Health Policy and Management 200A/1 - The Black Community Hospital: Contemporary Dilemmas in Historical Perspective
Health Policy and Management 200A/1 - The Black Community Hospital: Contemporary Dilemmas in Historical Perspective
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UCLA COURSE READER PRINT DIGITAL MULTIMEDIA Health Policy and Management ZOOA1 The Black Community Hospital Contemporary Dilemmas in Historical Perspective by Vanessa Norhtington Professor Ortega NO REFUNDS NO EXCHANGES MEDICAL CARE IN THE UNITED STATES The Debate Before 1940 A documentary series reproducing in Iamimtte the most Important primary soumes on medteat care in the United States to 1940 EDITED BY Chartes E Rosenberg UNIVERSITY OF PIENINSYIJIANIA A GARLAND SERIES The Black Community Hospital CoNTEMPoIIAIIv DILEMMAS III H lSTOFllCAl PERSPECTIVE Vanessa Northingion Gamble MD l Garland Publishing Inc NEW IonIlt a Lnnnoil 1989 Copyright 1989 by Vanessa NorthiI1gton39Gamble All rightts reserved of Congress tCatalogingsin Pub1ication Data Gamble Vanessa Narthdngton The Black camtmunity hospital Medical Care in the United States 1 AfroAmearicanaHospita1s Hiatory I Title II Series IDNLM 1 B1acks 1391j5tom39yaUnited States 2 Hospittals Commus nity hjsatot393r United States 3 Hospiitals Community hjstory tUnited States tbibliography 4 Hoispitals Communityhistory United Statea tab1es 27 AM G12b 39 RA981A45G36 1988 36t21 1 039960 7t3 88a31112 ISBN 03240 8332s6 alk paper Pritnted an acidfree 2t50yearlaife paper Manufactured in the United States of America TABLE 01 CDHTEIITS hC 0wLEDGEbiE SiiiiiiiiiIIIl39l39IIiI39IiIIIelrlIII I I I I I I IizilijiiiljlI1 IIJIIIRJEBIIEIIIBNJ39I39II39lslelllIilIIIIiiiiiliiiiliiiiliilI IiiliiIi39l i39I39 I I I I llillli2 PhET I HISTORICAL GVEETIEW CHAPTER I THE EARLY YEARS THE BLACK HDSPITRE TD 1920 5 II THE BLACK HOSPITAL HUVEHENT g THE BLACK HOSPITAL 1g2D 391945lIUlvII39IIiiiiiiiiiady iinbunanannqagspgn1u1u sa1a uaiIuuu24 III THE CIVIL RIGHTS YEARS THE BLACK HQEPITAL TD lg iiiuetinitttuu n u u ofuunIiIisnareinuuuuiuuvyii g IV THE BLACK CEHHUHITY HOSPITAL T DAY5E PART II REEEEFCH BIBLIQGRAPHY BLACK HQSPLTALS GEHERAL REFEREHEEEIii i ii i i e u g g g g g g H THE EAREY TEHHS 39 THE BLLCK HQEPITEE TD 1930 UU I nigiEE THE BLACK HOSPITAL HDVEHENT 3 THE ELHCK HUSPITEL 1Qg ig 39l39l139139l39III iDHIfIiiiii39IIlI39I39Illii IIl E I I I I I I I i i Illa THE CIVIL RIGHTS YEARS THE BLHCK HOSPITAL 194 l9E5iiillllliilucllnilliIiiqiiiiiiilliiiiipliggiij ujil s THE ELhCK CUHHUNITY HDEPITAL TDDAEig HUEPITALBg PART III TABLES L BLACK HOSPITALS AND NURSE TRAINING SCHDULS 1912153 2 BLACK HOSPITALS AND NURSE TRAINING SCHGULS JEBJETJigFgIii39ii39l lIl iiiiiiilliie islalluIlilyillijllI ll gillgi1Q l59 3 BLACK HOSPITALS END NURSE TRAINING SCHOGES 11333139g3i l39Iquotl iIIFl i iii iiliiQilllllll I I I I I i I I I I I Iigiiilz f 4 SEEK HOSPLTELSI ig aunllDl tliiitiliimgnnlliliiils u u i ilgi l 5 BLACK HGEPITELE 1944 1EE BLACiI HOSPITALS AND RE1LA391 ED IN5 TITUTIONS REGISTERED BY THE G MEDICAL ASSDCINI7quotI0N 1929 1934 RJ 1948innguuIasavianunouooapguuupnqin u s n v u i naggapcggg1 53 J I U 339 V J in O I 3 D I I II I I I n i I I n n in I 9 1 9 1 V W nT Q P S T I u n C I u I i C u 0 I vi 6 i 1 n u I 0 T ACKNDWLEDGEMEHTS This monograph would not have been possible 139rith out the encouragement guidance and assistance of many people I would specifically like to thank Julius mhlexander Dr W Montague Cobb Bernard Dickens Dr Ellen Fitzpatrick Emily Friedman Dr arlene Clark Hine Aretha M Mills Haynes Rice Dr Charles E Rosenberg Christine A Ruggere Dr Alan Sager Dr Rosemary lstevens Nathaniel Wesley and thee members of the Thursday history of medicine brownbag seminar The typing and editorial assistance of Pamela Ford Vaohon were also oruoial to the completion of this honograph Dr Jim Cord39s support and faith in me helped me throughout the prlojeot This monograph was poriginlally written when I received a H Kellogg Foundation Fellowship from the Hospita Research and Educational Trust in 1981 I am indebted to the Trust and the Foundation Without their financial support the research for this monograph could not haue been conducted The opinions and conclusions included are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Hospital Research and Educational Trust and the Kellogg Foundation This monograph is an overview of the history of the black community hospital It is not a comprehensive history Rather it identifies and describes general trends and patterns which have influenced the development of these institutions The lmonograph oomhines historical interpretation policy analysis and source materials to provide hospital administrators health policy analysis and historians with an introduction to the black community hospital Historical analysis illuminates the factors which have shaped contemporary black hospitals an examination of these factors is crucial to policy discussions about the future of these institutions In some respects the development of black hospitals is not different from that of hospitals in general For example hospital accreditation thirdparty financing and increasingly complex medioalteehnologf have shaped and influenced all hospitals in the United States In other respects however black hospital age different Political economic and social forces have uniquely affected them because they are raciallyidentified institutions Racial discrimination and stratification created the need for the establishment of the hospitals and determined their economic and political status Black hospitals are of three broad types segregated black controlled and demographically determined Segregated black hospitals the first category included facilities established by whites to exclusively serve blacks These institutions existed predominately but not invariably in the south Examples included Dixie Hospital and Nurse Training School Hampton Institute Virginia established in 1391 and St Agnes St Augustine School Raleigh North Carolina established in 1896 The civil rights legislation of the 1960s abolished racially exclusive institutions Blaok oontrolled institutions comprised the second oategory of black hospitals These inolnded Chicago39s Provident Hospital founded in 1891 and Philadelphia39s Douglass Hospital founded in 1395 These facilities were established to train and provide clinical opportunities for black physicians and nurses The black oontrolled and previously segregated hospitals can also be classified as historically black hospitals These institutions were established with a mandate to serve black people Time constraints imposed by the duration of the Kellogg Foundation Fellowship limited this monographto an analysis of the development of the historically black hospitals Although they are not analyzed in this monograph the third category hf black hospital the demographically determined warrants attention These hospitals were neither established to serve black people nor founded by them Instead they progressively evolved into black institutions because of a rise in black Populations surrounding the hospitals The foremost example is Harlem Hospital in New York City which opened its doors in 188 long before the black migration uptown began when blacks began to move into Harlem in large numbers the hospitalls admissions reflected the changes in community composition lThe monograph is divided into three sections The first section is an historical overview of black hospitals from the early slave hospitals to contemporary black eomunity hospitals 39This historical overview is divided into four chapters chapter one traces the origins of black hospitals The black hospital reform movement of the 19205 and 19305 is examined in chapter two The relationship between the civil rights movement and black hospitals is analyzed in chapter three The fourth chapter studies the fate of the hospitals since the enactment of the civil rights legislation of the 196Us and examines the status of the contemporary black hospital The second section oi the monograph is a research bibliography The bibliography is arrange chronologically and topicallyto correspond with the historical overview It is also arranged geographically according to hospital Statistical tables and cumulative listing of black hospitals are contained in the third section PART I HISTORICAL OVERVIEW primarily as traditional welfare institutions that cared for a variety of indigent and independent persons including but by no means restricted t w the sick They offered limited therapeutics and functioned in part to maintain the social order by isolating the socially marginal and by serving as loci for moral as well as medical care For example municipal hospitals such as New York City39s Bellevue and Philadelphia39s General began their institutional lives as almshouses Most people tried to avoid hospitals because or the institutions identification as facilities for the poor In addition they feared that admission into the filthy wards of hospitals would lead to hospitalism or sepsis In the nineteenth century hospitals were not crucial for the education and professional development of the average physician Medical education did notrequire clinical training in hospitals and contemporary medical practice did not demand that physicians hold hospital appointments Such appointments held importance only for a small group of elite urban physicians Racial customs and mores restricted black access to most hospitals In Newport News Virginia sick blacks were sheltered in the city jail before the establishment in l9l4 of Whittaker Memorial Hospital an institution specifically for blacks6 Even in the North black patients were often denied admission or were accommodated almost universally in segregated wards At Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia black patients and patients with venereal diseases were isolated in a small building separate from the main39wing7 Ehapter I The Early Years The Black ospital to 1920 Slave hospitals were the first medical facilities established exclusively for the care of black Americans1 These facilities usually staffed by plantation owners and their families existed only on the larger estates Slave hospitals served to isolate sick slaves from healthy ones and provided an efficient means to care for them because all medicines and special equipment could be housed in one location Physicianorganised hospitals and infirmaries for blacks free and bond also existed in the antebellum South These infirmaries operated away from the plantation and provided for a fee medical attention board and lodging when Georgia Infirmary opened its doors in 1832 in Savannah it was the first facility founded by whites to care for black patients2 Twenty years later in the same city three white physicians established an infirmary for the reception of negroes sic requiring 3 The infirmary accepted medical and surgical treatment maternity cases but not patients with contagious diseases An advertisement for the infirmary described it as a quotwell appointed establishment with competent nurses comfortable beds well ventilated wards extensive pleasure grounds and good food4 The nineteenth century American hospital differed markedly from its twentieth century successor5 Throughout the last century the hospital was peripheral to the Provision of medical care medical education and medical researchl The home served as the primary site for medical care Hospitals operated Thedesire to provide at least some care for dependent black persons prompted the establishment of several black hospitals in post Civil War America The ifty six hospitals and forty eiqht dispensaries operated in southern and border states by the Bureau of Freedman Refugees and Abandoned Lands represented the most extensive network of health care facilities then available for black peop1e8 Few of these institutions sur ived Reconstruction one however continues to exist to the present Howard University Hospital formerly Freedmen39s Hospital Freedmen39s Hospital located in Washington DC opened in 1862 in a small group of framehouses The Freedmen39s Bureau created the hospital to provide for the large number of aged blind idiotic and permanently disabled freed people who migrated to the Nation39s capital after the Civil war The Bureau also sought to contain infectious diseases such as smallpox which were rampant among the retugees By the early twentieth century two broad categories of black hospitals had started to emerge The first category consisted of segregated hospitals established by whites to serve blacks in separate facilities B1ack controlled hospitals founded by black physicians educational institutions and fraternal organizations comprised the second category Many of the latter hospitals operated without racial restrictions The motives behind the establishment of the whitesponsored hospitals varied some founders expressed a genuine if paternalistic interest in supplying health care to black people However white selfinterest was also at work The germ theory ot disease popularized by the end of the nineteenth century recognized that quotgerms have no color line 9 Thus whites realized that sick black people especially domestic help could threaten their health The white community also established black hospitals in order to avoid the embarrassment of entirely neglecting the black sick but without havingto take care of them in the same institutions as whiteslD These segregated institutions existed predominantly but not invariably in the South Faeilities in operation by 1900 included Good Samaritan Charlotte north Carolina established in 1888 Dixie Hospital and Nurse Training School Hampton Institute Virginia established in 1891 St Agnes St ugustine School Raleigh North Carolina established in 1896 and Macvioar Spelman Seminary Atlanta Georgia established in l900 White Episcopal churchwomen founded Good Samaritan and St Agnesll They established these small hospitals to improve the health care of black patients In addition the founders wanted to offer black physicians a place in which they could practice Dixie Hospital and Macvicar Hospital were established as adjuncts to whiterun educational institutions tor blacks Hampton Institute and Spelman Seminary respectively The existence of nurse training schools at these institutions provided the impetus for the establishment of these two hospita1sl2 Macvicar Hospital however denied black physicians admitting privileges13 Local governments also established segregated black hospitals such as Kansas City Missouri General Hospital No 2 10 Kansas City Colored and St Louis City Hospital No 2 City Public Hospital for Colored In 1903 black physicians in Kansas City led by Dr Thomas C Unthank initiated efforts to establish a separate municipal hospital for black people The paucity of facilities for black patients and the lack of opportunities for blank medical and nursing staff at the existing municipal hospital prompted the physicians aotions14 In 1908 the physicians achieved their geal The city established a black hospital after it constructed a new municipal hospital and transferred most white patients to the new facility Black patients and white patients with tuberculosis and other infectious diseases continued to receive care in the old hospital now called Kansas City General Hospital No 215 The clinical facilities at the two hospitals were not equal For example Kansas City General No 2 lacked diagnostic laboratories and radiologie equipment Although black physicians did not receive staff appointments until l9ll Kansas City General No 2 gradually came under black administrative eentrol In 1914 a black physician Dr W J Thompkins became superintendent of the hospital and a black nurse Mrs Mary K HamptonBrown became superintendent of nurses The hospital thus became the first municipal hospital in the United States to be managed by AfroAnerieans16 By 1924 blaek people assumed responsibility for all departments in the hospitals white physicians from Kansas City General Hospital No l continued to serve as supervisors and consultants In St Louis black political pressure prompted the city to ll create a black municipal hospital17 Black citizens protested their exclusion from the city s only municipal hospital They noted that the hospital barred black physicians and housed black patients in the rear of two floors The activists argued that as taxpayers they should have wider access to publicly financed facilities In 1919 the city purchased and renovated the vacant hospital of the Barnes Medical College to serve as a separate facility for black people The hospital was named St Louis Eity Hospital No 2 As was true in Kansas City the hospital39s purpose was to provide the black community with separate not equal hospital facilities when Provident Hospital and Training School opened its doors in 1391 it was the first black contro1led hospital in the United Statestla The racially exclusionist policies at the than existing Chicago nursing schools provided the primary impetus for its establishment After a young black woman Emma Reynolds could not gain admission to any of the city39s training schools solely because of her race Dr Daniel Hale Williams a prominent black surgeon organized an association to establish an interracial hospital and nurse training school Dr Williams solicited and received financial support for the endeavor not just from the black community but from prominent whites as well The project received generous support and in June 1891 a fourteenbed hospital opened in a twoestory frame house In addition to training nurses the hospital also provided black physicians with hospital Privileges and training opportunities Daniel Hale Williams did not visualize the hospital as an 12 exclusively black enterprise but as interracial It would not practice racial discrimination with regard to statf privileges nurse training school applicants and the admission of patients Williams also insisted that the staff be selected on the basis of ability not oolor19 Provident Hospital39s first board of trustees and medical staff reflected Williams goal They both had white and black members The medical stafi however had a racially defined structure white physicians served primarily as oonsulting staff and black physicians as attending and resident staff Initially the patient census also reflected biracial patronage In its first year of operation the hospital admitted l89 patients l55 black and 34 white2D In 1903 the percentage of white patients rose to eighty2l 9 In spite of Williams original intentions Provident Hospital gradually evolved into a black institution By l9l5 22 This change in the hospital39s 93 of the patients were black patient population reileoted the deteriorating statue of race relations in Chicago Increased black migration to the city from the South had resulted in a rise in white hostility and racism In response black leaders created separate institutions organizations and businesses to serve Chicago39s black population and Provident Hospital emerged as a center of this black metropolisquot23 In addition to Provident Hospital several blackcontrolled voluntary hospitals opened during the last decade of the nineteenth oentury These included Tuskegee Institute and Nurse 13 Training School at Tuskegee institute Alabama in 1892 Provident Hospital at Baltimore in 1894 and Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training Schoel at Philadelphia in 1395 Dr Nathan Francis Mossell founded Douglass Hospital tor the same reasons that Dr Daniel Hale Williams had established Provident Hospital He wanted to provide black physicians and nurses with professional and educational 0pportunities24 The credentials of both Williams and Mossell equalled those of the elite physicians white and black of their time Both graduated from predominantly white medical schools Williams from the Chicago Medical College in 1883 and Mossell from the University of Pennsylvania in l882 Bothpursued postgraduate training at a time when it was unusual for the average practitioner to do so In 1838 Mossell became the tirst black member of the Philadelphia County Medical Society and in l9l3 Williams became the only black physician granted charter membership in the American College of Surgeons However despite their credentials Williams and Mossell encountered difficulty obtaining admitting privileges until they themselves established hospitals Lay persons also established black hospitals Booker T Washington started Tuskegee Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School to eare for the faculty and students at Tuskegee Institute and to train nurses25 In l9D0 the hospital extended its services to include the medical care and health education of the general community The educational missions of Provident Hospital chieagolr Douglass Hospital and Tuskegee Institute Hospital distinguished them from the vast majority of the early blackacontrolled hospitals Most of these small hospitals had been established primarily as service and proprietary institutions The most common form of medical service offered in them was surgical Examples include Home Infirmary and Fair Haven Infirmary Dr Robert T Burt opened the Home Infirmary in l906 in Clarksville Tennessee26 He served as sole owner and surgeon in chief at the facility In 1911 surgical patients represented two thirds of the infirmary39s census Atlanta s Fair Haven Infirmary was established by a group of black physicians in 190927 This twelve bed facility had an operating room in which physicians performed major surgery including abdominal White physicians also utilized the infirmary to hospitalize their black patients The physicianowners of the proprietary black hospitals claimed that they could offer their paying patients quota high type of service along with the courtesy which was lacking in the maiority of hospitals where colored patients were admitted 23 They also argued that only black physicians possessed the skills required to optimally treat black patients Given their size equipment resources and the training of their owners it is doubtiul whether such institutions provided patients with superior medical care However they represented a less onerous option for some black middle class patients Despite their resources these patients were usually placed in municipal hospitals or in the same inferior facilities as poor blacks in voluntary hospitals l5 These early black control1ed hospitals cannot be viewed simply in the context of hospital history They must also be viewed within the context of black social history at the turn of the century the political ideology espoused by Booker T Washington was very influential This ideology emphasized selfahelp racial solidarity and economic development as more productive strategies for racial advancement than politics agitation and the demand for immediate integration29 Washington also stressed social uplift of the race as the key to racial equality He argued that with the acquisition of wealth and morality AfroAmericans would gain the respect of white people and ultimately their rights as citizens The existence of widespread racial discrimination largely determined the acceptance of this accommodationist ideology by many black people The establishment of these hlackscontrolled hospitals can be viewed in part as the institutionalization of Washington39s political ideology In a l9D address before the Phillis Wheatley Club of Nashville Tennessee Dr Daniel Hale Williams echoed Washington39s philosophy and urged the establishment of more black hospitals and nurse training schools in the South In View of this cruel ostracism affecting so vitally the race our duty seems plain Institute Hospitals and Training Schools Let us no longer sit idly and inanely deploring existing conditions Let us not waste time trying to effect changes or modifications in the institutions unfriendly to us but rather let us seek to pron te the doctrine of helping and stimulating our race lt was thought that hospitals would contribute to black social uplift by demonstrating that black people