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Grad Experimental

by: Mitchell Schulist

Grad Experimental NRE 501

Mitchell Schulist
GPA 3.51


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Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mitchell Schulist on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NRE 501 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/231582/nre-501-university-of-michigan in Natural Sciences at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
CHAPTER 10 THE CHICAGO FREIGHT TUNNEL SYSTEM Graphtheoretic infrastructure used in this case39 Chapter 3 subgraph Chapter 4 component connected Chapter 6 planar The Great Chicago Flood Background Monday April 13 1992 a hole was accidentally opened in a tunnel under the Chicago River Chicago SunTimes 1992 the river swirled through the opening as valiant efforts progressed to stop a huge mass of water from lling the abandoned freight tunnel system forty feet below the streets of the central business district spanning a length of over y miles Figure 101 In the days when coal had been used for the central heating of the downtown buildings barges delivered coal to designated docks along the Chicago River Moffat 1982 The load was put into trains of small cars which then dove below the streets delivering one car load to the subbasement furnace area of one building and another load to its neighbor The cars were seldom empty when coal was delivered ash from the previous load was picked up often by gravity dropping ash from above into a train car below and train loads of ash returned to the river dock to be dumped into the empty barge and shipped off downstream In the early twentieth century when this system was working well plans were laid for the eventual introduction of a passenger subway forty feet was thought to be suf ciently deep to leave space for an underground mass transit system that would run between the freight tunnels and the surface and not interfere with the existing freight tunnel system Moffat 1982 Emma nmm camm mm mm msz Figure l 1 The Chmagu Fragm39rumel SysLem 1932 A33 MuffaL 1982 s s mmaees and ash mad as a supplemem m surface as pneumsne mwm Over the years he trams and tunnels were used m a variety uf 1ngnanve ways Befure cantxal arrcundmumng ms cummun m enemas me geaL umate theaters slung State Street were able m buast eeml cuulmg aunng hug muggy weaiher as they turned un men mmaees m penmtthe cunstndy cuul sew tunnel an m but nut implemented ms m use me sysLems as a detennun area fanhe Lhuusznds ufpmtesters amasLed by the Chicago Police Department during the 1968 Democratic National Convention Moffat 1982 Subway 0f1942 Causes Freight Tunnel Fragmentation What was critical in causing this apparently forwardlooking urban system to fall into disuse however was an alteration in its structure The structural model of the system in 1932 had two components outlined in Figure 101 in 1942 when the mass transit subway tunnels were built the little freight tunnel trains helped to haul out the dirt to excavate the larger tunnels that were to lead to their eventual demise The space left above the freight tunnel systems thought to be adequate by engineering standards of the early twentieth century proved by 1942 to be inadequate The LakeDearbornHarrison route forced tunnel reconstruction at selected crossings with northsouth streets it and the State Street route forced major disruptions in the freight tunnels along eastwest streets between State and Dearbom Streets outlined in Figure 102 The effect was to sever the transmission capability of the freight tunnel system converting it as a structural model from one with two components to one with eleven components Figure 102 cumm nu m sunwAv mmmumuu Figure mz Changes m the saga tunnels caused by subway cunsh umun suurce Muf g 1982 The implicauuns nuns change m connectedness became apparEnt m the 1992 Chmagu mud Chngu Fme Department and Cummunwealth 5mm mamas Shaw that ne sue item 3 m Table 1n 1 sue at State and Randulph Streets repmed a vatarrelated emergency at a 22 am and Lhatthe sue armss Randulph Street am nutrepurt une W19 58 am um 17 m Table In 1 m u Aum N men that hath ample uppurtumty m nunce mtemal uuds 7 557 am Merchandise Mart 602 am 222 N La Salle 622 am 111 N State 647 am 547 W Jackson 649 am 121 N La Salle City Hall 704 am 11 S La Salle 741 am 55 E Washington Pitts eld Building 743 am 10 S La Salle 9 743 am 1 N State 10 800 am 25 N Wabash 11 807 am 547 W Jackson 12 829 am 208 S La Salle Federal Reserve 13 833 am 211 W Wacker 14 908 am 231 S La Salle 15 925 am 1 N La Salle 16 935 am 135 S La Salle La Salle Bank 17 958 am 30 E Randolph 18 1000 am State and Madison 19 1032 am 323 S Michigan Grant Park Underground Garage 20 1058 am 9 N Wabash 21 1130 am 30 N State 22 1144 am 16 N Wabash 23 1208 pm 720 S Michigan Chicago and Hilton Towers WSQM WNF Table 101 Buildings with waterrelated emergencies Monday April 13 1992 Source Chicago SunTimes Tuesday April 14 1992 Source cited by newspaper is Chicago Fire Department Commonwealth Edison The newspaper map that accompanied the published table offered no explanation as to why this variation in timing was not also accompanied by some sort of meaningful variation in spacing However when one takes a closer look at the subgraph showing the structure of the bypass introduced by the subway at State and Randolph the seemingly confusing situation can be easily explained Figure 103 Planmily Explains Timing aEm lbaundSurge subway ebrrsbuebbrr r rs dammed as a dashed lme segment gure 1n 3 In urda39 m rammed the mmels a newer bypass tunnel that am nut interfere wnh the subway was burn m Jmn Randulph betwem clark and Dearme Streets m Randulph betwem State and Wabash Streets Ths rrewer tunnel 64d nut attach m the ends quhe severed tunnels mlrdersacs were prbaueea m r s r s planar the mu surge uf the easbbburra Waters m the Great Chmagu nbba cmle uw srae uf Randulph Street gure 1n 3 Only lata wbma velar bask up mm the culrdersac and mm haSEmEnts un the nunh side uf Randulph Streetbetwem Wabash and State Streets A eluser Randulph fulluwed by the later rewbrrse cm the nunh srae ufRzndulph Street The ubyaph uf Frgure 1n 3 accuunts furtheumelzg wanes r G minor Figure ms Dean ufthe Randulph Streetbypass shuwmg culrdersacs sburee MuffaL 1m ubgmph that mgut have caused a delay m repumng the emergeney An understandmg uf


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