of content suggest hypothesis manipulate variables to discover impact on attitudeemotionbehavior o Survey collecting and measuring data taken from a group of respondents uses larger populations than experimental studies surveys can be conducted through mail interviews calls emails web surveys diverse cross sections of people 9 helps examine demographic factors 0 Benefits 1 generalizable to larger society amp enable researchers to investigate population in the longterm 2 contributes to development of longitudinal studies long range amp allows for comparison between old and new studies 0 Drawbacks 1 cannot account for all variables that may affect media use 9 cannot show causeaffect relationships but CAN show correlationsassociations Content Analysis systematic method of coding amp measuring media content ex researchers saw that experimentssurveys focused on general topics like violence and ignored effects of specific media messages like gun violence fist fights etc o Does not measure effects of messages on audiences nor explain how messages are presented o Problems of definition violence how do researchers distinguish cartoon aggression from violent murdersrapes in police drama Media Literacy amp Critical Process 1 DESCRIPTION 2 ANALYSIC 3 INTERPRETATION 4 EVALUATION 5 ENGAGEMENT 4 Most Influential Contemporary Theories help explain media effects o Social Learning Theory o AgendaSetting o Cultivation Effect o Spiral of Silence 10112011 62900 AM


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