could take care of 16 their siok3l by improving the health status of black people and by contributing to the development of a black professional class Data on the number of black hospitals that existed before l92D are scarce and often inaccurate For example according to intormation contained in the Duke Endowment Archives Blue Ridge Hospital in Asheville North Carolina closed in 1930 The hospital however is listed as in operation in the l937 edition of The Negro rear Book and Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro Nonetheless by using various sources it is possible to at least estimate the number of early black hospitals Daniel Hale Williams observed that twelve black hospitals were in operation in 190032 According to a study by the Committee on Medical Education of the National Medical Association the number had 33 increased to seventeen by l9lD Dr John he Kenney reported in his l9l2 monograph The Hegro in Medicine that sixty five black hospitals and nurse training schools existed See Table 134 The Negro Year Book and Annual Encyclopedia oi the Negro a reference series edited by Monroe N Work listed sixty three institutions in its l9l2 edition35 In the l9lB1919 edition Work reported that the number had increased to ll8 See Table 236 All these estimates of black hospitals and nurse training schools included both white and black controlled facilities In the years before l92D approximately eighty percent of the black hospitals and nurse training schools operated in the South This regional concentration can be attributed to two major factors First the black population was concentrated primarily in the South Most black physicians trained and 17 practiced in the region In addition the establishment of black hospitals in the North often met with stiff opposition from segments of the black community Critics contended that stringent racial mores and customs in the South mandated the establishment of black hospitals in that area They further argued that such facilities were not necessary in the less restrictive racial climate in the North when Daniel Hale Williams founded Provident Hospital he faced accusations that he favored racial segregation one minister even cursed the building and hoped that the hospital would burn to the ground37 The organizers of Douglass Hospital found similar problems The editors of The weehly Tribune a black operated newspaper in Philadelphia viewed the establishment of Douglass Hospital as a concession to race prejudice It was they wrote quotthe quintessence of foolhardiness to continually prate about breaking down color barriers and then go on rearing than ourselvesquot38 Supporters of black hospitals responded that racism did indeed exist in the North and that the region also needed b1ack controlled institutions A l90l editorial in the Journal of the National Medical Association observed It is needless for our brethren in the North tohide behind the mantle of inactivity and continue to say that these things are needless they inject the race question they draw the color line Not so The race question is already drawn and p39th such a heavy dark stroke as to not be recognized r The editorial stance of the journal an organ of the National Medical Association the national black medical society is easily understood Many Northern hospitals admitted black patients albeit in segregated facilities These institutions I3 however excluded black physicians from their staffs Furthermore the leaders of the National Medical Association were well aware that hospitals had begun to assume increasing importance even in the careers of average practitioners During the first decades of the twentieth century the hospital evolved from a welfare institution that served the poor to a medical workshop that served all classes40 lt no longer remained peripheral to medical education medical care and clinical investigation Historians have attributed this transformation to a number of social and technical factors including reforms in medical education the rise of scientific medicine urbanization and industrialization With this transformation the hospital became a more complex institution with increased costs increased personnel and increased hospital based technologies In concert with the transformation of the hospital efforts began to standardise and improve hospitals The American College of Surgeons founded in 1913 attempted to remedy this problem by establishing standards for the operation of hospitals The College hoped that these criteria would upgrade hospitals and eliminate inferior institutions In l9l9 it issued its first set of rules which specified minimum standards for staff eqnipment and facilities These standards had to be met before a hospital could be placed on the American College of Surgeons list of approved hospitals The College39s activities represented the beginning of hospital standardization and accreditation This function is today carried out by the Joint Commission on 19 Accreditation of Hospitals In the years surrounding the Flexner Report American medical education underwent significant reform Clinical training became an integral component in the training of physicians and in medical education The American Medical Association39s Council on Hedical Education recommended in l9DS that medical school graduates take an internship as part of their basic medical education By l9l4 an estimated eighty percent of medical school graduates were taking internships five medical colleges required an internship as a prerequisite to a medical degree and one state board Pennsylvania required it as a 41 prerequisite to licensure In l9l9 the Council on Medical Education started issuing quotThe Essentials of an Approved Internshipquot a list of criteria which approved internships had to meet In addition to the internship specialty training and other forms of postgraduate medical training began to take on increased importance These reforms in hospitals and medical education led to a cruel dilemma for black health care personnel Racial discriminption barred most from training programs at predominantly white institutions and the number of approved programs at predominantly black institutions was woefully inadequate Indeed most black hospitals whether white or black operated were ill equipped small facilities nithout clinical training programs These early black hospitals were not adequately prepared to survive the39contemporary reforms in hospital and medical care 20 Notes 1 Studies of plantation medicine include weymouth T Jordan Plantation Medicine in the old Southquot Alabama Review 3 1950 B3 lD7 William Dosite Postell The Health of Slaves on Southern Plantations Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press 1951 reprint ed Gloucester MA Peter Smith 1970 Todd L Savitt Medicine and Slavery The Diseases and Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum Virginia Urbana University of Illinois Press 1973 Richard Harrison Shryock quotMedical Practice in the Old South The South Atlantic Quarterly 29 April 1930 16078 reprinted in Shryock Medicine in America Historical Essays Baltimore Johns Hopkins Press 1966 4970 and Felice Swados quotNegro Health on the Ante Bel1um Plantationquot Bulletin of the History of medicine 10 1941 46072 2 W Montague Cobb The Black American in Medicinequot g mn supplement 13 1981 1220 3 quotInfirmary for Negros at Savannah Geoquot gharleston Hedical Journal and Review 7 1852 724 4 Ibid 724 5 For introductions to the history oi the nineteenth century American hospital see Charles E Rosenberg quot39And Heal the Sick Hospital and Patient in Nineteenth Century America Journal or So ial History 10 l9 428 44 and Morris Vogel Patrons Practitioners and Patients The Voluntary Hospital in Midi Victorian Bostonquot in Victorian America ed Daniel W Howe Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press 1976 121138 6 quotProceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integrationquot JNMA 49 1957 197 7 Rosenberg quot39And Heal the Sick39 p 432 B More extensive discussions on the hospital activities oi the Bureau of Freednen Refugees and Abandoned Lands and the founding of Freedmen39s Hospital can be found in W Montague Cobh A Short History of Freedmen s Hospital JHMA 54 1962 27l 287 Thomas Holt Cassandra SmithParker and Roslyn Terborg Penn A Special Mission The Story of Freedmen39s Hospital 18622 1962 Washington DC Academic Affairs Division Howard Uni ersity 1975 and William A warfield quotA Brief History of Freedmen39s Hospitalquot Freedmen39s Hospital Bulletin 1 1934 12 9 Germs Have No Color Line served as the slogan for a fundraising campaign in the 1920s to create a center for black medical education at Chicago39s Provident Hospital l0 Julius Rosenwald Fund Negro Hospitals A Compilation of Available Statistics Chicago The Fund 1931 p 19 21 ll For histories of these hospitals see H Montague Cobb quotSaint Agnes Hospital Raleigh North Carolina 189651961quot JNMA S3 1961 439 446 and Emery L Rann quotGood Samaritan Hospital oi Charlotte North Carolinaquot JNMA 56 l964 2236 12 Patricia E Sloan quotCommitment to Equality A View of Early Black Nursing Schools in Historical Studies in Hugsing ed Louise Fitzpatrick New York Teachers College Press 1978 pp 6885 For information on the founding of Dixie Hospital see Alice Mabel Bacon The Dixie and Its Workquot gouthern workman 20 November i891 244 and Cora MFolsom The Dixieiin the Beginningquot Southern workman 55 March 1926 l2l 6 13 Sloan quotCommitment to Equalityquot p 76 14 Accounts of the founding and the early history of the hospital can he tound in Clyde Reed Bradford History of Kansas City General Hospital Colored Division Jackson County Medical Journal 26 October 8 1932 6ilS and Samuel HRodgers quotKansas City General Hospital No 2 A Historical Summaryquot JNHA54 C19623952344 T 15 Annual Report of the Board of Hospital and Health for the Year Ending pril l4 l909 Kansas City No1 p 83 I would like to thank Joan E Lynaugh for this reference 16 Bradford History of Kansas City General Hospitalquot p 9 17 For histories of the hospital see Homer G Phillips Hospital The History and Development of Homer GEhillips Hospital St Louis 1945 and HI Phillip Venahle The History of Homer G Phillips Hospitalquot JNMA S3 1961 54l Sl 18 Accounts of the founding of Provident Hospital can he found in Helen Buekler Doctor Dan Boston Little Brown l954 H Montague Cobb quotDaEi3lHETE Williams HD lBSE193lquot JNMA 45 1953 379685 Ulysses Grant Dailey quotDaniel Hale Williams Pioneer Surgeon and Father of Negro Hospitalsquot paper presented at the meeting of the National Hospital Association Chicago Illinois l8 August 1941 Dictionary of American Hegro Biography sv quotWilliams Daniel Hale Henry E Matthews Provident Hospital 2 Then and Now JNMA 53 1961 20924 and Theresita E Norris An Historical Account of Provident Hospital Chicago Medical Society nd circa l946 Unpublished l9 Buokler pootor Dan pp 678 20 Morris quotAn Historical account p 3 21 gr Po 5 I 1 pl 5 I 22 23 The classic study of black social development in Chicago is St Clair Drake and Horace R Cayton Black Metropolis rev ed New York Harper and Row 1962 See alsoAlian H Spear Black Chicago The Making of a Negro Ghetto l89U lgD Chicago University of Chicago Press 1967 24 Additional information on Mossell and the establishment of Douglass Hospital oan be found in W Montague Cobb Nathan Francis Mossell MD 18561946 JNMA 46 1954 l18 3D Edward S Cooper quotMercyDouglass Hospital Historical Perspective Jana 53 196l 17 Dictionary of American Negro Biography sv quotMossell Nathan Franoisgquot Vanessa Northinqton Gamble Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School The First Ten Yearsquot December 1979 Unpublished and Elliot M Rudwick A Brief History of MercyDouglass Hospital in Philadelphia gournal of Negro Education 20 winter 1951 5066 25 For a history of this hospital see Eugene H Dibble Jr Louis A Rabh Ruth B Ballard quotJohn R Andrew Memorial Hospital JNMA 53 i961 103118 and Sloan Commitment to Equality pp 6685 26 quotHome Infirmary Clarksville Tennesseequot in The Negro in Medicine by John A Kenney Tuskegee Alabama 1912 p 4 2 Fair Haven Infirmary in The Neggg in Medicine by John A Kenney Tuskegee Alabama l9l2 pp 4B 28 Carson39s Private Hospital Washington DC Jams 22 I930 l4B 29 For a study of this political ideology see August Meier Negro Thought in America 18801915 Racial Ideologies inthe Age of Booker T Washington Ann arbor University of Michigan Press 1966 T 30 Daniel Hale Williams The Need of Hospitals and Training Schools for the Colored People oi the South National Hospital and Sanitarium Record 3 April 1900 4 31 In his study of Boston hospitals Morris Vogel notes that other ethnic groups developed their own hospitals as a means of avoiding the stigma of being thought of as unable to Care tor their own people See Morris Vogel The Invention of the Modern Hospital Boston lB70 l93D chicagoz uni ersity of Chicago Press 1980 PP l26 7 32 Williams The Need of Hospitals p 7 33 quotReport of Committee on Medical Education on Colored Hospitalsquot JNMA 2 1910 283 34 Kenney The Negro in Medicine pp 424 23 35 quotHospitals and Nurse Training Schoolsquot in The Negro Year Book and Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro edited by Monroe N work Tuskegee Institute Alabama Negro Yearbook Co 1912 pp 0 36 Ibid pp 155a and quotHospitals and Nurse Training Schoolsquot in The Negro Year Book and Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro edited by Monroe N work Tuskegee Institute Alabama Negro Yearbook Co l9l81919 pp 4246 37 Williams The Need of Hospitals p 7 38 Weekly Tribune nd Nathan Francis Mossell Scrapbook volume 1 p l4 Dr Mossell39s scrapbooks and other papers are in the possession of his granddaughter Mrs Gertrude Cunningham Philadelphia 39 quotEditorialquot Jone 1 Apri1June 1909 105 40 Analyses of this transformation can be found in George Rosen quotThe Impact of the Hospital on the Physician the Patient and the Communityquot Hospital Administration 9 Fall 1964 l533 Charles E Rosenberg Inward Vision and Outward Glance The Shaping of the American Hospital lBBOil9l4 Bulletin of the History of Medicine 53 l978 34695 Rosner David quotK Once Charitable Enterprise Hospitals and Health Care in Brooklyn and New York 18851915quot Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1982 and Vogel Invention of the Modern Hospital 41 Rosemary Stevens American Medicine ano the Public Interest New Haven Yale University Press 1971 p 118 24 Chapter 11 The Black Hospital Movement The Black Hospital 19201945 Between 1920 and 1945 the most crucial issue faced by the black community hospital was whether it would survive in light of changes in scientific medicine hospital technology hospital accreditation and hospital standardisation In the early 1920s a group of physicians associated primarily with the National Medical Association a black medical society and the National Hospital Association an association of black hospitals launched a hospital reform movement to ensure the survival of at least a fee quality black hospitals These physicians feared that the growing importance of aooreditation and standardization would lead to the elimination of black hospitalsl Their fears were based on bitter experience The reforms of medical education surrounding and following the Flexner Report eliminated five of the seven black medical schools by 19232 The National Hospital Association NHA and the National Medical Association nan thus initiated programs to improve the educational and medical programs at black hospitals Their efforts it was asserted would improve the status of these hospitals before houseoleaning done by outside and possibly unfriendly forces swept these institutions away3 They hoped that their programs would eliminate the prototypical black community hospital small proprietary and without training programs and increase the number of quotclass A hospitals large modern facilities with approved training programs4 25 The leaders of the black medical organizations realised that the survival of the black medical profession was inextricably linked to the survival of black hospitals Physicians now needed hospitals in order to survive professionally and to establish legitimacy in the community Hospitals provided physicians with a locus in which they could exchange professional knowledge and in which they could have access to expensive hospitalbased technologies In 1920 approximately 3400 black physicians practiced in the United States5 Most were barred from practicing and training in predominantly white facilities Without access to quality hospitals the leaders of the NMA and NBA knew that black physicians would be increasingly out of step with contemporary developments in medical practice Black physicians also maintained that their lack of hospital privileges placed them at a competitive disadvantage with white physicians6 Physicians of both races cared for black patients White physicians could promise continuity of professional care upon hospitalisation Their black colleagues could not because they lacked admitting privileges at most facilities Consequently they had to relinquish the care of their hospitalized patients to white physicians even in some segregated black hospitals This practice undermined patients confidence in black physicians and contributed to a perception that black physicians were inferior to their white peers It also in the case of paying patients adversely affected the physicians pockets WE B DuBois in his classic study 32 Philadelphia Negro described this professional dilemma of black 2 6 physicians At first it would seem natural for Negroes to patronize Negro merchants lawyers and physicians from a sense of pride and as a protest against race feeling among whites When however we come to think further we can see many hindrances If a child is sick the father wants a good physician he knows plenty of good white physicians he knows nothing of the skill of the black doctors for the black doctor has had no opportunity to exercise his skill Consequently for many years the colored physician had to sit idly by and see the 40000 Negroes healed principally by white practitioners Black physicians argued that with quality black hospitals they could overcome these professional handicaps The elite physicians who led the black hospital movement also tied their activities to improve their professional opportunities with the general movement to uplift the race Dr Algernon E Jackson a professor of public health at Howard University commented on this connection The successful operation of hospitals among our people is doing much to bring about a higher degree of racial consciousness racial respect and good will all of which breed a confidence and faith in the profession which is destined to lead Eur race to a higher level socially and economically Thus the black hospital movement reflected not only a well intentioned effort to improve black hospitals and the social status of the race but a shrewd attempt to protect and promote black professional interests Professional se1f interest provided the primary impetus for the hospital reform movement however the health needs of the black population also prompted the reformers to act within the black community social scientists educators and activists as well as physiciansstressed that the inadequate number of 27 hospital beds for black patients contributed to the shockingly poor health status of black Americans as compared with whites9 In l92G the tuberculosis rate per 100000 was B5E for whites and 202 for blacks the pneumonia rate per 100000 was 971 for whites and 1459 for blacks and the heart disease rate per 100000 was 931 for whites and l264 for blaekslU In l92S the black death rate was 48 higher than the white and the black infant mortality rate exceeded that of whites by 62ll Yet despite these higher morbidity and mortality rates and consequently a greater need for health care blacks had Eewer hospital beds available to them than whites Dr H M Green president of the National hospital Association reported in l92B that one bed existed for every 139 Americans but that only one bed existed for every 1941 black Amerinansl2 Green39s figures on the number of hospital beds available to blacks may be low as it is unclear whether they include beds in mixed hospitals Nonetheless his central point remains accurate the number of hospital beds was inadequate to meet the health needs of black people Because black hospitals were only one source of hospital care for black patients with many patients receiving treatment in mixed hospitals leaders of the hospital movement had to provide a rationale for the support of black hospitals They noted that mixed hospitals customarily excluded black physicians and often cared for blaeh patients in separate and inferior accommodations The hospital reformers also pointed out that discrimination and mistrust of the larger society had provided 23 the impetus for the formation of other ethnic and religious hospitals Catholics Jews and Italians had established hospitals to meet the particular needs of their communities Black physicians argued that black hospitals provided black patients with the best possible care They also claimed that mixed hospitals did not have the quotheartquot of black hOspitalSl3 Black hospitals with black staffs offered as did other ethnic hospitals less hostile and more sensitive environments Consequently the argument sent some black patients would prefer to be accommodated in them Two professional organizations the National Medical Association EMA and the National Hospital Association NHA spearheaded the hospital reform movement and articulated the concerns of black medical professionals After a long unsuccessful effort to integrate the American Medical Association black physicians founded the NMA in 1895 in htlanta Georgia The Association39s Committee on Medical Education conducted a survey of the quality of care at black hospitals as early as l9l0 but its activities in the hospital 14 field assumed little importance until l923 In August of that year members of the NMA founded the National Hospital Association15 The stated purpose of the hospital association was to ensure proper standards of education and efficiency in black hospitals I Black medical leaders viewed standardization of facilities as the most urgent problem they faced Dr H M Green the first president of the NBA warned that the 100 bed standard for 29 accreditation used by the American College of Surgeons and the American Medical Association threatened to eliminate approximately B5 of the hospitals operated for and by black people l6 A survey conducted in 1923 by the NMA39s Commission of Medical Education and Hospitals proved Greens estimate to have been overly optimistic finding that 93 of the 202 black hospitals studied had less than 50 bedsl7 Since the sise ot these facilities precluded their accreditation by the American College of Surgeons and the American Medical Association one of the first tasks of the National Hospital Association was to establish standards for smaller hospitals In 1925 the association issued a set of minimum standards for its member hospita1s18 These standards included guidelines on hospital supervision record keeping and the operation of nurse training schools In comparison to standards set six years earlier by the American College of Surgeons they were rudimentary lacking criteria for diagnostic facilities laboratories or physician training Despite the limited scope of its guidelines the NEH hoped that its attempts would prevent black hospitals from meeting the same fate as the majority of black medical schools And they hoped that their guidelines would demonstrate to their white colleagues that black physicians could keep abreast of changes in medicine he was true in the general medical profession at the time there was a gap between the ideals of the elite physician and those of the average practitioner The NBA thus had to convince the vast majority of the black medical profession of the importance of standardization and the threat that it posed to their careers To achieve this goal the association provided technical assistance to hospitals sponsored professional conferences and produced literature about the proper operation and administration of hospitals The leaders of the black hospital movement also lobbied the major health care organizations on behalf of black physicians and urged them to take more active roles in the development of black hospitals In August l927 representatives of the National Medical Association and the National Hospital Association appealed to representatives of the American Medical Association the American College of Surgeons and the American Hospital Association for funds to conduct a survey or black hospitals The black organizations noted that there was a paucity of data on black hospitals and wanted to conduct a survey that would Visit every black hospital and document its activities and needs19 only the hmeriean Medical Association responded favorably to the request for funds and in l92B its Council on Medical Education and Hospitals appropriated 5000 for the investigation Ablaok physician Dr hlgernon E Jackson a professor of public health at Howard University and the former superintendent at Philadelphia s Mercy Hospital was selected as principal investigator His work consisted of an intensive four month study of l2D facilities He did not visit 63 other black hospitals most of which were located in the North Jackson provided detailed information on the operation of each institution that he visited and awarded each a grade i A B C 31 and Do Those receiving a D were deemed purely mercenary and generally unworthy 2G Jackson painted a bleak picture of the hospitals both white and black operated facilities Sixteen l3 hospitals received A grades while 2 22 received D grades Jackson described conditions in some of the latter hospitals as so quotfilthyand inadequately equipped and managed that one would hesitate to take a drink of water in them much less submit to even the most minor surgical operation 2l He also found deplorable educational programs at most of the nurse training schools Jackson concluded that the quality and quantity of hospital beds for blacks in the South was inadequate and that the problem required a more comprehensive survey He recommended that the better hospitals be supported with financial and educational assistance and that the interior ones be abolished The survey also recommended that in general black hospitals should be under black control however it did not make it an absolute requirements It is not clear who made that final recommendation of the survey After Jackson completed his onesite visits the council submitted his report for comment and approval to a group of white physicians all of whom have had a lifelong contact with the negro Esicj and spent a score or more years in medical and hospital service in their midst 22 The committee then submitted a revised report to the council The published account of the survey obscured any differences between the two reports The National Hospital Association also sought help from the American Hospital Association However the ties between the two 32 organizations were weak Although the NHA held affiliate membership with the AHA the larger organisation showed little interest in its black constituency In l929 the AHA made a feeble attempt to address the problems of black hospitals when it established an g hgg Committee on Hospitalization of Colored People chaired by Dr William H Walsh a Chicago physician and the former executive secretary of the AHA23 The purpose of the committee was to examine how the AHA could assist the National Hospital Association in its efforts The Walsh committee discovered that the lack of a permanent office and a full time executive secretary severely hampered the work of the National Hospital Association The committee recommended that the American Hospital Association assist the National Hospital Association in a campaign to secure funds for an executive secretary It also recommended that the committee39s work be continued Despite the modesty of its recommendations the report of the Welsh committee received a lukewarm reception from the American Hospital Association At its 28 September 1931 meeting the Board of Trustees of the American Hospital Association endorsed the general aims of the National Hospital Association but failed to make any specific commitments financial or programmatic to the National Hospital Association or vote to extend the work of the Walsh committee24 The National Hospital Association had practical and well intentioned objectives but several factors restricted its activities and hampered its effectiveness in reforming black hospitals The association functioned like a voluntary 33 organization rather than a professional one It never obtained a fulltime administrator or a permanent office and never received extensive financial support from other health care organizations or from foundations The National Hospital Association itself lacked the financial and political muscle to implement many of its programs especially the enforcement of standardization requirements In 1933 Dr Midian a Bousfield then Director of the Negro Health Program of the Julius Rosenwald Fund and a past president of the National Medical Association characterized the National Hospital Association as a conglomerate organisation of inspirational naturequot that had made no significant contribution 25 Bousfield39s assessment to the improvement of black hospitals underestimates the impact of the National Hospital Association Although it did not achieve most of its objectives it did play a significant role in the black hospital movement The National Hospital Association provided black physicians with an arena to discuss and learn about trends in hospital care And more importantly it worked with the National Medical Association to publicize and articulate the plight of black physicians and their hospitals and reminded health care organizations and foundations that black hospitals needed and deserved their support Certainly no movement for the elevation of black community hospitals could succeed without the cooperation and finanoial assistance of the white community In a summary oi the achievements of the National Hospital Association during its first ten years its president Dr H H Green underscored the 34 importance of white support for survival of the race39s hospitals As a race our group activities have not yet reached a point of cohesiveness that will long withstand the strain of hacking financially such a nonproductive enterprise as a hospital 26 Throughout most of the 19205 and 1930s third party payment was not yet widely available and most hospitals except for government institutions derived most of their revenues from patient receipts and charitable contributions As the costs of operating hospitals increased and the stock market crashed these institutions grappled with the problem of financing At a time when many white institutions were inadequately financed funds for black hospitals were even more scarce Their patients were predominantly poor and could neither afford to pay their hospital hills nor to provide the hospitals with charitable assistance Charitable support of hospitals had traditionally been the responsibility of local communities and many foundations did not View the support of hospitals as their duty However three such foundations E the Julius Rosenwald Fund the Duke Endowment and the General Education Board i responded to the crisis and played crucial roles in assisting black hospitals and exerted significant influence on the black hospital movement The Chicago based Julius Rosenwald Fund maintained a Negro Health Division which supported programs in professional education public health outspatient services and hospital care27 Under the direction of Dr Midian D Bousfield the division assisted projects that would be of educational value in the training of black nurses and physicians and which would 35 demonstrate superiority in race relations2B Between l92T and 1936 the foundation gave over 550000 to twelve black hospitals 29 These grants included and to two units at mixed hospitals funds for equipment medical and nursing staff development and hospital construction and renovation In contrast to the Rosenwald Fund the Duke Endowment did not have a specific black health program but maintained a hospital section which assisted nonprofit general hospitals in 30 It limited its assistance to North and South Carolina hospitals that it judged were being properly operated The terms of the Endownent39s trust called for support of any qualified hospital regardless of its racial classification whether whiteeonly mixed or black only while it acknowledged and even supported the establishment of a few black district hospitals for use as training centers the Duke Endowment believed black hospitals unnecessarily duplicated existing hospital facilities and encouraged instead the development of black units and wards in mixed hospitals3l Nonetheless foundation guidelines led the endowment to donate l2 million for operating expenses to twentytwo black non profit general hospitals in North and South Carolina and l3000U for capital expenses to seven of these institutions between 1925 and 193932 These appropriations provided critical financial support for the funded hospitals between 1930 and l937 Duke subsidies comprised 55 of the charitable contributions that the hospitals received for operating costs33 Despite the Duke Endowment39s policy toward the limited role of black hospitals and its 36 encouragement of mixed hospitals the foundation emerged as the major philanthropic donor of black hospitals in the Carolinas Its financial support enabled many black general hospitals in the two states to survive and enabled some institutions to receive accreditation from the American College of Surgeons and the American Medical Association The Duke Endowment39s involvement in black hospital reform had developed from its interest in the improvement of hospital care however the involvement of the General Education Board GEE a Rockefeller philanthropy originated out of its interest in the advancement of black education34 The GEE had been established in 1903 by John D Rockefeller quotto promote education within the United States oi America without distinction of race sex or creed 35 Among its major activities were the reform of American colleges and universities the improvement of education in the South and the provision of adequate educational opportunities to Afroiamericans one of the board39s primary interests was black medical education It spent substantial sums to improve the medical curricula upgrade facilities and establish clinical iellowships for teachers at Howard and Meharry the only black medical schools that existed after 192336 The General Education Board did not provide grants for operating and capital expenses Its interests were exclusively focused on educational projects For example it funded the development of a postgraduate refresher course tor black physicians at Richmond39s St Philip39s Hospital a black hospital operated by the Medical College of Virginia 37 Despite their divergent interests all three foundations worked together to improve black hospitals In the Carolinas the Julius Rosenwald Fund worked solely through the Duke Endowment and assisted only those projects which had the endowment s endorsement3 The Rosenwald Fund hoped that its efforts would supplement those of the Duke Endowment in the Carolinas because the endowment could not directly fund outpatient services and public health work Between 1928 and 1939 the two foundations jointly financed projects at five black hospitals The Rosenwald Fund and the General Education Board cooperated in sponsoring the most widely heralded project of the black hospital movement the 1928 affiliation of Provident Hospital with the University of Chicago35 This affiliation represented a new strategy for black hospital reform the first affiliation of a black hospital with a white university Promoters of the project hoped to create in Chicago the foremost center of black medical education in the United States and at the same time set a new standard in black hospital care The project received enthusiastic praise from the National Medical Association and Julius Rosenwald himself hailed it as one of the most important steps in the progress of the black race since the Emancipation Proclamation39 Despite this early optimism the project ended in 1944 when the General Education Board withdrew its financial support Several factors contributed to the project39s demise including the growing indifference of the University of Chicago financial problems and mismanagement at Provident Hospital divergent goals of the General Education Board and the Julius Rosenwald Fund and the developing perception of the project as Jim Crowism by Chicago39s black communityi In addition to philanthropic contributions local governments funded programs to meet the health needs of their black citizens Although Kansas City and St Louis both had black municipal hospitals prior to the 19205 these facilities followed what Dr W Montague Cobb a historian of black medical care has called quottheold elothestoSam pattern or black hospital development the utilization of vacated and outmoded white hospitals for black people In the 19203 the black communities of both cities applied political pressure to establish modern tacilities and a new black municipal hospital opened in Kansas City in 1930 and in St Louis in l937 The federal government also contributed to black hospital reform during the 19205 and 19303 Under the auspices of the Department of the Interior it continued its support of Ereedmen39s Hospital in Washington DC By 1939 this federal facility had grown to 322 beds and provided one of the few approved internships for black physioians40 in addition to supporting Freedmen39s Hospital the federal government in 1923 opened a hospital in Tuskegee nlahama for black veterans4l After World War I the nearly 400000 black people who had served in the American armed forces were barred from most veterans hospitals Black organizations protested this discrimination and in l92l the Harding administration decided to 39 build a federal hospital for black veterans The decision eventually created a storm of controversy The dispute centered primarily on whether the hospital would be operated by whites or blacks Racists in Alabama led by the Ku Klux Klan did not want a hlack operated federal institution in the heart of Dixie The black community particularly the National Medical Association and the National Association for the advancement of Colored People argued that blacks should be in charge of a facility built for the ears of their race President Harding supported black control of the facility because he did not want to alienate black voters and because of his personal racial ideology42 He believed that blacks should develop leaders capable of heading a separate black society Yet when the hospital opened in May 1923 whites comprised the entire professional staff However the hospital employed black nurse maids as Alabama law forbade white nurses to touch black patients43 Subsequently the Harding administration made a commitment to eventual black operation or the hospital and in July 1924 the dreams of the NMA and NAACP became a reality The black hospital movement had changed the black hospital by world War II mostly as a result of the combined efforts or the National Medical Association the National Hospital Association philanthropies and government agencies In l930 Dr John A Kenney editorvin chief of the qgurnal of the National Medical Association and executive secretary of the National Hospital Association hailed these changes as the quotNegro Hospital Renaissance 44 an analysis of the data plainly reveals 40 that Kenney s assessment was oeerly optinistie In 1923 apprerimately 202 black hospitals were in eperatien Only six had internship programs and not ene had aresideneygrogram45 at the approximately 159 black hospitals that eristen in lass the ass approved fourteen for internshie training and two fer resideneies the emeriean Cellege sf Surgeens aggroeee seventeen 46 By 1944 the number sf hespitals for general aeereditation that anmitte black patients eselusively has decreased iron 20 to 1244 The sHenow appreeed nine of the facilities fer internships and seven for residencies the smeriean College of Eungeens fully appreeed twentyathree and provisionally agproved three an undistinquishen reeerd at best In addition two hospitals has appresal for graduate training in surgery er a surgical specialty it is impertant te note that all the hospitals with aeeresitation had external seurees or support Although the everall number of blast hospitals that were reeegniaed by aoerediting agencies had inoreasee by 1944 the great majority st the Eaeilities sttil remained unaeeredited Hereoeer the quality of same approved hospitals was suspect Representatives ef the aHA39s Couneil en Medical Enuoatien and Hospitals freely a nitten that a number sf these hnspitals would not have been approves esoept for the need ts supplf at least some internship opportunities for blast physiEians4E The eeuneil s approval refleeted the accepted practice ef edueating and treating blaok people in separate and net neeessarily equal facilities The deerease in the total number eE39hespitals between 1923 41 and 1944 resulted primarily frnm the clesing at small pearl equipped facilities These facilities fer the meet part had severely limited financial reseurces and the Depression hasted their demise It is net clear why the number cf appreved internshias decreased Ernm feurteen tn nine between 192 and 1944 One explanation may he that by 1944 the need ts preside internship pcsiticne tcr black medical schecl graduates was less urgent because there were fewer hlach medical schcel graduates Between l92 and 1938 the nunher cf black medical schccl graduates decreased by 53 free 120 tn EU a primarily as a result at the Depressien4g Dr Kenney was unduly nptimistie when he labelled the transfcrmaticn cf hlach hcspitals a quothears Hespital Renaissance The renaissance was limited tn hat a few hespitals By Wcrld war II the majority at black hcspitals remained small pearly financed and illeequipped The limits at the black hespital mceement can he enplained hy a number sf teeters These include the ingcrtance cf the naticnal medical Asscciatien and the Haticnal Heepital hsseciaticn the indifference cf the majcrity cf hlack physicians and the less than enthusiastic suppert cf the majer health care crganisaticns The rise at inteerstienism alse attested the impact cf the reform mevement The necessity cf separate facilities fer hlaek pecple had heen at the heart at the mevemeht s ideelcgyr The physicians asscciated with the ansana has adapted an accemmedatienist sssitien which emphasised black selfareliance the development cf black secial institutiens and the aveidance ct 42 political activism on the issue of social equality and institutional integration They claimed that their programs represented a practical response to the racial realities of American life in the 19205 and l930s50 While they did not condone segregation and its concomitant ideology of white superiority these physicians believed that separate institutions were necessary because integration was a slow process and that the advancement of the race could not afford to wait for its eventual development E World War Ii the ideology came under increased tire from a growing and uncompromising group of integrationists who rejected the establishment of segregated institutions and advocated instead the complete equality of black people in American society Tensions between integrationists and accommodationists had in fact developed in the hospital field during the l92 s and 1930s Their disputes led the city oi Cleveland to abandon plans for the construction of a black municipal hospital in l92 and split New York City39s black medical society into two organizations in 193051 indeed the integrationists made some tentative but important strides in this era Increasing numbers of publicly financed hospitals for example Harlem and Boston City Hospitals began to add black physicians to their statfs The premier example was the reorganization of New York City39s Sydenham Hospital as an interracial hospital in December 1943 Sydenham lifted all racial barriers and added blacks to positions on the board of trustees and the medical staff52 Despite the strides it was 43 not uhtil after World War II that hospitals and American society as a whole felt the full impact of the integrationiats and the battle for civil rights 44 Notes l H M Green Annual Address of the President of the National Medical Association Journal of the National Medical association Hereinafter game l4 1922 216 2 The closed medical colleges were Flint Medical College New Orleans Louisiana in 1910 Leonard Medical College Raleigh North Carolina in l9l8 Knoxville Medical College Knoxville Tennessee in 1910 Medical Department of the University of west Tennessee Memphis Tennessee in 1923 and Louisville National Medical College Louisville Kentucky in l912 Five other black medical colleges existed before the Flexner Report Lincoln University Medical College Oxford Pennsylvania opened in 1670 but closed in lB76 without graduating any students Hannibal Medical College Memphis opened in lBB9 but closed in lB96 also without any graduates The Medical College of Knoxville operated from 1895 to 1900 The Medical Department of State University opened in Louisville in lB99 and merged with Louisville National Medical College in 1903 Chattanooga National Medical College graduated two students before it closed in l908 For further information on the history or black medical education see James L Curtis Historical Perspectivesquot in his Blacks Medical Sohggls and Societx RnnArtor The Mniuersity of Michigan Press l9li PP 12 Darlene Clark Hine quotThe Pursuit of Professional Equality Meharry Medical College l92l l93B A Case Study in New Perspectives on Black Educational History ed39by Vincent P Franklin and James D Anderson Boston G K Hall and Company l98 pp 173 l92 Leonard W Johnson History of the Education of Negro Physicians Journal of Medical Education 42 1967 439446 and Herbert M Morals The History or the Negro in Medicine New York Publishers Company Inc 1967 3 quotThe National Hospital Association Editorial JNHR 17 l925 20 T4 John A Henneyj The Negro Hospital Renaissancequot game 22 1930 ll3 S Johnson quotHistory of the Education of Negro Physiciansquot p 440 Julius Rosenwald Fund Negro Hospitals A Compilation o yailableStatistics Chicago The Fund 1931 Pu 41 The exact ndmber is not clear Johnson lists 3385 and the Rosenwald report lists 3495 6 Home P G Adams quotAn Interpretation of the Significance of Homer G Phillips JN A 26 1934 l6 Lawrence Greeley Brown quotThe Hospital Problem of Negro Physiciansquot JHMA34 1942J 84 7 W E B Du ois The Philadelphia egro A Social Study Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press l899 reprint ed New York Schocken l967 p 113 45 B Algernon Erashear Jackson quotPublic Health and the Negro JHHA 15 1923 258 9 Charles S Johnson quotNegro Health in the Light of Vital Statisticsquot Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work 55 1928 1735 Eugene Kihekle Jones quotSome Fundamental Factors in Regard to the Health of the Negro Proceedings of the National Conference of social Work 55 1928 l7EeE Peter Marshall Murray quotHospital Provision for the Negro Racequot Bulletin of the American Hospital Association 4 1930 37a4E l0 Johnson quotNegro Health p l4 ll PI 1 l2 H M Green quotHospitals and Public Health Facilities for Negroes Proceedings of the National Conierenoe of Social Work 55 1928 l9 l3 H M Green A More or Less Critical Review of the Hospital Situation Among Negroes in the United States nd circa 1930 pp 45 l4 Report of Committee on Medical Education on Colored Hospitalsquot JHHA 2 E1910 283290 15 National Hospital association JNMA l5 1923 286 16 H M Green quotAnnual Address of the President or the National Medical Associationquot JNMA 14 1922 216 l7 quotNational Hospital Association JHHA 15 1923 286 la A list of the National Hospital Association39s minimum standards can be found in quotNational Hospital Association Minutes of the Third Annual Sessionquot JNMA 17 1925 231 19 H Mr Green quotThe Hospital Surveyquot JNMA 21 l929 l3l4 H M Green quotPresident39s Address The National Hospital Association JNMA 19 1927 l62l Investigation of Negro Hospitalsquot Journal of the hmerican Medical Association 94 l930 1375 6 9 El 20 Green President39s Address p 18 2l quotInvestigation of Negro HospitalsT p l375 22 Ibid p l35 23 William H Walsh quotReport of the Committee on Hospitalization of Colored People Transactions of the American Hospital Association 32 1930 536l 24 American Hospital Association quotReport of the Board oi 46 Trustees 28 September 1931quot Transactions of the American Hospital hssociation32 1930 5361 25 M o Bousfield quotProgram tor Negro Health 9 October 1936 p 28 Julius Rosenuald Fund Archives Fisk University Library Nashville TN Box 76 26 H M Green quotSome Observations on and Lessons from the Experiences of the Past Ten Years JNMA 26 1934 23 2 For general histories of the philanthropy and its founder see Edwin H Emhree and Julia Harman Investment in People The Story of the Julius Hosenwalo Fun New York Harper 1949 and M Ri werner Julius Rosenwald The Life of a Practical Humanitarian New York Harper 1939 28 For descriptions of the Negro Health Program see Bousfield quotProgram for Negro Health and Julius Rosenwald Fund Negro Hospitals pp las 29 Edwin H Embree Julius Rosenwalo Fund Review or Two Decades l917 1936 Chicago The Fund 1936 p 36 30 For descriptions of the hospital program of the Endowment see George P Harris quotThe Work of the Duke Endowment with South Carolina Hospitals Journal of the South Carolina Meoical Association 92 1929 1274 W S Rankin The Hospital rogram of the Duke Endowmentquot Duke Endowment Archives hereinafter DE Archives Duke University Library Durham NC Box 6 For a discussion of the Endowment s work in black hospitals see Vanessa Horthington Gamble quotThe Duke Endowment39s Black Hospital Policy 19241939 paper presented at the meeting of The Southern Historical Association November 1982 31 The Duke Endowment The Annual Report of the Hospital Seption 1937 Charlotte The Endowment 1938 p 24 I 32 George E Harris Record Keeping Procedures in the Small General Hospitals paper presented at Tri State Conference of Hospital Administrators Lincoln Hospital Durham NC 2425 October l940 DE Archives Box 181 33 See Tables Operating Account Contributions by Principal Sources in Annual Reports of the Hospital Section 1930193 Black hospitals were more dependent on the endowment than other hospitals Between 1930 l937 white hospitals received 39 of its operating account contributions from the Duke Endowment and mixed hospitals 36 34 For a general history of the philanthropy see Raymond E Fosdick Adventure in Giving The Story of the Genera Education Board New York Harper 1962 35 General Eduoationpeoardz Review and Final Report 19U2al964 47 New York The Board 1964 p 3 36 For a history of the General Eduoation39Board s activities at Meharry Medical College see Hine The Pursuit of Professional Equality 37p Julius Rosenwald Fund Trustee Minutes l6 November 1929 Julius Rosenwald Papers University of Chicago Library Chicago IL Addenda Box 2 3E The history of this project is analyzed in Vanessa Northington Gamble quotThe Prouident Hospital Project An Experiment in Black Medical Educationquot paper presented at the meeting of the American Association for The History of Medicine May l9E2 39 39 Werner Julius Rosenwald p 274 40 quotHospitals Registered by the American Medical Associationquot Journal of the gmerican Medical Associating ll4 March 30 l940 i195l258 41 The founding of this hospital and the subsequent controversy are extensively discussed in Pete Daniel quotBlack Power in the l92039s The Case of Tuskegee Veterans Hospital Journal of Sggthern History 36 1970 36688 Allen W Ryff quotThe Tuskegee Hospital Controversy 19211924quot MA thesis University of Delaware 1970 Raymond Wolters quotMajor Moton Defeats the Klan The Case of the Tuskegee Veterans Hospital in his The New Negro on Campus Black College Rebellions of the l9g0s Prin eton Princeton University Press l975 pp 137191 42 Wolters quotMajor Moton Defeats the Klanquot p 160 43 Ibid p l59 44 John A Kenney The Negro Hospital Renaissance 45 quotNational Hospital Association JNMA 15 l923 286 46 Julius Rosenwald Fund Negro Hospitals p 16 The exact number of black hospitals in 1929 is unknown Dr Algernon E Jackson surveyed 120 and the Rosenwald study reported 122 only 73 institutions appeared on both lists See Negro Hospitals p 13 W 47 Eugene H Bradley quotHealth Hospitals and the Negroquot Modern Hospital 65 August 1945 43 48 Julius Rosenwald Fund Negro Hospitals p l5 49 John W Lawlah How the Facilities of our Medical Schools Could Be Enlarged to Meet the Prospective shortage of Negro Doctors JNMA 35 19431 28 48 50 John A Kenney quotWhy the Community Hospitalquot in Historical Sketch of the Community Hospital Newark The Hospital 1939 p 5 W H Miller what is Ours We Should Conservequot JNMA 21 1929 1146 quotwhy A National Hospital Association JNMAAIB l926 l3B9 W 51 For an analysis of the Cleveland controversy see William Giffin quotThe Mercy Hospital Controversy Among Cleveland39s Afroehmerioan Civic Leaders 192 Journal of NegroHistory 61 1976 32750 For information on the professio al split in New York City see Louis T Wright quotHealth Problems of the Negzoquot Interracial Review B January l935 68 52 Reorganized Sydenham Hospital Has Interracial Board and Staff Modern Hospital 62 February l944 l2Q Chapter III The Civil Rights Years TheBlaokhospitall 45 1965 World War II served as a powerful impetus for the civil rights movement Approximately 12 million men and women served in the armed forces during the con lict1 Their participation in a war to defend democracy against Fascism and Nazism made racism at home increasingly untenable In the postwar years black Americans assisted by white allies began to vigorously protest racial discrimination These activists rejected the doctrine of quotseparateebutequal and instead pressed for the full integration of black people into all segments of American society Medical care did not escape the attention of the integrationists Separate medical facilities had been established within the context of a segregated society As segregation came under increased fire new challenges were posed for traditional black hospitals The debate called into question the very need for black hospitals The dismantlement of the Negro medical ghetto of which black hospitals were a major component was central to the civil rights movement Among the many forces pressing for change were the National Medical Association and the National Assooiation for the Advancement of Colored People The two organizations led the fight for medical civil rights2 The medical association had rejected its Previous espousal of accommodationism by the end of the War It now embraced integrationism In l94S its Board ct Trustees outlined a program to encourage the development of 50 interracial hospitals and to promote the integration of all hospital staffs3 Dr Walter Younge the president of the NMA recommended in 194 that the organization join forces with its former ideological antagonist the NAACP to launch a campaign to integrate hospitals4 A 1951 editorial quotIntegration only Practicable Goalquot published in the Journal of the National Medical Association clearly demonstrated the HMA39s new political ideology During its lifetime since 1395 the NHA has witnessed the trial and failure of nearly every formula that has been thought of to accord semblance of justice to Negroes in the manifold areas of health care within a segregative frameworkStraightforward1y and without subterfuge we must set to work to integrate constructively Negro personnel into all branches of the healing professions and their auxiliaries and to integrate white personnel into those valuable and significant facilities institutions and organisations which Negroes have built up over the years 39 Black physicians were no longer content to function on the periphery of American medicine in segregated institutions They wanted to be part of its mainstream The NMA and NACP maintained that a segregated health care system resulted in the delivery of inferior medical care to black Americans The organizations charged that a poorlyfinanced black medical ghetto existed which centered around two medical schools fourteen hospitals with approved teaching programs and about 98 additional hospitals6 These facilities they insisted could not adequately meet the health and professional needs of black people The two groups rejected the development of more black facilities as a solution to the problems The NH and NAACP 2 argued that a segregated health care system was expensive to maintain because it required the unnecessary duplication of services7 Such an arrangement contributed to the high cost of medical care The medical civil rights activists also documented the tragic consequences of hospital segregation They noted that a number of black people had died after they had been denied admission to white facilities The fight for hospital integration was not an exclusively black endeavor Black activists received support from white allies The American Hospital Association in 1942 decided to organise a national commission to make recommendations regarding a national program for hospitals The Commission on Hospital Care conducted from 1944 to l946 a comprehensive survey of American hospitals Its work was supported with funds from the Commonwealth Eund the W K Kellogg Foundation and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis In its final report the Commission concurred with many of the arguments of the black activists It acknowledged that separate facilities could not adequately serve all the needs of black Americans8 Segregation they added led to inferior health care The Commission recommended that hospital care for black and white patients be provided in the same hospitals It urged that more professional and educational opportunities be made available for qualified black nurses and physicians outside of black facilities Although the Commission recognized the inequities of segregated health care it bowed to contemporary racial politics Perhaps in an effort to gain widespread support for its general 52 recommendations regarding hospital care for all Americans it accepted the notion of separatehut equal facilities in areas where state sanctioned segregation existed White support for hospital integration was less cautious in the l950s Robert M Cunningham Jr managing editor of ggern Hospital in 1951 called for an end to racial discrimination in hospitals9 He urged physicians and other medical personnel to work toward the integration of the facilities Cunningham39s editorial was especially significant because it appeared in a major health care publication The medical civil rights actinists chose the Veterans h Administration hospital systemas the first target for integration It was a shrewd choice Segregation in this federal system especially underscored Americafs hypocrisy Men and women who had valiantly served their country found themselves barred from many of the facilities that had been established to serve veterans The Federal Government could give no clearer indication to the Negro that the democracy he fought for in the two World were included him too than by the elimination of segregated practices in the Veterans Administration systemquot commented Dr W Montague Cobb president of the black Medics Chirurgical Society of the District of Columbia and a member of the NAACP s National Medical Committeel0 Dr Cobb observed in 1948 that of the l2 Veterans Administration hospitals in operation by 3 November 1947 gwenty four had separate wards for blacks11 Nineteen facilities that were located in the South had no accommodations for black veterans Cobb withheld comment on 53 conditions at the remaining 84 institutions Thus the extent of segregation in them is unclear Efforts to integrate the veterans Administration hospital system began shortly after the end of World War II In October 1945 representatives of the NAACP National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses NMA MedicoChirurgical Society of the District of Columoia and the black press met with General Paul R Hawley the medical director of the Veterans Administration12 They lobbied for the complete integration of patients and personnel at veterans hospitals Their eftorcs were not immediately successful In fact not until sii years later did the civil rights activists score their irst victory on 6 June 1951 the House of Representatives rejected by a vote of 222 to ll7 a proposal to establish a 5 millionhospital for black veterans at Booker T Washington39s birthplace in Franklin County Virginial3 The proposal had been sponsored by Representative John E Rankin D Mississippi Chairman of the House Veterans Committee The congressman had argued that black veterans woulc receive better treatment in a racially exclusive hospital But the Veterans Administration opposed the bill and two black representatives Adam Clayton Powell Jr D New York and William L Dawson D Il1inoisJ39led thefloor fight against the bill Powell and Dawson argued that the proposal was racially discriminatory and that a separate hospital would be costly and unnecessary Three years later the integrationists won a more significant battle In October l954 the Veterans 54 Administration ordered an end to segregation in 3 its hospitals14 at the same time that efforts were initiated to integrate the veterans Administration hospital system Congress passed a piece of legislation which fostered the establishment of new segregated hospitals The 1946 Hospital Survey and Construction Act or the HillBurton Act sought to improve the plant and the distribution of hospitals by providing federal subsidies originally in rural areas15 The not provided funds for hospital construction limited to onethird the approved construction cost Allocations were made through the states and were based on their population and per capita income The Act alsorequired the formulation of statewide plans and surveys to assess and coordinate the need for hospital facilities The HilliBurton legislation made a weak attempt to address the problem of hospital segregation It oontained a antidisorimination clause that stipulated that hospitals which applied for funds must assure that their facilities were available to all persons living in the hospitals geographic area without discrimination by race ereed or color on the other hand the HillBurton Act contained a clause which endorsed the separatebuteegual doctrine The prohibitions against discrimination could be waived in cases where separate hospital facilities are provided tor separate population groups if the plan makes equitable provision on the basis of need tor facilities and services of like quality for each group l6 Thus the Hill Burton not permitted the construction of racially 55 exclusive hospitals Perceptions of the impact of the antidiscrimination and separate but equal clauses of the Act differed Dr Vane M Hogs Chief of the Division of Hospital Services United States Public Health Service hailed the antidiscrimination and separate but equal clauses of the hot as concrete steps toward the improvement of hospital services Eor the black oommunity17 But black physicians did not see it that way In 1946 Dr John A Kehney editor inechief of the qournal of the National Medical Association charged that black people would not receive an I equitable share of HillBurton funds because the distribution of funds and the interpretation of the separate buteequal clause were under state not federal oontrollB He further noted that the act had been championed as a quotstates rights bill in the Senate and that it specifically barred federal regulation of hospital policy A 194 editorial in the gournal of the National Medical Association contended that the Hille urton Act would not significantly increase the number of hospital beds for blacks because poor Southern communities would not have the funds to pay the required twothirds of the construction costs19 Black physicians also maintained that the separatesbut equal clause of the legislation perpetuated a segregated hospital system Their allegations proved correct HillBurton funds had assisted in the construction of 104 segregated hospitals by March 196420 Twenty black and 84 white facilities had been built The use of Hille urton monies to build segregated hospitals was not without incident The allocating of such unds to build 56 a black hospital in Evanston Illinois was particularly controversial It sparked tensions whioh centered on the very necessity of hlaok community hospitals in the era of the civil rights movement Community Hospital had been founded in lgl by Drs Isabelle E Butler and Elizabeth Hill to provide hospital service to the black residents of Chicago39s North Shore By the early l95Ds conditions at the hospital had greatly deteriorated One observer commented Albert Schweitser39s hospital in the middle of French Equatorial Africa must he betterquot21 The state of the hospital prompted a proposal to construct a new facility The plan divided the oommunity22 Proponents black and white argued that a new hospital was necessary to provide hospital service to the black oommunitya They stressed that the hospital was an interracial institmtion rather than a black one Supporters noted that the hospital had a biracial board of trustees and statf They conceded however that Community Hospital served a predominantly black clientele This they argued reflected residential patterns not enforced segregation Opponents countered that residential segregation produced institutional segregation and that Community Hospital Ea a black hospital They blasted the hospital construction as a perpetuation of racial segregation and as a ploy to forestall integration at the white Evanston Hospitala al951 editorial in Southerng ospitals harshly criticized the activities of the hospital opponents and advocated the need for black hospitals It also engaged in some redbaiting The editorial labeled the argnments of the opponents as 57 blather frequentlyindulged in by the ramrods of associations for advancement who also urge giving the lie to Russia by abolishing segregation in this country totally Let39s be realistic Things aren39t equal in Russia outside of the Party At least here we can equal in sickness and in health although separate In spite of the opposition a new 54 bed Community Hospital opened on 5 October 1952 The controversy generated by the construction of the hospital in Evanston makes plain the continuing dilemma in the black community about the establishment of separate racial institutions he dilemma centered on whether separate institutions should be tolerated because they met immediate community needs or should be opposed because they prevented the integration of black people into mainstream American society This dilemma did not escape even the ranks of the NAACP In 1951 the Memphis branch of the civil rights organization endorsed the construction of a black unit at John Gaston Hospital a municipal hospital24 They contended that the unit was desperately needed in order to assist black patients and professionals The National Board of the NAACP however maintained that quotcivil rights should prevail over practica1ities 25 The board threatened to rescind the charter of the Memphis branch unless it withdrew its support of the separate unit The branch eventually complied with the directive from the National Board On 1 May 1954 the Supreme Court handed down the landmark civil rights decision Brown U Topeka Board of Education The Court ruled that in the field of public education the doctrine of separatehuteequal was unconstitutional It found that the establishment of separate public schools for black children 58 violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment Although the Brown decision was limited to public education it set a precedent for challenging the separate butequal doctrine in other public institutions Armed with the Brown decision the medical civil rights activists began a judicial assault on hospital segregation ion 12 February 1962 in Greensboro North Carolina eleven black people sin physicians three dentists and two of their patients initiated the first litigation that challenged the separateebutequal clause of the Hill Eurton Act26 The plaintiffs filed suit against Moses H Cone Memorial Hospital and Wesley Long Community Hospital These were two new voluntary hospitals that had received Hill Burton funds for their construction The suit charged that the hospitals practiced racial discrimination in staff hiring and patient admissions In Simkins V Moses H cone Memorial Hospital the plaintiffs asked that the separatesbuteequal clause of the HillBurton Act he declared unconstitutional on the grounds that it violated the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment and the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment They also sought an injunction against the racially discriminatory practices at the hospital The Department of Justice and the Aerican Public Health Association filed amicus curiae briefs on behalf of the plaintiffs The District Court ruled against the plaintiffs and dismissed the case It noted that in order to be declared a violation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments a practice had to involue state or federal action27 The court ruled that 59 although there was clearevidence of racial discrimination no state or federal action was involved The plaintiffs appealed On l November l963 the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals decided that there was evidence of state action and reversed the lower court decision The Court of Appeals found that hospitals that received HilleBurtonfunds were instruments of the state Although they were not government owned or operated such facilities were integral parts of a state and federal plan to effectively allocate resources for the promotion and maintenance of public health The Court granted the plaintiffs the injunction In addition it ruled that the separatebut equal clause of the HillBurton Act violated the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments The United States Supreme Court refused to hear the case on appeal Therefore the Court of Appeals decision in the Simkins case stood The decision was a significant victory for medical civil rights It extended the principles of the Brown decision to hospitals including some not publicly owned and operated when Congress amended and expanded the HillBurton program in 1964 it omitted the separatebutequal olause28 The Simkins decision prohibited racial discrimination only in those hospitals that received Hill Burton funds However it served as judicial precedent in suits filed to prohibit discrimination at hospitals that did not receive such funds A The court case that extended judicial prohibitions against hospital segregation was Eaton V Grubbs2g Although the case was decided in 1964 its history predated the Simkins decision 60 In September l958 three black physicians and two of their patients in Wilmington North Carolina tiled suit against James Walker Memorial Hospital The plaintiffs charged that the hospital39s racially exclusioniat policies violated the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments The hospital had not received any Hill Burton subsidies Therefore the suit Eaton v Board 9 Hanagere of James Walker Memorial Hospital did not test the constitutionality of the aeparate but equal clause oi the Hill Burton Act The District Court ruled that the doctors did not have a right to treat their patients at the hospital and that the discriminatory polioies at the hospital did not involve state action Five years before it decided Sinkina in November l95B the Fourth Court of Appeals concurred with the lower court The United States Supreme Court refused to hear the case The plaintiffs resubmitted their complaint after Sinkins had been decided and used it as a precedent for judicial relief In April l9E4 the Fourth Court of Appeals in Eaton v grunts reversed its earlier decision It enjoined James Walker Memorial Hospital from continuing to refuse to admit black patients and to deny black physicians admitting privileges on a racially discriminatory basis The Court now viewed the hospital as an instrument of the state that was bound to the constitutional restrictions against racial discrimination As evidence of state action the Court pointed to the hoapital e receipt oi federal funds prior to the passage of HillBurton its exemption from property tax and its allocation of funds from local tax appropriations as further evidence it noted the reverter 61 clause in the hospital39s deed This clause stated that if the hospital ceased to function the property must be returned to the city and county The city and county in essence controlled use of the land because the property had to be used as a hospital The significance of the Eaton decision was that it broadly defined the links between voluntary hospitals and the state It expanded the prohibitions against racial discrimination beyond those hospitals that received HilliBurton funds The l964 Civil Rights act supplemented these judicial prohibitions against racial discrimination in hospitals Title VI of the Act stated No person in the United States shall on the ground of race color or national origin be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance In 1965 the Department of Health Education and Welfare issued regulations implementing Title VI in their programs3l These regulations stated that a hospital must be in compliance with Title VI in order to be eligible to receive federal assistance or to participate in any federally assisted program The passage of the Medicare and Medicaid legislation in the same year made most hospitals potential recipients of federal funds Thus they would be obligated to comply with the federal civil rights legislation Judicial decisions and civil rights legislation theoretically eliminated racial discrimination as the major impetus for the establishment of black community hospitals No longer would communities be able to build racially exclusionist 62 facilities for their black citizens No longer would black people need to establish their own hospitals because they would have increased access to previously white institutionsquot Many black physicians assumed that the subsequent integration of faoilities would be a bilateral collaborative Pkocess3E Black patients and staffs woulo integrate white hospitals and white patients and staffs would integrate black hospitals But the physicians soon discovered that their assumptions had been overly idealistic Integration would produce changes that adversely affected black community hospitals 63 Notes 1 Herbert H Morais The History of the Negro in Medicine New York PublishersquotCompany 1967 p 131 2 The strategies and activities of the two organizations are discussed in W Montague Cobb quotNational Health Program of the National Association for the Aovanoement of Colored People Journal of the National Medical Association hereinafter JHMA 45 1951 3339 quotThe Old Order Changethquot Eaitorial JNMA 46 1954 657 Proceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration JNMA 49 l95 189201 2723 3526 50 1958 6676 1424 22433 3 E 1 Robinson quotPresident39s Annual Addressquot JNHA 38 l946 210 4 Walter A Younge The President39s Annual Addressquot JNMA 39 1947 236 5 quotIntegration Only Praoticable Goalquot Editorial JNMA 43 1951 340 6 W Montague Cobb Medical Care and the Flight of thex egrg New York The National Association for the Aa ancement of Colored People 194 Pp 67 7 Proceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration JNMA 49 1950 200 3 Commission on Hospital Care quotProvision of Hospital Service and Quality of Care for Negroes in its Hospital Care in the United States New York Commonwealth Fund 1947 pp 1637 9 Robert M Cunningham Jr quotAre Hospitals for the Sick or Just Some of the Sick Editorial Modern Hospital 6 June 1951 51 E W i 10 w Montague coat Medical Care ana the Flight of theNegro p 36 11 Cobh quotProgress and Portents for the Negro in Medicine Crisis 55 f gril 1943 11920 12 Cobb Medical Care and the Flight of the Negro p 32 13 quotNegro Veterans Administration Hospital Proposal Defeatedquot JNM3 43 19511 343 14 Morais The History of the Negro in Medicine p 142 3915 Rosemary Stevens American Medicine and the Public Interest New Haven Yale University Press 1971 pp 50913 an id Institute ef Medicine Divisien at Health CateServices Health Cate in a Centent at Eieil Rights iwaehingtnn Hatienal Academy Press 1931 p 168 IT vane M Hagar The national Censtrnstien Pregtamw Jenn dd E1943 1026 Vane H Hege What the Hespital net Means be degrees Hatinnal Hegre Health News 15 April a June 194 1 3 13 Jehn as Kenney quotFederal ersus State Centrel Editeriai Jan 33 L946 4 19 Medical Legialatienquot Editetial JHMA 39 194 175 20 Hernia The History ef the Hegre in Medieine p 131 21 Heme A Jack quotIs Segregatien Really Necessary Medegn desiital 76 June 1951 525 32 Arguments fer bath sides of the eentteversy ean be eund in ass H Carnegie Bet Integration is Empty Talkquot Medern Hes ital TE June 1951 556 142 Jaek Is Segregatien Really Heeessaryquot pp 525 138dd quotWhe New Gemmunity Hespitalmef Eeanstnn Illineis JHHA 45 19531 45 23 The alla eere Hespital Editerial Seethetn Hespitals 19 September 1951 90 i 24 quotMemphis NAACP Branch Reseinds Endorsement et Negra Hespital gene 44 I952 31415 25 Ibid p 314 25 Federal Ceurt Rules Bias in Federally aided Hespitals Uneenstitutienalquot JHMA 55 1963 553 Greensbere Nnrth Catalina Group Files Hieterie Suit against Hospital Enelusien JNMH 54 E19621 259 J F Herty quotSimkins Case Creates Eieil Eights Pattern Simkins vs Meses H Gene Memerial Hespitalrquot Hedetn Hespital 102 June 1964 4044 158 quotBf Hesgitals Beaters and the Censtitutien Hes39itas 38 1 June 1964 1165 2 tThe Fifth amendment prehibits the iederal gevernment frnm denying a nersen due presses at law The Fnnrteenth amendment ptehihits a state frem denying a persen due process and equal preteetien ed the law quot 23 quotTest ef HwEW order en Hendiseriminatien by Hilla urtnn app1ieantsquot JNHA Ed 1964 349 29 Genrt Finds Voluntary Hespital Subject tn Feurteenth amendmentg Modern H epital 102 May 1954 133 e Hespitals masters and the Censtitntien Hes itals 33 1 June 1964 li6 quotPreeeedings ef the Imhetep Hatienal Cenferenee en 65 Hnsgital IntEgratinn JHMA 49 195 199200 quotsecand Suit Filed Against Wilmingtnn Earth Cagnlina Hospitalquot JHMA 53 i961 531 30 Me L Parker Civil Riqhtsact QE 1964 Health E ucati n and Welfare Indicatugg E ihugust 1964 iii 31 Implementation cf the Civil Right5Act in Medical Areas Fe eral Rules and Regulatinnsquot JNMAS E1955 15a 3 32 Integratin Only Praeticable G531 Editorial JHHE 43 195l 343 66 Chapter IV The Blast Community Hospital Today in l965 Dr Charles D Watts and Dr Frank W Scott observed that the gains of the civil rights movement significantly affected the status of black oonnunity hospitals They wrote quotAs we pass from a period of segregation in medical care and medical education Lincoln and hospitals like it are having to look for new roles to play or run the risk of becoming obsolete l As we have seen the predominant social role of black hospitals had been to provide medical care and professional training for black people within the context of a segregated society An examination of the fate of the hospitals since the enactment of the Civil rights legislation oi the 19605 clearly reveals that these institutions have had great dittioulty adapting to the loss of this social tnnotion Black hospitals have struggled to tind a new mission within the context of an integrated society in the years since the and of legally sanctioned racial segregation the number of black hospitals has sharply declined In 1944 124 black hospitals operated in the United States2 By l987 the number of historically black hospitals had decreased to 10 Table 7 Among the hospitals closed were St Agnes Raleigh North Carolina 1961 St Mary s Infirmary St Louis Missouri 1969 MercyDouglass Hospital Philadelphia Pennsylvania l973 Mound Bayou Hospital Mound Bayou Mississippi E1983 and FlintGoodridge Hospital New Orleans Louisiana l9B5 67 The closings of these facilities prompted Dr Calvin C sanpson then assistant editor or The Journal of the National Medical Association in l974 to warn It will be a sad commentary and a blight on all black pioneers in medicine if we allow our black community hospitals to succumb to inaction and expediency If the trend continues the black community hospital as we know it will become extinct As did his medical predecessors in the 1920s and 19303 Sampson urged black physicians to take active roles to support and save the institutions For the most part his advice went unheeded and black hospitals have continued to shut their doors The end for some of these facilities did not come without a struggle The 1979 closing of St Louis Homer G Phillip Hospital the former City Public Hospital for Colored was particularly controversial4 Prior to its demise the hospital had become dilapidated It had even lost its license because of health and safety code violations Nonetheless the city39s o action sparked political protests in St Louis Members of the black community contended that the hospital was crucial for the health care of inner city residents Its closure it was said would deny residents access to a municipal hospital in close proximity to their neighborhood The supporters of the hospital saw in Homer 6 Phillip a source of pride and employment for the community They charged that the city39s actions were racially discriminatory Activists took to the streets in protest and filed suit to reopen the hospital Their e forts failed and Homer G Phillip remained closed Its responsibilities were shifted to Max C Starkloff Hospital This municipal hospital 68 was located across town from homer G Phillip Thus the former patients oi Homer G Phillip had to travel a great distance in order to receive medical care In addition to ceasing operations a number or black community hospitals have undergone significant organizational changes through conversions mergers and consolidations These transitions have resulted in the loss of the hospitals either as autonomous black institutions or as facilities dedicated to serve the black community Nathaniel Wesley a policy analyst of black hospitals reported that between 1961 and l9B5 in addition to approximately 52 hospitals that closed 13 facilities had changed their organizational statuses5 Lincoln Hospital in Durham North Carolina exemplified these changes The hospital had been founded in 1901 by the Duke family The family whose wealth stemmed from tobacco interests established the hospital in appreciation of the loyalty of slaves during the Civil war6 Lincoln Hospital operated as an independent institution for sixty two years In l973 control of the hospital was transferred to the Durham County Hospital Corporation Three years later it ceased to function as a hospital when it was converted to Lincoln Community Health Center an ambulatory care tacility Black hospitals have also merged with other hospitals or have become part of larger hospital systems These mergers and consolidations are often viewed as strategies to insure the institution39s survival The case of Baltimore39s Provident Hospital is typical of this pattern The hospital founded in 69 l894 was one of the first blackcontrolled hospitals in the United States But by l93 the hospital found itself in dire financial straits7 Indeed that year it went into receivership and almost closed Six years later Provident Hoapital39s future appeared more auspicious By 1979 it had not only recovered from its financial problems but had a surplus The hospital39s former president Thomas Chapman pointed to the support of the black community and the hospital39s demonstrated commitment to the particular needs of blacks as major factors in Provident39s revival8 The hospital had established a sickle cell disease screening program extensive community health education activities and a churchbased hypertension screening project Yet Provident Hospital39s success proved illusory By March l9E5 it had accumulated operating losses of approximately 32 million That same month Provident Hospital filed for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy act Several factors oontributedtothe reversal of the hospital39s fortunes They include a boycott that had been initiated by a group of physicians in November 1985 in an attempt to oust Provident39s president Dr Oakley H Saunders Their action of course led to a decline in the hospital39s occupancy rate Provident also provided a significant amount of uncompensated care In 1984 the amount was 4 million and accounted for 114 percent of the hospital39s budget Only two other general hospitals in Maryland exceeded the percentage of uncompensated care delivered at Provident Provident Hospital could not raise its rates in order to help balance its budget The Maryland Health Services Cost T0 Review Commission in January l9E5 rejected the hospital39s request for an emergency l0 percent rate increase The physicians ended their boycott in June 1985 after the hospital39s trustees under pressure from the Bankruptcy Court dismissed Saunders Subsequently occupancy rates increased but Provident Hospital39s operating losses continued to mount on 31 July last Provident Hospital closed its doors Dr Joseph M Miller Director of Medical Education attributed its demise to an overabundance of hospital beds in Baltimoreg He also explained that well trained black physicians could practice at a number of hospitals Provident Hospital was no longer their only option one month after its closure Provident Hospital was resurrected but not as an autonomous black institution The hospital merged with Lutheran Hospital to become Liberty Heights Medical Center on 31 August 1986 Hospital officials do not consider Liberty Heights a black facility Even Chicago39s Provident Hospital the first blaCk contro1led hospital and once the premier black medical institution faces an uncertain future In l976 Provident39s physical plant had so deteriorated that it was cited for health and safety code violations1O Its accommodations had become obsolete Sections of the hospital housed seven to nine bed wards equipped with hallway bathrooms In addition the hospital did not have sufficient space for ambulatory care These problems prompted the hospital to embark on a campaign to build a new facility In 1933 a new 30 bed hospital opened11 The administrative staff of the hospital hoped that its modern 71 patient accommodations and up toidate diagnostic facilities would l2 attract middle class patients and their physicians Their expectations were not met The new hospital suffered as did the old from low occupancy rates It continued to serve mostly poor patients Robert T Smith chief operating officer estimated in April l9B7 that 75 of its patients received public medical assistance and another 8 were uninsuredl3 Provident Hospital was also plagued by infighting between the medical staff and the board of trustees and allegations of mismanagement By July 1987 the hospital had accumulated a 40 million debt including a 2 million mortgage and a 9D00DD electric bill And in a move that has become so characteristic of many black hospitals the hospital was forced to file for bankruptcy14 Two months later the hospital suspended operations Efforts are now underway to reopen the hospital one plan that is under consideraton would have the hospital become a satellite of Cook County Hospital In any case the future for Provident Hospital as a black community hospital looks bleak I The ten historically black hospitals that do remain are struggling to survive The future for several looks grim For the most part the hospitals share a striking resemblance to their 19205 predecessors They are small financially distressed and they do not have clinical training programs The adoption of integration as a societalgoal has been the major factor accelerating the demise of black community hospitals It has also affected that status of the few black medical facilities that remain as early as l96 Hiram Sibley 72 the Executive Director of the Hospital Planning Council of Metropolitan Chicago went so far as to proclaim quotThe Negro quot15 More hospital is dead The Civil Rights hot killed it recently Haynes Rice Executive Director of Howard University Hospital offered a similar assessment of the impact oi integration on black hospitals Integration provided for the elimination oi black institutions The oommunity could not support black institutionsgg integrationquot16 Both oomments accurately describe the impact of the civil rights movement on black institutions Civil rights legislation increased the access of black people to previously white health care facilities Consequently black hospitals faced a dilemma that was full of irony They now competed with hospitals that had once discriminated against black patients and staff Many black health ears professionals idealistioally assumed that integration would be a two may process Black patients and staff would integrate white hospitals white patients and staff would integrate black hospitals It soon became apparent however that integration was predominantly a one way street out of the black facilities The white community no longer needed to support black hospitals either as humanitarianendeavors or as bulwarks of segregation Nor did black hospitals represent the only option for black health care professionals and patients Desegregation resulted in an exodus of physicians black and white from black community hospitals Where white physicians had once used these facilities to admit and treat their black patients they now abruptly out their ties to the 73 black hospitals In 1966 236 white physicians on the courtesy staff of New 0rleans39 FlintGoodridge Hospital dropped their admitting privileges at the hospitall After the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act 75 percent of the white physicians at Atlanta39s Hughes Spalding Pavillion stopped admitting their black patients thereL8 Instead these doctors began admitting the black sick to previously all white hospitals Hughes Spalding had 407 white and 43 black physicians on its visiting staff immediately prior to the enactment of the Civil Rights Act when white physicians failed to use the hospital a steep decrease in its occupancy rate soon followed Black community hospitals built to serve black patients and physicians also faced decreasing occupancies as black physicians received admitting privileges elsewhere Initially members of the black medical community feared that black hospitals would be dismantled before meaningful integration of white institutions had occurred A 196 editorial in The Journal of the National Medical Association articulated these concerns Inherent in this situationis the feeling on the part of Negroes involved that the product of their sweet and toil over the years will be dashed away in the name of progressand that they will find themselves again at the bottom of the ladder where they started Thus the entrenched white profession cou Q continue to withhold from them a genuine respect Despite these fears black physicians did in fact obtain admitting privileges at white hospitals Consequently many abandoned black community hospitals The physicians actions must take professional considerations into account Black physicians had long fought for acceptance within the broader 74 medical community Affiliation with majority hospital offered them better facilities and equipment and an opportunity to he a part of mainstream medicine The failure of black medical professionals to continue to support black hospitals has had an adverse effect on the institutions Dennis Gowie a former administrator at Baltimore39s Provident Hospital commented in 1976 on the erosion of black medical support at his hospital He observed not enough black physicians see the potential or care to become involved in the development of this hospital but indicate a preference to take their patients to the same hospitals to which just a few years ago hath they and their patients were denied admittance More recently Dr Reginald Peniston a cardiovascular surgeon at Howard University Hospital harshly criticized blank physicians for turning their backs on black medical institutions He wrote A tragic and revolting experience is to witness physicians who one the refinement of their art and the fulfillment of their professional desires to Meharry Medical College and Howard University College of Medicine systematically and delioeragely abandon the very institutions that nurtured them The arguments of Gowie and Peniston are well taken Most black physicians today do not utilize black hospitals This of course has contributed to a decline in patient admissions Most contemporary black medical professionals are not exclusively dependent on black medical institutions Many train and practice in predominantly white hospitals As recently as 1967 approximately 83 percent of the 6000 practicing black physicians had obtained their medical education at either Howard or Meharry22 Today the four predominantly black medical schools 75 awardonly 20 percent of the MD degrees granted to blacks in this country23 As black physicians have struggled for and gained acceptance and legitimacy in the mainstream medical profession black hospitals have become less crucial to their careers Compared to their predecessors these physicians do not have strong allegiances to black medical institutions Black community hospitals have also seen their pool of patients decline since 1965 Civil rights legislation made it legally feasible for black patients to receive medical care at previously segregated hospitals Medicare Medicaid and the increased availability of third party insurance made their treatment at such institutions economically possible After desegregation black patients wanted to be treated by the same institutions that had previously barred them These patients often perceived all black institutions as being inherently inferior to white ones Supporters of black hospitals acknowledge that such perceptions continue to persist and are serious obstacles to their efforts to save the hospitals24 These attitudes are of course incorrect Black people have managed and operated high quality institutions Nonetheless because of the loss of patients and the erosion of physician support some black hospitals have not been able to provide the accommodations and diagnostic facilities of hospitals that are whiterun These hospitals may provide superior health care not because they are run by whites but because they have more abundant resources The inability of black hospitals to compete successfully for patients and staff with previously white facilities has created 76 dilemmas for black institutions as the erosion of the patient base reduces hospital income personnel salaries become less competitive needed equipment cannot be purchased and capital improvements cannot be made The consequent deterioration and obsolescence makes it even more difficult for the hospitals to attract patients and qualified personnel This produces a vicious cycle which lends credence to the perceptions that black hospitals cannot provide optimal medical care research facilities and training opportunities Historically black hospitals developed as small Eacilities with limited financial resources Many of their patients have been and continue to be members oi low income groups These patients either have no health insurance or are covered by Medicaid Consequently the hospitals have provided a large amount of uncompensated health care The provision of such care contributes to the financial instability of black hospitals Several studies have identified small urban hospitals with narrow financial bases as particularly vulnerable for failure25 The September l980 closing of Morningside Hospital in Les anqeles is illustrative26 The 125 bed hospital was operated by Lutheran Hospital Society oi Southern California Although not a historically black hospital it served a predominantly poor and black community By the time that it closed the hospital received Bl percent of its patient revenues from Mediecal and Medicare lts demise has been attributed to inadequate reimbursement from HediCal and Medicare Research conducted by health planner Alan Sager also T suggests that racial factcrs in additien tc financial ccncerns cften play a rcle in hcspital clcsinga2 Sager analysed the clcsings and relecaticns cf urban vcluntary hcspitals cccurrinq between l93T and 19 in eighteen Ncrtheastern and Midwestern cities He fcund a direct relaticnship between the percentage cf mincrity pcpulaticn centigueus tc the hcspital and the prcpcrticn cf hcspital clcsings er relccatiens as the mincritv pcpulatien increased sc did the prcpcrticn cf clesed er relccated hcspitals In neighhcrhccds that were 025 percent white in IQTQ enly 142 percent cf the hespitals that eristed in 193 had clcsed cr relocated by l 72E In ccntrast in ccnmunities that were 762100 percent hlach in l9T0 469 percent had clcsed er relccated by la Hcspital planners have came te vies hcspital clcsures and bed reducticns as effective strategies tc ccntain health care cests Sager39s cert hcwever suggests that the burdens cf these pclicies have been disprcpcrticnately carried by mincrity ccmmunitiesi The survival cf black cemmunity hcspitals raises the questicn whether the gains cf the civil rights mcvement has rendered black instituticns cbscletea Hceever in recent years the black ccmmunity has begun te debate the impact cf the mcvement and reassess the need fer b1ack ccntrclled instituticns There has alsc been increased interest in black ccmmunity develcpment and self reliancea This interest has been fueled by the d enphasis cn civil rights and affirmatihe acticn that marks ccntenpcrary American scciety The ccntinued need fer black hcspitals must he examined in the ccntest cf these larger issues T8 Integration has resulted in the loss of much of the infrastructure of the black community including schools businesses newspapers and hospitals Supporters of black institutions point out that black eontrolled enterprises are not without merit They provide young blacks with role models and the opportunity to see people of their own race in leadership positions Black institutions allow black professionals autonomy and power that they do not enjoy in majority institutions For example black physicians may now have access to previously segregated hospitals but very few are in policywmaking and leadership positions at these hospitals There remains a need to improve health care delivery to black Americans Their health status continues to lag behind that of white Americans in 1983 the life expectancy for whites was 752 years and for blacks was 696 years29 This gap of 56 years is even greater than it first appears The life expectancy of blacks in l983 had been reached by whites in the early l950s In 1981 the black infant mortality rate was almost twice the rate of whites 20 infant deaths per 1000 live births versus l0u5w30 The 1935 geport of the Secretary s Task Force on slash and Minority Health documents the shockingly poor health status of many blacks Margaret M Heckler Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services commissioned the task force to examine the disparity between the health status of blacks and other minorities compared to white Americans They found that almost 60000 excess deaths occurred each year in minority popu1ations31 Six causes of death accounted for more than 80 percent of the excess mortality namely heart disease and stroke homicide and accidents cancer infant mortality cirrhosis and diabetes For example cardiovascular diseases and strokes accounted for 24 percent of the ercess mortality among black males and d1 percent among black females Cancer accounted for 15 percent of the excess mortality among black males and 41 percent among black females Wellerun and fiscally sound black community hospitals could help improve these disparities by offering quality medical care to inner city residents They could also develop programs that emphasise the health needs of the black population The connection oetween black hospitals and hlack community wellebeing is demonstrated by the projects and services offered by such institutions as Howard University Hospital which has several programs devoted to diseases that affect large numbers of hlach people The diseases targeted by Howard include vitiligo sickle cell disease hypertension and sarcoidosis Black hospitals could perhaps find a new mission in developing as research and treatment centers dedicated to blackrelated diseases In addition black hospitals could function as advocates of black health care needs within governmental and professional organisations Hospitals cannot be viewed simply as health care institutions They are also economic ones Hospitals provide employment and bring financial resources into a community For example as percent of the employees of North General Hospital a black Voluntary hospital in Harlem live in the neighborhood BU surrounding the hospital32 Aviab1e black hospital could contribute to the economic and political infrastructure of the black community It could also serve as a strong component for black economic development Despite the reassessment of black oontrolled institutions the urgent need to improve the health status of black Americans and the resurgence of interest in black economic development the future for many black hospitals remains bleak Larger institutions such as the 4Bl bed Howard University Hospital will probably survive Howard s viability is bolstered by an annual federal subsidy of 22 million Haynes Rice the hospita1 s executive director concedes that programs at the hospital would have to be eliminated if the subsidy were withdrawn33 Howard University Hospital is in a stronger position than any other black hospital General trends in the hospital industry will compound the problems of smaller institutions Increased emphasis on cost containment the growth of alternative delivery systems such as health maintenance organizations and the introduction of prospective payment systems will make these institutions even more vulnerable to dismantlement All hospitals not just black institutions that have weak financial bases and that offer less than quality services to patients and physicians will not be able to compete in future markets They will be forced to olose their doors Black community hospitals have had a significant impact on the lives of black Americans originally created to provide health care and education within a segregated context these Bl institutions evolved to be symbols of black pride and achievement They supplied medical care provi ed training opportunities and contributed to the development ofia black professional class The hospitals were once orucial for the survival of the black medical profession in this country In more recent years the hospitals have fallen on hard times and are struggling to survive They have become peripheral to the lives of most black people The fate of black hospitals lies in the hands of the black Amerioans White political and iinanoial assistance would of course be important elements of any movement to save these institutions However the impetus must come from black Americans If they do not become advocates for the institutions no one else will If black hospitals are to survive efforts will have to be initiated to support them and guarantee that they have the resources to be quality institutions It remains to be seen whether the black community will take up the challenge or whether an important black institution will be allowed to become extinct 82 Notes 1 Charles D watts and Frank W Scott Lincoln Hospital of Durham North Carolina A Short History Journal of the National Medical Association Hereinafter JNMA 57 1965 183 2 Eugene H Bradley quotHealth Hospitals and the Negroquot Modern Hospital 65 August 1945 43 3 Calvin C Sampson Death of the Black Community Hospital Fact or Fictionquot Editorial JNMA 66 1974 165 4 Case Against Reopening Phillips Editorial St Louis o1obe Demoerat 12 March 1981 p 14A Leroy Gross St Louis Hay Close BlaokeRun Hospital Leaving Inner City Residents Without Facilityquot Hospital Physician l4 April 1978 45 46 quotHomer G Phillips Historic Training Hospital for Black Physicians May Pass the Scenequot Urban Health 5 October 1976 227 Judge Clears Hospital Closing in St Louisquot Hospitals 53 16 October 1979 20 5 Nathaniel Wesley Jr Black Hospitals Listing and Selected Commentary Tradition Competition ans Te Management of Change Washington DC 1986 Unpublished pp 3l6 6 One First In which We May Take Justifiable Pridequot The Health Bulletin North Carolina Eoara of Health 45 March 1930 6 7 Free Hines Provident Hospital Curing Its Financial Ills Metropolitan Magazine February 1980 p 10 8 Emily Friedman Private Black Hospitals A Long Tradition Faces Change Hospitals 55 1 July 1981 67 9quot Joseph M Miller quotDemise of Provident Hospital Letter JNMA 73 1936 919a20 10 Personal interview with Julius Alexander and Aretha M Hills Provident Hospital Chicago IL 15 October 1981 11 The New Provident Hospital Medical Center JNMA 75 19831 727 12 Provident Hospital Interview 15 October 1981 13 Deborah Pinkney quotFuture Looks Bleak For Blaek Hospitals American Medical Neys 10 April 1987 p 50 14 John Kass and Devonda Byers quotProvident Hospital Shutting Downquot Chicago Tribune 15 September 1987 p 2 15 John T Foster quotWhat39s Ahea for Negro Hospitalsquot Modern B3 Hos ital lD9 November 1967 114 16 Personal Interview with Haynes Rice Howard University Hospital Washington DC B October 1982 1 Frances Ridgway Atlanta opinions Clash Over Role of the Negro Hospital Modern Hospital 109 November 1967 114 l8 Ibid p 118 19 quotFactors Influencing the Fate or the Negro Hospital Editorial Jams 59 l967 213 20 quotProvident Hospital Baltimore From Reoeivership to Recovery Urban Health 5 April l96 30 21 Reginald L Peniston A Racial View of Medical Educationquot game 79 l9B 144 22 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Special Report The Eogndation s Minority Medical Training Programs Princeton NJ The Foundation 1987 Pi B 23 The four schools are Howard University School of Medicine Washington DC Meharry Medical College Nashville Tennessee Horehouse School of Medicine Atlanta Georgia and Charles R Drew Postgraduate Me ioal School Howard Meharry and Morehouse are four year schools Drew provides two years of clinical training for minority students who have completed their basic science years at UCLA 24 La ah D Payne Survival of Black Hospitals in the US Health Care System A Case Study in BlackOrganizations Issues in Survival Teohniqnes ed Lennox S Yearwood Lanham MD University Press of America Ino 1980 P 205 Rice Interview 8 October 1982 25 Dorothy McNeil and Robert Williams quotWide Range of Causes Found for Hospital Closures Hospitals 52 1 December 1978 7681 Ross Mullnew Calvin S Eyre and Joseph D Kubal Five Year Trend Shows Urban Community Hospitals at Risk for Closurequot Urban Health ll April 1982 369 Donald F Phillips Small urban Hospital A Question of Survival gspitals 48 1 October l974 714 26quot Jack Smith Requiem For A Hospital Morningside and Those To Come CHE Insights 5 13 October 1980 27 Alan Sager Urban Hospital Closings In The Face or Racial Change Health paw Project LibraryBulletin 5 June 1980 16981 28 Ibia P 171 84 29 United States Department of Health and Human Services g por g heWSeg gtary39s Task Force on Black and Minority Healgh Ualgme 1 Executive Summary Washington Gavernment Printing Office 1985 p 2 an Ibid p 2 31 Ibid p 5 32 Telephone Interview with Eugene Mccabe 28 August 198 33 Pinkney quotFuture Looks Bleak p 50 PART II RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY 86 Entries for this research bibliography were derived primarily from journals and magazines There are very few newspaper references Hospital annual reports are also not included in the bibliography The bibliography is arranged chronologically and topically to correspond with the historical overview and also arranged according to hospital Entries include not only direct references to black hospitals but also references to factors which significantly affected the development of these facilities Since many entries were obtained from The Journal of the National nedieal Association the journal is abbreviated to JNHA in this bibliography 37 BLACK HOSPITALS GENERAL REFEREEES Cobb W Montague quotThe Black American in Medicine J a supplement 73 I981 11811244 Curtis James L Historical Perspectives In his Blacks Mediqai Schools and Society pp 127 Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press 1971 Davis Lenwood G A History at Public Health Health Problems Facilities and Services in the Black Community A Working Bibliography Mbnticello Illinois Council of Planning Librarians 1975 Exchange Bibliography 844 Morais Hetbert M The History of the Negro in Medicine New York Publishers Company L967 Reitzesi Dietrich C gagraes in Medicine Cambridge Harvard University Press 1958 Rice Mitchell F and Jones Woodrow Jr comps Black American Health An Annotated Bibliography New York Gf enwood Press 198 f T 83 THE EARLY teaes THE BLACK HOSPITAL TO i920 oeuagit Downing L C quotEarly Negro Hospitals JMHA 33 I941 1318 Ha11George C quotNegro Hospitalsquot Southern workman 39 October 1910 5514 1 quot Infirmary for Negroes at Savannah Geo Charleston Medical Journal and Review T 1852 724 Kenney John A quotThe Hospital Idea Essentially altruisticquot qmmn 4 July September 1912 1939 The Neggo in edioine Tuskegee Alabama 1912 i 1 Poetell William Dositea Slave Hospitals In his The ealth of Slaves on SouthernPlantations pp 129141 1951 Reprint Gloucester MA Peter Smith 1970 Richings G F Hospitals and Homesquot In his Evidences of Progress Among Colored People PP 330398 Philadelphia George S Ferguson 1896 Hospitals and Homesquot In his Evidenoes of Progress Among Colored People pp 392410 Philadelphia George S Ferguson 1905 United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Education quotHospitals and Nurse Training Schoolsquot In Negro Education vol 1 p 176 Washington Government Printing Otfice 1917 1 Williams Daniel Hale quotThe Need of Hospitals and Training Schools for Colored People of the Southquot National Hospital and Sanitarium Record 3 April 1900 37 Also in AME Chgrch Review 1 July 1900 918 HOSPITAL AnmneTnATion AND ORGANIZATION Downing Lylburn C quotSome Points on Developing a Hospital Jenn 11 1919 953 Hale Mr J E quotHospital and Training School Methodsquot JNMA 11 1919 126 Mossell N F quotThe Modern Hospital Its Construction organization and Managementquot J gA 1 1909 94102 89 The Modern Hospital Largely Educational JEMA 8 1916 1334 MEDICAL EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEWELUPMENT quotBetter Preparation for the Practitioner of Medicine Jnna 11 11919 1089 Brown A M quotThe Profession and Conservation of Negro Healthquot JNg 6 1914 21521 Dyson Walter Founding the School of Medicine of Howard Uniyergity 18581873 Washington DC Howard University studies in History No 10 1929 quotEditorialquot JNMA 1 1909 1045 quotFor the Training of Negro Doctors gutlook 136 March 19 1924 462 4i Gamble H F quotReport of Committee on Medical Education and Negro Medical Schoolsquot QQMA 1 1909 2578 A Grave Injusticequot Editorial JNMA 3 1911 159 Hine Darlene Clark quotThe Anatomy or Failure Medical Education Reform and the Leonard Medical School of Shaw University 188261920quot Journal of Negro Education 54 1985 51225 Johnston George A The Flexner Report and Black Medical Schoolsquot JNMA 76 1934 2235 Nickens Herbert H quotA Case of Professional Exclusion in 1870 The Formation of the First Black Medical Society Journal of the American Medical Association 253 1985 2S49e2552 A Problem Editorial JNMA 7 1915 2123 Report of Committee on Medical Education on Colored Hospitalsquot JNMA 2 1910 28391 Todd L Savitt The Education of Black Physicians at Shaw University 183251918 In Black Americans in North quot Carolina andthe South Edited by Jeffrey J Crow and Flora J HatleyJ4EhaEel Hill University of North Carolina Press 1984 90 quotLincoln University Medical Department A Furgotten 19th Century Black Medical School ggurnal of the History of Medicige and Allied Sciences 40 1985 4265fT i NURSE TRAINING Kenney John A Some Facts Concerning Negro Nurse Training Schaals and Their Graduates EMMA 11 1919 53368 Sloan Patricia E quotCcmmitment to Equality A View of Early Black Nursing Schoo1sF In Historical Studies in Nursinf pp aaiss Edited by Louise Fitzgatrick New York Teachers College Press 1973 car BLACK Hoserrar MOVEMENT THE BLACK HOSPITAL 19291345 GENERAL quotAccommodations tor Negroes Modern Hospital 59 July 1942 40 T Adams Numa P G quotAn Interpretation of the Signi icance of the Homer G Phillips Hospitalquot JNMA 26 1934 l3 quotsources of Supply of Negro Health Personnel Section A Physiciansquot Journal of Negro g ucation 6 1937 46876 Additions to Hospitals JNMA 22 1930 240 An Advance for Negro Healthquot Modern Hospital 62 February 1944 42 Alexander W G quotOur Hospital Number JNMA 22 1930 l65i American Medical Association quotHospitals For Negroes Regietereo By The American Medical Associationquot 10 October l934 Typewritten Bethea Dennis A Some Significant Negro Movements to Lower Their Mortalityquot June 22 1930 85 8E Bradley Eugene H Health Hospitals and the Negroquot Modern Hospital 65 August l945 434 Brown Lawrence Greeley The Hospital Problem of Negro Physicians JNA 34 l942i 835 Carney E R quotThe Care of the Negro39e Health Problem is one of Today e Problemsquot Hospital Management 48 September 1939 22 65 l i T quotDirectory of Negro Hospitals in the United Statesrw 1938 quotHospital Care for Negroes National Negro Health News l0 JanuaryMarch 1942 446 Carter Elmer A quotRace Prejudice in Municipal Hospitals Editorial Oggortunity 19 1941 22 Changes In Negro Hospitalsquot Trained Eurse and oegital Review 87 l93l l96 9 213 92 Charitable Segregationquot Toe Fraeernel Reqiew 10 January 1931 T quotComments on Hospital Edition of Journalquot JNMA 22 L930 2D3e9 quotComments on Hospital Report JNMA 23 19311 190 Commission on Hospital Care quotProvision of Hoepital Service and Quality of Care for Negroesquot in its Hospital Care in the United sgatee pp 1637 Hem York Commonwealth Fund 194 Corneley Paul B quotTrends in Public Health Activities Among Negroes in 96 Southern Counties During 1930 1939 JNMAo34 1942 311 Crawford W Hamilton Discussion of John A Hornsby Papero Transactions of the American Hospital Association 32 1930 6458 ii Dailey U G The Negro in Medicine JNMA 34 1942 llB9 quotThe New Hospital Era JNMA 22 1930 1678 Davie Michael M quotProblems of Health Service tor Negroesquot Jogypel of Eegro Education 6 19371 43849 The Dawn of a Better Dayquot JNMA17 1925J 209210 Dumas A W quotThe Private Hospital Editorial iJHMR 25 1933 l3U 1 Gage Nina D quotHoepitai Facilities for Negro Patients in the South Bu1letinof the American Hospital Assooiation 6 July 1932 1268 Go and Euiid One For Yourseives Editorial JNMA 26 1934 g9 3o Green H M quotA Brief Study of the Hospital Situation Among Negroes June 22 1930 1124 The Hospital Surveyquot J g 21 1929 134 quotHospitals and Public Health Facilities For Negroes Proceedings of the National Conference of eociai way 95 T1923 17350 T A More oi Less Critical Review oi the Hospital Situagion Among Negroes in the Unite Stateei nd girca 1930 i 93 Guzman Jessie Parkhurst ed quotNegro Hospitalsquot In gegro Year Book A Reviewof Events Affecting Negro Eite 19411946 PP 336338 Tuskegee lnstitute Alabama The Department of Records and Research Tuskegee Institute 1947 Hornsby John A some Special Problems of Southern Hospitalsquot Transactions oi the American Hospital association 32 1930 638645 Hospital Provision for the Negro Race Journal of the American Medical Association 94 1930 l4l4l4l5 quotHospital Surveyquot O fortunit 7 1929 195 quotHospitals in Prospectquot Editorial JNMA l4 1922 lE5 Investigation of Negro Hospitals Journal of the Americaggmeoigal Association 92 19291 l375 l376 Jackson Algernon Brashear quotHospitals and Healthquot JNMA 22 l930 115 ll9 quotPublic Health and the Negro JNMA l5 1923 256259 Jackson E A quotThe Need of Better Hospital Facilities Among our Peoplequot JNMA l3 1921 5a58 Julius Rosenwald Fund Negro Hospitals aEompilation of Available Statistics Chicago The Fund l93l Kenney John A quotThe Interracial Committee of Montclair New Jersey Report of Survey of Hospital Committee JNMA 23 l93ll 97109 The Negro Hospital Renaissancequot Jane 22 T1330 109112 quotA Reasonable Program For our Hospitalization Movementquot J g 23 1931 l58l60 Manhattan Medical Society ggualg pportuoity go More a No Lessl An Open Letter toMr Edwin E Embree President of the Julius Rosenwald Fund New York 28 January l931 Merited Recognitionquot Editorial Modern Hospital57 September l94l 5D Miller W H quotWhat Is Ours we Should Conserve JNMA 24 August 1932 3034 94 Murray Peter Marshall quotHospital Provision for the Negro Race Bulletin of the American Hospital Association 4 1930 3746 Negro Doctors and Their Hospitals Editorial or ortunitp 3 August 1925 22 quotNegro Hospital Needs ani How They Should Be Metquot Modern Hospital 35 September 1930 86 39 quotNegro Hospitals Urged to Quality for ACS and Blue Cross Approval Modern Hospital 62 January 1944 45 On The Firing Line Editorial J 23 193l 9293 quotOur Hospital Problemsquot Editorial JNMA 21 l929 114 116 A Plea for More Hospitals for Negroesquot Modern Hospital 25 1925 l26 Ponton T R Hospital Service For Negroes Hos ital p anapement El March 194i 1415 50 i quotPresent Status of the Negro Physician and Negro Patientquot JNHA 37 1935 9 B0 Prooope John L quotThe Colored Man and the Blue Crossquot Modern Hospital 62 April 1944 59 quotPublic works Administrationquot JHM 29 1937 71 quotA Recommended Hospital Program Editorial QNMA 23 lf93quot139 1140443 quot Roman C V Our Hospitals JNMA 22 1930 16 Ross Marys Improved Negro Hospital Facilities Is Hopeful Sign For The Southquot Modern Hospital 39 October 1932 5360 Smith S W quotDeficiency of Bed Space and Suggestions for Remediesaquot JHMA 33 1941 2E 9 Stubbsg Frederick D quotThe Purpose of the Community Hospitalg JNMA 36 K1944 152E154 Taylor Holman quotCooperation Between the Races in the Practice ofHedieinequot J g 33 I941 813 Winston M E Discussion some Special Problems of Southern Hospitals Transactions of the American Hospital Association 3 Tl930 64852 95 work Monroe NK ed Hospitals and Nurse Training Schoolsquot In Negro Year Book An Annual ncyclopedia of the Negro 19211922 pp 3TU 372 Tuskegee Institute Alabama The Hegro Year Book Publishing C dr 1922 Hospitals and Nurse Training schools In Negro Year Book An Annual Encyclopedia or the Negro 19251926 pp 4l6 42DquotTuEkegee Institute Alabama The Negro Year Book Publishing Co 1926 f quotHospitals and Nurse Training Schools In Negro Year Book an Annual Enggclopedia of the Negrog 1931iggg pp 527i52B Tuskegee Institute Alabama The Negro Year Book Publishing Co 1931 quotHospitals and Nurse Training Schools In Negro Year Book An Annual Encyclgpegia of the Negro 193751938 pp 290292 Tuskegee Institute Alaba a The Negro Year Book Publishing Co 1937 wright Louie T quotThe Negro Physicianquot Crisis 36 1929 3DSi306 areican HOSPITAL Assoornrlon American Hospital Association quotReport of the Board of Trustees 28 September 1931quot Transactions of the American Hospital Association 33 1931 3338 Fealer Paul H Report of the Resolutions Committee M Traneactions or the American Hospital Association 32 1930 662666 3 waleh39Wi11iam H quotReport of the committee on Hoepitalization of Colored Peoplequot Transactions of the American Hospital Association 32 E19303 53El BLACK HEATH STHTQS Allen Elijah H quotA Selected Annotated Bibliography on the Health Education of the Negroquot Journal of Negro Education 6 1933 578987 Bouefield Midian 0 Major Health Problems of the Negroquot HospitalSocial Service 28 1933 543552 Bowleag George W ugicknees and Death Among Negroes and Negro Doctors JNMA 31 1939 229231 Davis W A Some Facts Relative to Negro Mortality in the United Statesquot JNMA 22 1930 269 96 Dublin Louis I quotThe Health of the Negroquot Oggortunitx 6 l928l 19320E 216 i quotThe Problem o Negro Health as Revealed By Vital Statistics Journal of Negro Education 6 1937 26875 Emhree Edwin E quotNegro Illness and Its Effect Upon the Nation39s Healthquot Modern Hospital 30 April 1928 49e54 also in Crisis 36 1929 84 97 Harris H Llewllyn quotThe Negro Health Problemquot 0 ortunit 4 19261 291 Hoffman Frederick L The Negro Health Problem Oggortunitg 4 19261 ll9121 138 Holmes 5 J The Principal Causes of Death Among Negroes A General Comparative Statementquot Journal of Negro Education 6 193 289302 T Johnson Charles S Negro Health in the Light or Vital Statisticsquot Eroceedings or the National Conferenoe of Social Work 55 l928 l9 l75 Jones Eugene Kinckle quotSome Fundamental Factors in Regard to the Health of the Negrou Proceedings of the National Conference of Social work 55 1928 lT6l7d Hinton Henry M quotThe Part the Negro is Playing in the Reduction of Mortalityquot Hospital Social Service l0 1924 106 Parran Thomas A General Introductory Statement of the Problems of the Health Status and Health Education of Negroes Journal of Negro Education 6 1937 263 Perrott George St J and Holland Dorothy E quotThe Need for Adequate Data on Current Illness Among Negroes Journal of Negro Education 6 1937 35063 Wilbur Ray Lyman The Health Status and Health Education of Negroes in the United States A Critical Summary Journal of Negro Education 6 1937 572 wright Louis T quotHealth Problems of the Negro Interracial Review 3 January 1935 EH8 cgnnITTEson THE COSTS or MEDICAL CARE Alexander W G quotLetter to the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care J n 22 l93D 934 97 Kenney John A The Organization of a Group Hospital Planquot gNMA 28 l936 l08110 i quotReaction of the39North Jersey Medical Society to the Report of the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care June 14 1933 JNMA 26 1934 l0 l3 quotGroup Hospitalizationquot Editorial JNMA 28 1936 l27 l23 A Plea For Independent Racial Thought and Action JNMA 30 l933i 121123 HoseITAtAnM1n1sTnAWLon AND ORGANIZATION Adams Numa P G Medical Libraries in Approved Hospitals for Negroesquot JNMA 30 1938 4953 Allen Kathleen Social Work Problems in Hospitalsquot JNM 28 l936 44a45 i Some Medical Social Problems in Hospitals JNMA 28 1936 42544 Callie H A quotThe Hospital in Modern Communities QEMA 22 1930 l45 Downing L C The Small Hospital JNMA 16 19241 2U 22 I Hinton Henry M Some of the Problems of Hospital Aoministration JNMA 20 1928 6871 7 Perry J E Hospitals and Their Effective Usequot QNMA 22 i930 l97e198 Turnbull William 3 Fundamentals of Hospital Administrationquot JNMAt28 1936 lT9 lBl Warlick Lula G quotHow Can We Re uce The Hospital Expenses Without Curtailing Its Services JQMA 20 l928 l87 188 HOSPITAL STANDARDIZATION National Hospital Association quotMinutes of the Third Annual Sessionquot 1 1925 229231 Perry J Edward quotOur Hospitals and Their Standardization JNMA l4 19221 20e2l 93 Ward J H quotHospitalsquot JMMA 19 1927 5862 West L A The Standardization of the TwentyFive to ThirtyeFive Bed Hospital JQMA 20 1928 135186 MEDICAL EDUCATION AND PRDFESSIGNHL DEVELOP EHT Adams Home E G The Fi th Year Training of the Negro Medical Student JHME 24 19321 2631 i Sources of Supply of Negro Health Personnel Section A Physiciansquot Journal of egro Education 6 1937 4686 1 Allen William E The Intern Shortagequot E itorial JNM3 31 l939 3031 Beardsley E H quotMaking Separate Equal Black Physicians and the Problems of Medical Segregation in the Pre World war 11 South Bulletin of the History of Medicine 57 1983 38296 1 Bousfield Midianio Internships Residencies and Post Graduate Trainingquot JNMA 32 1940 24 30 quotThe Colored Specialist June 17 1925 2 73 Corneley Paul B quotDistribution oi Negro Physicians in the United States in 1942 Joprnel of the American Medical Aesociacion 124 1944 82630 1 Opportunities for Postgraduate Study For Negro Physicians Practicing in the southquot Jounnal of the Americen Medical Association 118 19425 5243 Tf Poet Graduate Medical E ucation and the Negro Physicianquot JNMA 30 193S 1822 Bailey U G quotThe Futuze oi the Negro in Medicine JNMA 21 19291 1166 Duaois H E B The Woman39s Medical College Qrieis 26 11923 154 Fortune E W The Negro Physicianquot Jun 31 1939 l e1D Ghee Euclid P quotA Plea For Te Admittance of Negro Doctors To Municipal Hospital Staffsquot JHHE 28 1936 1U2 6 Givens John T Choosing Medicine Re A Profession Is The Field overcrowdedquot Jwme 32 1940 423 99 Harvey B C H Provision for Training Colored Medical Studentsquot JNMA 22 19301 1B69 Johnson Leonard N quotHistory of the Education of Negro Physiciansquot Journal of Medical Education 42 l96 43946 1 Kenney John A The Negro Doctor and Organized Medicinequot JNMA 31 1939 2524 i The Negro Physician An Open Letter to the Hospital Boards and White Practitioners of Essex County JNM3 31 19391 126 quotSecond Annual oration on Surgery The Neoro39s 1 Contribution to Surgery QHMAT33 19411 20314 Shortages of Negro Doctors with Special Reterenoe to Residents and Internes JNMA 32 19401 1124 quotSome Facts Concerning the Medical Education of the Negroquot Proceedings of the National Con erence of Social Work 55 1928 l80 3 39 Lawlah John H How the Facilities of Our Medical Sohols Could Be Enlarged to Meet the Prospective Shortage of Negro Doctors JNMA 35 1943 279 Lewis Julian H quotNumber and Geographic Location oi Negro Physicians in the United States Journal of the American Medical Association 104 1935 l22 3 Martin James H A Study of the Negro Physician with Particular Reference to Certain Tennessee Countiesquot MA Thesis George Peabody College for Teachers 1921 National Medical Association quotFourth Annual Report of the Commission on Medical Education of the National Medical Associationquot JNMA 13 1921 112e5 Dlesen Robert Better Training for Negroesquot Modern Hoegital 53 August 1939 61 quotRound Table Discussion of Shortage of Negro Doctors With Special Reference to Residents and Interns JNMA 32 i940 127 128 1 Turner Edward L quotUndergraduate and Graduate Medical Education for Negroesquot Tqournal of the meriean Medipal ssociation 116 1941 21lla5 Turner John P The Negro Medical Dootof and Organized Medicine JNMAn36 19441 202 100 Woodson Carter Godwin The Negro Professional Man and theCommooity 1934 Reprint New York Negro University Press 1969 Wright Louie T quotThe Negro Physician Cgisis 36 l929 305306 quot NATIONAL HEALTH Imsueaace quotAnent The Commission on Medical Economics and the Wagner Bill Editorial JNMA32 1940 363 Bowles George W quotAddress by Dr Bowlee Before The senate Committee JMMA 31 1939 1T3175 quotThe Commission on Medical Economics and the Wagner Billquot JNMA 31 1939 258260 Dumas A wSr The New Hoeoital Billquot Editorial JNMA 32 1940 224 Kenney John A The National Health Act of 1939 Editorial JNMA 31 I939 154 quotRecommendations of a Special Committee of the National Medical Association to the Technical Committee on Medical Care in Conference U5 Public Health Service Building Washington DC 22 November 1938 JHMA 31 1939 3536 Report oi the Commission on Medical Economicsquot J h 31 1939 269270 Senator Wagner Says Non Governmeotal Hospitals Are Eligible For Support Under Hie Bill Negroes are Protectedquot JNMA 31 19391 175 l7 Smith T H The wagners urrayDingell Senate Bill Editorial JNMA 37 l945 132 NATIONAL CDNF EENCE OF HOSPITAL ADMlNl TRATORS National Conference of Hospital Administratorsquot JMMA 36 l944l 31 quotNational Conference of Hospital Administrators AJNMA 36ll944J 6869 101 NATIONAL HOSPITAL Assocrggiow Constitution and By Laws of the National Hospital Association JNMQ l 1925 3le33 Dr H M Green An Appreciation A Practical Experiment Editorial JNMA 2 l935 6s7B Future of Negro Hospitals in America Theme of Discussion at NHA Meetingquot Hospital Management 48 September l939 23 64 Green H M Annual Address of H M Green MD President National Hospital Association June 22 1930 191193 ii quotAnnual Address oi the President of the National Hospital Associationquot JNMA 20 1928 3 I i quotThe Annual Address to the National Hospital Association JNMA 21 19291 l69 l74 i T National Negro Hospital Week JNMA l8 l926 230 quotOur Hospital Problem JNMA 27 l935 724 President Green39s Address to the National Hospital Association gg h 23 1931 l54 l57 i quotPresident39s Address The National Hospital Association JMMA l7 l925 2Dl 5 quotPresident39s Address The National Hospital Association JNM5 l9 1927 1621 f quotThe Progress of the National Hospital Associationquot JNMA 19 1927 3233 T quotSome Observations on and Lessons From the Experience of the Past Ten Yearsquot JNMA 26 l934l 7 and Kenney John A quotThe National Hospital Associationquot JMMA 20 1928 141 quotHospital Exhibitquot JNMA 32 1940 177 quotThe Journal of the National Hospital Associationquot Editorial Jung 29 1937 160 Kenney John A In Memoriam Dr H M Green JNMA 31 1939 225 102 f quotThe National Hospital Association JNMA 18 1926 157158 i l The National Hospital Association gouthern Workman 56 February 192 62 63 T quot quotMessage to our Hospitals JHHA 28 E1936 86 National Hospital Association AElen for Proper Hospital Administration in America I935 National Hospital Association JNMA l5 l923 2862Ea quotTheNational Hospital Association JNHAAIS 1924 484Ei quotNational Hospital Associationquot JHHA 19 1927 1T9 l30 The National Hospital Association Editorial JHMAII l925 2D208 quotThe National Hospital Associationquot Editorial JHHAlB I926 84 The National Hospital oosooiationquot Editorial Jumh la i926 211 quotNational Hospital Associationquot Editorial JHMA 22 K1930 36 The National Hospital associationquot Editorial JHM 33 1941 4 National Medical Association quotReport of Committee on Executive Secretary of Hosoitel Association and His Duties JNMQ 23 1931 183184 Perry E 3 Are We Conscious for Better Hotpitals Jugg 2 1935 l66 Vaughn A N At Armageddon E Let Us Battle JNMA 33 1941 254258 Why A National Hospital Aosooiationa JNMAtlE 1926 NATIGNAL HgeP1TA HSSOCIATIOH MIHUTES AND Aosuge Green H H quotReport of the National Hospital Association JNHAl 1925 2235 Kenney John A Meeting of the National Hospital Association Chicago Illinois August 1314 l933quot 103 Jane 25 1933 34 The Newark Meeting ef the National Hospital hsaEEiaionquot gen 21 1929 129130 quotReport ef the Secretary of the Hatienal Hospital Associations gh e 19 l92 3132 Repertof the Secretary ef the National EE ta1 Asseciatien JmMA19 192 lE lT9 quotThe National Hospital Association JHMA l6 l924 48649 quotThe National Hospital hssociatienquot JHMA 19 l927 79 The Natienal Hospital hsseciatien JNMA l9 l92 l34 l35 quotNational Hespital Asseciaiien Annual Meeting JNMA l6 192 J 2l4 quotNational Hospital Asseeiation Third Annual Meetingquot JNMA 18 El926 152 quotNational Hospital esseeiatien Fifth annual Sessionquot JNM 21 l929 124 National Hospital asseciatien Meeting ef the Executive Board JHMA 1B l926 15B l59 National Hospital Associatien Minutes of the Third Annual Session JNMA 1 925 228230 National Hospital Asseeiatien Minutes of the Third Annual Sessienquot JNM5 13 1925 229231 quotNatianal Hospital Association Minutes ef the Third Annual Sessionquot JNHA l9 l92T l76l9 National Hespital Association Minutes of the Fourth Annual Sessionquot JHMA 20 1923 205i207 National Hospital Asseeiatien Minutes of the sixth Annual Sessien JNMA 21 L929 lBl91 National Hospital Assnciatien Minutes e the Seventh Annual Session QNHA 22 l930 22 231 National Hospital Asseciation Minutes cf the Eighth Annual Meetingquot JNHA 23 l93lli l85 l9D National Hospital Association Minutes sf the Eleventh Annual session JHHA as ll934 9293 104 quotNational Hospital Association Minutes of the Twelfth Annual Sessionquot JNMA27 1935 8590 National Hospital Associatien Of icial Pregramquot JNMA 2 1935 126127 National Hospital Association Outline of Pregram JNMA 26 C1934 142 quotNational Hespital Association Pregram of the Ninth Annual Sessionquot JNMA2S I933 2830 National Hospital Association Pragram Tenth Annual Sessionquot JNMA 25 1933 l3914D quotSixteenth Annual Cenventionof the National Hospital Association JNMA 31 1939 164 HATIDNAL MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Alexander Walter G quotPresidential Address JNMA 13 1926 191199 quotquot Beus ield Midian 0 Presidential Addressquot JNMA 26 1934 152 159 39Bowles George W The Presidential Addressquot JNMA 31 1939 192199 Dumas A w 5 quotAddress of the President Jana 32 1940 18691 Francis G Hamilton quotPresident39s Annual Addressquot JNMA 25 1933 l48l54 Freeman C V quotPresidential Address The National Medical Association JNMAAZD 1928 165169 Glfes Roscoe C President39s Address JNMA 29 1937 l32l35 Green H M quotAnnual Address of the President of the National Medical Association JNMA 14 1922 2l522G quotInaugural Addressquot Jag 14 1922 l 4 Hale J H quotPresident39s Address to the Natienal Medical Association gang 28 1936 164 Kenney John A quotSome Notes on the History of the National Medical Association JNMA 25 1933 97105 105 Lee H E The President s Annual Address The Status of the Physician in the War Effort JNMA 34 1942 18180 Murray Peter Marshall quotNational Medical Association39s President39s Addressquot JMMA 24 November 1932 110 National Medical Association quotCommission on Medical Education Sixth Annual Report JNMA 15 1923 53 57 National Medical Association Commission on Medical Education and Hospitalizationquot JMM 33 1941 National Medical Association quotMinutes of the Medical Education and Hospital Committee JNMA 25 1933 180 Perry J Edward quotAddress By the Presidente leot of the National Medical Association JNMA 14 1922 221224 Outline of Program of the President of the National Medical Associationquot JNHA 18 1926 226 Roberts Carl Glennie quotPresident39s Annual Address The National Medical Associationquot JNMA 20 1928 2332 Turner John P Annual Address of the President of the National Medical Association JNMA 13 1921 225227 West L A Presidential Address to the National Medical Association q n 22 1930 15178 EEQRO M IIONAL HG5PITAL FUND quotNegroFoundation Seeks Hospital at Lynchbnrg Virginia Modern Hospital 50 May 1938 112 Negro Hospital Fund Literary Digest 119 February 1935 22 quotThe Reverend Amos H Carnegie and the Negro National Hospital Fundquot Bulletin of the American Hospital Association 8 December 1934 89 The Reverend Amos Carnegie Hospital Schemequot JNMA 28 1936 2527 106 Nuese TRAINING Dailey U G The Responsibility of the Hospital to the Training School JNHA 16 1924 183184 Dodd R A Training Negro Nursesquot Survex 45 26 March l92l 92692 quotEducational Facilities For Colored Nursesquot American Journal of Egrsing 25 1925 299300 quotEducational Facilities For Colored Nursesquot Trained Nurse and Hospital Revieg 74 March 1925 259262 Educational Facilities For Colored Nurses and Their Employment EnblieEealth Eurse 17 April 1925 203204 Eldredge A da quotThe Need For A Sound Professional Preparation For Colored Nurses JNHA 23 193l Green H M on Obligations To Colored Nursesquot Trained Nurseand Hospital Regiew 76 1926 4D2 3 Hine Darlene Clark quotThe Ethel Johns Report Black Women In the Nursing Profession 1925quot Journal oi Negro History 6 Fall l982 2l2 2B i From Hospital to College Black Nurse Lea ers and the Rise of Collegiate Nursing Schools Journal of Negro Education Sl i982 22237 A Hospital39s Prejudice Crisis 35 1928 405406 422 Hanely Flossie Training and Opportunities For Colored Nurses American Journal of Hursing 23 E1923 P xi Riddle Estelle Massey quotSources of Supply of Negro Health Personnel Section C Nurses Journal of Negro Education 6 L937 43392 Roberts Abbie quotNursing Education an Opportunities For The Colored Nursequot Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work 55 l928 lB3 S Sloan Patricia E Commitment to Equality A view of Early Black Nursing Schools In Historigal Studies in Hursingu Ppa 6385 Edited by Louise Fits atrick ew week Teachers College Press 1978 Taylor Eula Lyons quotThe Training of Negro Nurses in the 107 15 l93 3301 V ERAHS39 RDMIHISTRATION AND MILITARY AFFAIBS Dr Alexander Makes A Plea For Establishment of a Hospital For Negro Veterans In New Jersey Pennsylvania or Pennsylvaniaquot JNMA 25 1933 33 34 Francis G Hamilton quotThe Participation of the Negro In National Defensequot JNMA 33 1941 9294 Health and Medical Committee Council of National Defense Minutes of Meeting of the Subcommittee on Negro Health QNMA 33 l94l 9596 quotMinutes of the Second Meeting of the war and The Defense Gommittee of the National Medical Association 39JNMA 34 1942 211215 Murray Pete Marshall The NAACP39s Opportunityquot JNMA 24 August 1932 4 49 A Second veterans Hospital for our Group J MA 26 1934 31 Equot The Veteran39s Hospital Controversy Editorial JNHA 24 E ovembez 1932 389 103 THEQIVIL RIGHTS YEARS THE BLACK Hosptjet TO 1365 GENERAL quotThe AllNegro Hospital Editorial Southern Hospitals l9 September 1951i 90 American Medical Association Hospitals For Negroes Registered By The American Medical Association 1 April 1943 Unpublished Boas Ernst P quotThe Cost or Medical Care As AEaotor in the Availability of Health Facilities For Negroesquot Journal of Negro Education 18 1949 33399 Bousfield H 0 quotHospitals and Health Centersquot JNMA 39 L947 3 7 Cobb W Montague The Future of Negro Medical Organizationsquot JNMA 43 1951 3238 Medical Care and the Plight of the Negro New York National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 194 Excerpted in Crisis 54 194 Z lell if 7 quotMedical Care for Minority Groupsquot Annals g the American Academy of Political and Social Science 273 1951 159is i i quotOld Clothes to Sam The Negro Hospital Dilemma Bulletin or the Hedioo Chirurgical Society of the District o Columbia 4 February 1947 Progress aodPortents Eor The Negro In inedioine New York National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 1948 Excerpted in Crisis 55 April 1943 l0T 22 1256 7 Report of the Council on Medical Education NMAquot QWMR 46 1954 440 l Separate But Equal Facilitiesquot Bulletin of the Medicoechirurgical Sgtiety of toe District of ColumoiaA4 March 1947 iif T quotSpecial Problems in the Provision of Medical Services For Negroes Journal of Negro Education 18 1949 3405 Commission on Hospital Care Provision of Hospital Service and Quality of Care For Negroesquot In its os ital 1 Care io the United States pp 1637 New York 109 Commonwealth Fund 1947 Covington Stuart quotThe Case For The AllNegro Hospital Southern Hospitals 19 September l95l 2934 quotThe Crushing Irony of Deluxe Jim Crow Editorial JNMA 44 19521 3367 Davis Michael M quotWhat Color is Health Survey raphic 36 January 1947 856 T T W and Smythe Hugh H quotProviding Adequate Health Service To Negroes Journal of Negro Education is 19491 3o5 L7 i Dent Albert W quotHospital Service and Facilities Available To Negroes In The Unitea States Journal of Negro Education 18 Summer 1949 32532 Ewing Oscar R quotThe President39s Health Program and The Negroquot Journal of Negro Education 18 1949 436443 Garvin Charles Herbert quotPost war Planning for Negro Hospitalsquot Editorial JNMA 37 1945 239 Guzman Jessie Parkhurst ed Negro Hospitals In her Negro Year Book A Review of Events Affecting Negro Life 1941946 pp 3368 Tuskegee Institute Alabama The Department of Records and Research Tuskegee Institute 1947 Jones Lewis W and Hall woo row eds Eitals in 1952 In their Negro Year Book A Review of Events Affecting Negro Lire pp 166 8 New York William H Wise l9S2 quotHospital Personnel Shortagesquot Editorial JNMA dl 19501 ll5 6 Jason Robert 5 quotour Hospitals and the Negro JNMA 50 March L958 l445 Johnson Charles 3 and Associates quotHealth Facilities and Trainingquot In their IntoThe Main Stream A Survey of Best Praotioes in Race Relations in the South pp 23153 Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press 1947 Johnson J L quotThe Supply of Negro Health Personnele Physicians Journal of Negro Education 18 1949 34655 T i Kenney John A The Negro39s Position in Medicinesquot JHMA 41 1949 313 110 i ospitals and Health Centers Editorial gama 39 1941 33 Lattimore J A C Address of the Outgoing Presidentquot JHMat4d l94B 23135 MoFall T Carr quotNeeds For Hospital Facilities and Physicians in Thirteen Southern States JHMA42 1950 2356 Hinton Russell P quotThe Hospital As A Humanitarian Institution with Special Reference To Negro Hospitalsquot JHMA39 l94 723 National Medical Association Council on Medical Education and Hospitalsquot J g 42 1950 3346 quotThe Need For Advanced Training Opportunities For Physicians and Dentists in Training Institutionsquot qEMA39 1947 23740 Perkins Theodore quotThe Case of the Negro Administratorquot Modern Hospital 16 June l95l El3 Pringle Henry T and Pringle Katharine The Color In Medicine New York Committee of 100 eprinted from Saturday Evening Post 24 January l94B quotProposed Agenda Council on Medical Education and HD5pitals National Medical Association Jana 41 l949 1856 ii quotProposal For Separate Negro Hospital in St Petershurg Florida Protested JMM3 52 I960 El Robinson E 1 President39s Annual Address JHMA 33 1946 2102 Soheele Leonard A quotThe Health Status and Health Education of Negroes A General Introductory Statementquot Journal of Negro Education la I949 2008 quotSouthern Hospital Facilities For Negroesquot Survey BB 11952 1739 quotThere Is Still A Mission Field at Home Editorial Hospital arogress 34 November l953 456 Williams Edward B Jr quotA Negro Hospital Faees Changequot Editorial Vg g 53 l96l 6435 Younge Walter A quotThe President39s Annual Address JNMA 39 1947 2336 11139 HILLQBURTQN ACT quotThe HillBurton Program and Civil Rights q Ma57 Ilasal 5961 Hoge Vane M quotThe National Hospital Construction Program JN Al40 1945 1o2 6 What The Hospital Act Means To Negroeei gational Negro Health Heme 15 apri1 June 194 l 3 Kenney John A Federal Versus State Control Editorial JNMA SB 1946 4e5 Medical Legislation Editorial JNMA 39 1947 175 The National Hospital Construction Programquot Editorial J g 49 1948 1256 HOSPITAL INTEGRATION Blueetone E M quotSegregation Is An Anaehroniem Modern Hosgital 76 June 1951 55 Civil Rights and Wrongs Editorial Modern Hospital l0l October 1963 934 Cobb W Montague quotIntegration in Medicine A National Needquot JNHA 49 1957 1 7 quotNational Health Program of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Jana 45 1953 3339 Corneley Paul B Segregation and Discrimination in Medical Care in the United Statesquot American Journal oi PubligHealth 46 195 ln4 a1 quotTrends in Racial Integration in Hospitals in the United Statesquot JNMA 49 1957 810 Cunningham Robert M Jr quotHospitalization For Negroes Are Hospitals For The Sick or Just some of the sick Editorial Moderh Hospital 6 June 1951 51 quotDetroit NAACP Opposes New Segregated Hospital hJHMA 46 1954 53 Fourth ImhotepNational Conierenee on Hospital Integration JNMA 52 1960 2835 112 Givens John T quotAccess To A Hospital For Every Race Doctor JNM3 38 1946 356 History of the Imhotep National Con erence on Hospital Integration JNMA 54 l962 1l67 Hospital Discrimination and the Sixth imhotep Con erencequot Editorial J 54 l962 253s5 quotHospital Discrimination Must Endlquot Editorial J a 45 1953 2a45 quot Hospitals and Civil Rights A Special Report Modern gs ital 1n1 July 1963 212 The lmhotep Natienal Conference on Hospital Integrationquot JNMA 49 1957 557 quotIntegration Only Practicable Goal Editorial JNMA 43 i951 340 Integration What is Hospital39s Rolequot ps39itals 37 October 16 1953 1721 Kenney John A A Plea For Interracial Cooperation JNMA 37 19451 1214 Manna Alfred The Untouchables The Meaning of Segregagion in Hospitals New Orleans Southe niconfef nce Educational Fund 1952 Memphis NAACP Branch Rescinds Endorsement of Negro Hospitalquot JHHA 44 1952 3145 Merris John P quothe Denial of Staff Positions to Negro Physicians A violation of the Sherman Act Jams 52 llg 2115 quotNAACP 1961 Health Resolutionsquot JHMA 53 1961 6439 HAACP Request Raises Issue of Ho Negro Dnetors on Hespital Medical Stafi Medern Hespital 93 December 1959 160 quotNAA P Resolutions in Health Carequot guns 43 l951J 3423 Negroes in Medicine A Breakathreugh Is Taking Placequot Series of articles Modern Hospital T9 August l9S2 quotThe Old Order Cnangethquot Editnrial JNMA 46 1954 9 113 quotProceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration JNMA 49 1957 lB9201 272e3 3526 50 1958 6676 l42 4 224 33 Proceedings of the Seventh Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration JNMA 55 1963 32943 Proceedings of the Sixth Imhotep Conference JNMA 54 1962 499507 quotRacial Barriers Are Breaking Downquot Modern Hospital 82 April 1954 7780 Reference List of Titles in This Journal 1950l956 Relating to AntiDiscrimination Developments in Medicine JNMA 49 1953 5861 Resolution on Hospital Discrimination JNMA 45 1953 444 quotResolutions in Health Area of the i952 Annual Convention of the NAACP 44 1952 466 Reynolds Clyde L quotThe Fiscal Results of Segregationquot Modernp ospital 76 June 1951 64 Rorem C Rufus quot39No Color Line But No Alternative quot Modern Hospital 76 June 1951 57 quotThe Second lmhotep National Conierence on Hospital Integrationquot JNMA 50 i958 3813 Smith Earl Belle quotPractical Aspects of Hospital Integration JNMA S2 1960 368 quotThir Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration JEM5Sl 1959 299303 Unite States Commission on Civil Rights Title VI One Year After A Surney of Desegregation of Health and Welfare Serqioesin the Bough Washington Government Printing Offi e i966 39 H0SPITALIMTEGRATID 7 LEGISLATION Ans JUDICIAL DECl l0NS quotCourt Finds voluntary Hospital Subject to Fourteenth Amendmentquot Modern ospital 102 May 1964 183 Dingell Bill to Bar Discrimination Under HillBurton Law JNMA55 1963 135 quotDingell Bill to End Hospital Discrimination Under the Hill Burton Act JNMA 54 1962 3889 114 quotFederal Court Rules Bias in Federally Aided Hospitals Unconstitutionalquot JHMA 55 1963 558 quotGreensboro North Carolina Group Files Historic Suit Against Hospital Exclusionquot JQMA S4 1962 259 quotHillBurton Separate But Equal Provision Unoonstitutional JNMA S3 1961 6478 Horty J F quotSimkios Case Creates Civil Rights Pattern Simkins vs Moses H Cone Memorial Hospitalquot Modsrn Hosgital 102 June l964 40 44 158 quotImplementation of the Civil Rights Act in Medical Areas Federal Rules and Regulationsquot JMMA 5 1965 Javits Bill to End Hospital Discrimination Under Hill Burton JNMA 54 i962 l20 l quotJavits Re IntroduCe5 Hill Bill to Amend Hilla urton Lawquot Jung 55 I963 345 Johnson Everett A quotThe Civil Rights Act of l964 3 What It Means For Hospitalsquot Hospitals 38 November 16 196 514 quotLawsuit Charges Segregation Under Hill Burton is Unconstitutionalquot Modern Hospital 98 March 1962 ZOE quotNational Conference on Title VI a Civil Rights Act of 1964quot JNMA S7 1965 l635 Mew Epochal Federal Court Decision Against Hospital Discriminationquot JNMA 56 1964 2325 Of Hospitals Doctors and the Constitution Hosgitals 38 June 1 1964 116 Parker M L quotCivil Rights Acts of 1964quot Health Education and Welfare Indicators 8 August 1964 v xviii quotProceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration JNHA 49 19571 199200 Second Suit Filed Against Wilmington North Carolina Hospital JNQA 53 196lJ 531 Text 0E HEw Order on Nondiscrimination by Hil1 Burton Applicantsquot JNMA 56 1964 349 115 Title vi and Hospitalsquot JNMA 58 1966 2123 quotTwo Greensboro NC Hospitals toask US Supreme Court to Review Decision Earring 39Separate ButEqual Facilities Hospitals 33 16 January 1964 19 quotUnanimous Appeals Court Decision Ends Bar on Negroes in North Carolina Hospital Hospitals 38 May 1 1964 I 7 quotWilmington Horth Carolina Physicians Sue for Hospital Privilegesquot guns as 1956 2Ul2 ygoionar HOSPITAL Founnaoloa Carnegie Amos H But Integration Is Empty Talk Modern Hospital 76 June 1951 556 l42 i quotNot Negro Hospitals 2 Hut Hospitals Modern Hospital 79 August l952 76 A Washington Proposal for Selfi elpquot odern Hospital 9 August 1952 67 VETERANS ADMINISTRATIDN AND MILITARY AFFAIRS Cobb W Montague Progress on Integration in Veterans Hospitalsquot JHMAn45 l953 4378 ii I Statement or Dr W Montague Cobb Representing the National Meoical Committee of The National Association For the advancement of Colored People in Opposition to S 144 a Bill to Provide for the Establishment of a veteran39s Hospital for Negro veterans at the Birthplace of Booker T Washington in Franklin County Va Read at Hearings on HR 3814 Before the US Senate Committee on Labor ano Public Welfare February 3 1948 quotIntegration Advances in Veteran Hospitalsquot JNMA 46 19543 68 Negro veterans administration Hospital Proposal Defeatedquot Jung 43 1951 343 Robinson E I quotViews and Opinions of the National Medical Association on Veteran Facilities JNMA 38 1946 107 quotSome Opinions Concerning Hospitalization of Returning Veterans From World War Nos 2quot JHMA 37 l945 2OTi8 116 US Congress House Committee on Veterans Affairs Increasing Egy For Veterans Administration Medical Sef ice and Authorizing Construction ofia Hospital for Nggro Veterans Hearings on H3 S324 HR 6022 HR 3296 and HR 6034 81st Cong lst sess 1949 one BLACK CDMMUHITY HOSPITAL TODAY Barkholz David quotNew Urgency To Form Black Hospital System Modern Healthoare 1 February 1985 28 Cannon J Alfred quotThe Last Economic Alternative for the Black Communityquot QHHA 64 1972 45B9 Craig John quotBlack Hospitals Their Prospects Eor Survivalquot Health Policy Research Group School of Medicine Georgetown University Washington DC l97B Unpublished quotFactorsInfluencing the Fate of the Hegro Hospitalquot Editorial JHMA 59 1957 21 9 Foster J T Survey what s Ahead for Negro Hospitals Modern Hospital 109 November 1967 ll4 6 Friedman Emily quotPrivate Black Hospitals A Long Tradition Faces Changequot Hospitals 55 July 1 1981 653 quotHospitals of the Black Community Urban Health 1 June 1972 2023 36 Lee Andre L quotBlack Community Hospitals A Quest For Survival Urban Health 13 March l984 46 4 McNeil Dorothy and Williams Robert quotWide Range of Causes Found tor Hospital Closuresquot Hosgitals 52 December 1 1978 7681 T Mann Joseph B Jr Black Community39s Crisis of Care Hits Hospitals ans Consumersquot Hosgitals 51 March 16 l97 0s3 Merritt Robert Black Hospitalsquot Black Enterprise 5 February 1975 189 Miller Joseph M Demise of Provident Hospital Letter JHMA 73 1986 919 2U Mullner Ross Eyre Calvin 3 and Kubal Joseph D quotFive Year Trend Shows Urban Community Hospitals At Risk for Closurequot Urban Health ll April 1932 369 Payne Larah Du Survival or Black Hospitals in the US Health Care System A Case Study In Black Organisations Issues on Survival Techniques pp 20511 Eoiteaiby Lennon 3 Yearwood Lanham MET University Press of America Inc 1980 Peniston Reginald quotA Racial Hiew of Medical Education JHMA 79 19B 143e5 118 Phillips Donald F quotSmall Urban Hospital A Question of Survivalquot Hos itals 48 October l 1914 7l 4 Pinkney Deborah quotFuture Looks Bleak For Black Hospitals gmerican Me ical News l0 April 1987 p 1 50 Problems of Black Hospital Administratorsquot Urban Health 6 April 1977 423 47650 Rice Don A quotThe Application of MultiHospital Arrangements to Black Urban Institutions Opportunities for Survival and Growth Paper presented at the meeting of the Black Caucus of Health Workers of the American Public Health Association Detroit Michigan October 1980 Ridgway Frances Atlanta Opinions Clash over Role of the Negro Hospital Modetn Hospital 109 November 1967 l1B 20 Royal Frank 5 Survival of Black Health Care Providersquot JNMAV3 19811 9l5 6 Roylanoe Frank D quotBlack Hospitals in Critical Condition The Evening Sun Baltimore September 2326 1985 Eager Alan urban Hospital Closings in the Face of Racial Changequot ealth Law Project Library Bulletin 5 June l9B0 l69Bl Sampson Calvin C Death of the Black Community Hospital Fact or Fictionquot Editorial JNMA 66 l94 165 Shah N D and MCGhee N quotShift from Predominantly White to Predominantly Black Staff A Retrospective Study Relating to Surgical Carequot gama T l9BD 6Bl Wesley Nathaniel Jr quotBlack Hospitals Listing and Selected Commentary Searching for Survivalquot Washington DC 1983 Unpublished quotDilemma o Black Community Hospitals gtyap Health 13 November 1984 389 quot1936 Black Hospitals Listing and Selected icommentaryg Tradition Competition and The Management of Changequot Washington DC 1986 Unpublished 119 HOSPITALS ALABAMA DECATU3jCOTTAGE HOME INFIRMARY quotCottage Home Infirmary gggg 5 1913 95 ALABAMA BusLEt HOLY BBMILY HOSPITAL Colored Hospitals C mmonweal S1 1943 593 A Spark aFlameaBeacon Light The Holy Famiiy Hgepital Ensley Alabamaquot JNMA 55 1963 868B ALABAMA MOBILE BLESSEDA EIN BB PORRES HOSPITAL lessea Martin de Porree Hospital Mobile Alabamaquot Hgepitai Progress 31 March 1950 86 B Foley Thomas J quotModern Hospitals Being Provided for A1abama s Colored Pupulationquot obile Registe 13 April 1950 Maria Sister quotHistory of Saint Martin de Porree Hospital Mobile Alabama QNMA 56 1964 3D3e3U6 ALABAMA MONTQQMERE HALE IBBIRMABY Cobb W Montague Corne1iuB Nathaniel Doreette MD 18521897 JNMA 52 1960 4566459 ALABAMA ELMA 6 BURWELL INFIRMAHY quotDocter L L Eurweil gg g 20 1928 75 ALABAMA SBLMB coop SAMARITAH t Fitts A quotGood Samaritan Hospital and Nursing Home Inc igiga g abamaquot ospital Prugrees 62 February 1981 ALABAM a TUSKEGEE UNITE STATES FETERANS39 ADMINISTRATION BQSPITAL Daniel Pete Black Power in the 192U s The Case af Tuskegee Veterans Hospital Journal of Southetg istogz 36 1970 368388 1 Dibble Eugene H Care and Treatment of Negro Veterans at Tuskegeequot JNMA135 1943 166170 quotDr Joseph H Ward Heads the Veterans Hospital at Tuskegeequot JNMA 1924 203204 120 Du ois W E B quotOpinion No Compromisequot Cgisis 27 19231 728 5 Opinion The Tuskegee Hospitalquot Crisis quot 26 19231 106 1U7 quotOpinion The Tuskegee Hospitalquot Crisis 31 il zey 271 Opinion Tuskegee and Motonquot Crisis 28 19241 200202 1 Dummett Clifton 0 and Dibble Eugene H Historical Notes on the Tuskegee Veterans Hospitalquot JNMAS4 1962 133 l3B Hoisey Albon L quotThe Negro Veterans Hospitalquot southern workman 55 1926 305310 quotHospital for Ex Servioe Men To Be at Tuskegee Jmmh 14 19221 208 Kenney Howard W and Giles Julian W quotTuskegee veterans Administration Hospita1 Present and Future Jung 54 1962 139145 Kenney4 John A quotSpecific Racial Contributionsquot AQNMA 33 1941 8385 g quotThe veterans Facility at Tuskegee Editorial Jung 3 1945 168169 Kenney New Manager of Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital JNMA 51 19S9 394395 Negro Veterans Hospitalquot Qpgortunitx 2 1923 28 Peterson Sadie M quotUSV Hospital Library No 91 39Tuskegee Alaquot Crisis 29 1925 116117 Ryff Allan W The Tuskegee Hospital Controversy 1921 1924 MA Thesis University of Delaware 1970 quotSome Opinions Concerning Hospitalization of Returning veterans From World war No 2quot JNMA 37 1945 207208 Tildon T T Branohe G C and Barker P P quotFacts of Interest in Connection with the veterans Administration Facility Tuskegee Alabama JNHA 33 19411 B1 B2 quotTuskegee Alabama The U5 Veterans Hospital JNMA 21 1929 65 6 l2l The Tuskegee Hospitak Huddle grisis 26 1923 2l62lB United States Civil Service Examination United States veterans Bureau Hospitalquot JNMA 15 1923 16 quotThe United States Veterans Hospital Tuskegee Aia Colonel Joseph Henry Ward Editorial JNMA 21 quotThe Veterans Hospital JNHA 15 E1923 203204 quotVeterans Hospital at Tuskegeequot Erieis 25 1923 270 Veterans39 Hospital at Tuskegee JHM5 46 1954 i4D quotThe Veterans Hospital at Tuskegee pggortunitg 2 1923 253 veterane39 Hospital at Tuskegeequot Southern Workman 52 1923 365365 Veterans Hospital Dedicationquot QHMA 15 1923 94 quotveterans Hospital in Tuskegee gpportunity 2 L924 283284 The veterans Hospital Situationquot JNHA 15 I923 287 Ward Joseph H quotUS Veterans Hospital JNMA 22 l93D 133l34 Walters Raymond quotMajor Moron Defeats the Klan The Case of the Tuskegee Veterans Hospitalquot in his The New Negro on Campus Black College Rebellion of the 19203 pp 137ei91 Princeton Prineeto U i ereity Press 1975 Younge Samuel L Touesaint Tourgee Tildon Sr MD 1B93 1964quot JMMA S6 1964 565562 ALABAMA TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE i TU KEGEE INSTITUTE HOSPITAL AND NURSE rehigige SCHOOL AND JOHN A ANDREW MEMORIAL HOSPITAL quotActivities at the John A Andrew Memorial Hospital April 1922quot Editorial June 14 1922 34 35 Davie Jane E Negro Physicians Eostacraduete Course Southern Workmap 50 192i 245 246 Dibble Eugene quotJohn A Andrew Memoriel Hospital JNMA 22 1930 137139 39 122 W Babb Louie h and Ballard Ruth B John A Andrew Memorial Hospital gone 53 Llg liz IDS118 Downing L C Early Negro Hospitals Jo 33 E1941 Dumas A W Sr Infantile Paralysis Unit of the John A andrew Memorial Hospitalquot Editorial AJHHA 32 1940 T4 Hospital Notes John a Andrew Memorial Hospital Tuskegee Institute Alabama JHMA 1 1922 5555 quotJohn a Andrew olinies Southern workman 32 1923 355365 John A Andrew Hospital Stays Under Tuskegee Institutequot Jana E EIQTS as John H anorew Memorial Hospital JHMA 5 1913 3994 quotJohn a anorew Memorial Hospitalquot Eoitorial JNMA 53 1951 195 Kenney John A A Brief History of the origin or the John a nnorew Clinios By The Founder AJNHB 26 1934 5568 T oesoise Not the Day of Small Beginnings JNHA 3B l94E3 l2al32 Dr Dibble Heads the John A andrew Memorial Hospital JHMA 38 1946 182 4f opening of the Infantile Paralysis Unit of the John A anorew Memorial Hospital Tuskegee Institute Alabamaquot JNME 33 E1941 3334 quotour Hospital A Factor in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseasequot gone 5 19131 TB1 Service of a Negro Hospitalquot hsoutnern Workman so l92l 155ITD s sos Save The Clinioquot Editorial AJNMA 1a39 ll118 Tuskegee Institute In his The negro in 4 Medioine P1 46 Tuskegee Alabama 191 Sloan Patricia E quotCommitment to Equality A View of Early E1aek Nursing Sohools In Historioa1 tuoies in Nursin po 6BB5 Edited by Louise Fitzpatrick New York Teachers College Press 19B 123 u u The Tuskegee Elinie Seuthereiwezkmen 56 19E E l 2 3D The Tukegee Clinics Editeriel Seuthern werkmen EU 1921 l wl i Tuskegee Institute John H Andrews Memeriel Heegitellquot JHHA 13 1921 2 42U5i ARIZQHA EUET H acauci STATION HOSPITAL HO 1 Henney Jehn A The Fort Huaehuea Heepita1i JHHA 34 I942 1 9l6l i Report ef the Veterans Heepital Affairs Cemmitteequot JNHA 3E 19461 43 quotStetien Heepital He 1 Feet Hueehueer Arieene g 36 19441 l3Ei3E eRKAH5ASeLExAH ER MERAE MEMDRIHL SEEITHHIUH Brewme Hugh A A Brief Hietery ef Me ae Memeriel Sanitarium h 54 E1962 S1S13 CALIEQFHIA L05 AEGELES HUREING iDE HOSPITAL quotHeepitei Serving Black Cemmunity in Lee Angelee Feree Te Cleee eepital Week 16 5 September 1930 Smith Jack Requiem For A Heepitels Merningei er Ana These Te Cemequot CH3 Insight S 13 Oeteher 138 CELIFQRHIA g NGELEE WEST EDRHS CDMHUNITY HGSPTTRL Lee Angelee Deetere Bring a Hejer Hespitel he Cemmunity West edame Cemmunity Heepitalquot Urban Health 1 ineeember 192 2 23 BELEWERE MARSHRLLTOM EDGEWDDD SHHITDRIUM quot r Gnnwell Eenten Henered at Edqeweed Saniterium De1ewere Hatienei Hegre Health News 15 Jenuerya Maren 194 TE A New Sanitarium for Delawarequot Crieiexe 1939 340345 124 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA WASHIMGTQN Taggart Paul J Hedigal Facilities go the Colaged in the District of Coiqmbia Emmifsbutg MD Department of 3ocia1ogyiMaunt St Mary39s College 1940 DISTRIQI OF COLUMBIA WASHINGTON BURWELL HOSPITAL urweli Hospital Washington DC JNMA 43 1951 346 DISTRICT QF COLUMBIAWASHINGTOH CAR5Q S PRIV5TE HOSPITAL Caron 5 Private Hoapitaiquot ggma 22 1930 148151 Cobb W Montague quotSimeon Lewis Carson MD 1BE2 19S4 JNMA 46 1954 4144191 DISTRICT UP coLp A WASHINGTGN CURT PRIVATE suasgcgi 5ANiTARIU Cobb W Mantaque quotAustin Maurice Curtis 18681939quot JNMAE46 1954 294 29B DISTRICT OFCOLUMBIAg WASHINGTON i BOWLING PRIVATE EYE HOSPITAL quotA New Private Eye Hospitalquot JNMA 16 19241S3 DISTRICT OF cpLuaB1Awnsaxuewam FRANCIS SANITARIUM Richings G F quotDr John R Francis and His Private Sanitariumquot In his Evidences 0fErnqress Amgng Colored People pp 4296435 12th edition Philadelphia Gearge S Ferguson 1905 DISTEECT DP COLgMBIAl WASHINGTON 1 FREEDMEN39S HOSPITAL Cobb W Montague Charles Burleigh Purvis JNM 45 1953 vsaaz TT quotA Short History of Freedmen39s Hospitalquot iJNMAA54 L962 271237 T William Alonza Hatfield Mn 1B66L951quot quot 3E E 44 L952 2o7 217 Downing L C quotEarly Negro Hospitals JNM 33 1941 1318 125 quotFreedmen39s Hospital Report JNMA 21 1929 28 quotFreedmen39s Hospital Study Commission Makes Report J A 47 1955 270 271 283 Holt Thomas Smith Parke Cassandra and TerborgPann Roslyn A Special Missiens The Story 9 Fgaeqganig Ha pita11BE31952 Washington Academic Affaizs Divisi h Hawafdi hiversity 195 quotNew Hospital far Howardquot JUNE 50 1958 295296 warfield William A quotA Brief Histcry of Fraedmen39s Hospital Ereagmeqjs ospitai Bulletin 1 1934 12 aquot quot L quotEducational Features of the Freedmen s Hospitalquot School Life 9 1924 248 quotSome Educational Advantages of the Freadmen39s Hospital and Asylum Now a Prime Factor in Training Physicians and Nurses JNMA 22 1930 141142 FLQRIDRg FORT LAUDERDALE quotFort Laudardale Florida Fiaaca or Don39t Sell Your Birthright for a Mass of Pottagequot JNMQ 52 1960 3T2 Fort Laudardale Florida Hospital Controversyquot JNMA 52 1960 210 FLORIDA JACKSONVILLE BREWSTER METHODIST HOSPITAL Drewa Marcus E and Wright C E quotJacksonville Integrates its Negro Hospitalquot Modern Hospital 109 Navember 196 117 EL0R1EDaA Mimi Carnegie Amos H The Hospital Situation in Miami Flarida JN A42 1950 5359 FLORIDA ST PETERSBURG quotProposal for Separate Negro Hospital in St Petarsburg Florida Protastad J ga 52 1960 216 126 FLQRIDAraLAaasaEEaFLoapAAaa COLLEGE HOSPITAL quotFlorida AampH College Hospital Tallahassee Floridaquot Jung 42 1950 1869187 Florida AampMCe11aga Hospital Tallahassee Florida JNMA 43 1951 204205 FLORIDA Taapa CLARA FRYE TAMEAMqmIQlPAL HOSPITAL quot117404 wan Hospital Opened For Negroes 1n Tampa National NggraHaa1th News 6 foctoberanacember quotTampa Begins Cnnstruction of Municipal Negro Hospitalquot 0 lartunigf 16 19381 28 aaoggia ATLANTA Atlanta Urban League a Report on Hospital Care of tha Negro Population of Atlanta Georgia Atlanta Urban League 1947 GEGRGIAATLANTB 5 PAIR HAVEN INFIRMARY Cobb W Montague quotHenry Rutherford Butlerquot JNMA 51 1959 406408 E Fair Haven Infirmaryquot JNMA 5 1913 107v Kannay John A Fair Haven Infirmary In his The Negro In Medicine pp 4748 Tuskegee Alabama 1912 1 GEORGIA ATLANT GRADY MEMORIa quotAtlanta Hospital to Open J 44 1952 225 quotDedication uf Hughes Spaulding Pavillian of Grady Memorial Hospital Journal of rhe Maaical Associatiqgzor Gagrgia 41 May 1952 207208 quotFor Negroes Only At1anta s Grady Memorial Hospital Time 30 June 1952 p 64 Levin Rob Hughes Spalding Hospital Having Grand Opening For New Wing Atlanta qgurnal and Caastitution 1 July 1984 quotNew Atlanta Hospitalquot JNMA42 1950 118 127 New Atlanta Hospital JNMA 42 I950 186 quotTwo Negro Hospitals Investigated For violation of Civil Rights Act Modern Hospital lD5 October 1965 1 E w QQQRGIA ATLANTA SOUTHWEST COH g ITY HOSPITAL Shah H D and McGhee N shitt From Pradaminantly White to Predominantly Black Staff A Retraspective Study Relating to Surgical Care JHMA 71 I980 67iB1 GEORGIA STATESEORD VAN BUREN SAHITARIUM quotThe Van Euren Sanitarium JNMA 22 E19301 156 ILLINOIS CHICAGO Roberts Carl Glennis quotHospitals in Chicago Jm g 22 1930 l22l24 ILLINOIS CHICAGO BETHANY BRETHREN HOSPITAL Downey Gr gg W quotMerged Facilities In The Red But Help The Black Chicago39s1Bethany Garfield Park Hospitals Modern Hospital 11 August 1971 ll5I18 ILLINOIS CHICAGO DAILEY HOSPITRL AD SampMITARIUM quotDr Ulysses Grant Dailayquot Obituary J g S3 1961 432 quotDr Ulysses Grant Dailey Receives Distinguished Service Award for l949 JNMA 42 19503 3940 1 ILLINOIS CHICAGO THE JOHN T WILSON MEDICAL FOUNDATION The John T Wilscn Medical Feundatian Chicago Illinois JNMA 21 1929 29 ILLINOIS CHICAGO PRDVIDENT HOSPITAL Baker Helen Cody quotLet39s Be Proud of This HoapitaIquot Modern Hospital 54 April I940 2 Barnett Claude A w emarkable Service Performed By l23 President Hsspital Chieaga Institatiea Finest voluntary Hsspital Operated By Hegraes JHMA 30 l93E llT 1ED Beatty W K quotDaniel Hale Williams Ianavatise Surgean Edueatar and Hespital administrator Chess 60 august 1ET1 1151E2 Euekler Helen paniel Hale Wil1iamsg Negra Sargean 2nd ed ew Earl Pitman 1963 1st e itian titled Dgeter Dan Pianeer In amerisaa Surgery aurten Thsmas H quotUE Halds President Ea ety Hatquot Chieaqe Tribune 13 May 198 Cain Alfred E President Hespital Eesterday Today and Tsmerrsw Reprint Equal ppertunity Fall 1915 Caries Rita shauldPresident Haspital Be said For 1quot ghisage Defender 15 September 1986 Cobb W Hsntagse quotCarl Glennis Raherts HD lEE6195D JHMa52 19BU 14614 1 Daniel Hale Williams MD 13591931 JNEA 45 1953 379385 Bailey Ulysses Grant Daniel Hale Williams bituary Aasaa 22 1931 173s5 quotDaniel Hale Williams Piaaeer Surgeon and Father Of Negro Haspitals Paper presented at the Meeting ef the National Hospital Assaeiatien hisage Illiaais 18 August 1941 Davis Frank Marshall and Lawlah John W quotGreater President Hespital Hospital Council Bulletin ichieagai May 19391 Qili Davis Michael M Three Negro Hnspitals Their Breath and Sersieequot Msdera aspital 39 September 1932 S e Dawning L C quotEarly Hegre Hasgitals JEMH 33 l9 1 l318 Farmer Harald naniei Hale Williams MD LLi raesquot nnals sf Medical Histsgg 1 E19391 252259 Harvey E C H quotEresisien far Training Eelered Medical Studentsquot JHMA 22 1930 186190 Hsls m J Thomas The New Provident Haspital and Training Sehsa1 JNHA 22 1930 12B13 12 Ease Jehm end Byers eeende Prevident Hespitel Shutting Been Qhieeqe Tribune 15 September 198 Lewleh Jehn W GeergeE1eve1en Hell l E4ai930 A erefilequot VJNH 46 1954 2U21D Review ef the Edueetienel Training Pregrem tee Hegrees in Eliniesl Medieine at Prewi eet Hospital Ehieege Illineis Fer The Years 1936 te 1941quot n eiree 1942 Unpublished The Eeventieth Anniversary of the Preeident Hespitelquot Editeriel JHHA 53 19611 29931 Matthews Henry E Prevident Hospital Then en Newt JHMA 53 E1961 209224 quotA Medical Center Fer Negroes 193 SE UfertenitWE February quotMedical Center fer eegrees Planned June 22 19301 61 quotHegreMe iea1 Center Plenne At Prevident Hespitalg Ehieege Hetienei Negre Health News 1 January Hereh 1946 3m A ew hieege Hespitel crisis 3 11930 44e The ew Erevident Medical Centerquot ig T5 19831 2g Nerris Thereeite E quotAn Histerieal Review ef Prevident Hespitel Chicago Medical Society nd eiree 194 Unpublished quotPregress At Provident Hespitel Chieegequot Hespitel Tepies end Eu er 23 July 1945 3U32 Previ ent Chicago Eevelepments J e 44 i1952 150E151 Prevident Heseitel Develepment Cemmittee A Necessity Te Chieegee A Eeee it To the Hetieng Chieegee 1938 Preeident Hespitei Histeriei espitei Struggles Te Survive Eben ivJene IETL pp Eeff Frevident0tEieials Reply Chieege Defender 1 September 1936s I Eeeerts Cari Glennie Hospitals in Ehieegei J 22 193 1224 Sempsen Calvin C fPrevident Medical Center Fulfillment sf A eesquot Editorial JHMA T5 L933 656 130 Presidential Address Cook County Santns P M J a 34 1942 3032 Physicians Association Strausberg Chinta Fundraiser In Jeopardyquot Chicago Qgfeuder 15 September 1986 1 Provi ent Hospital will 1t Ba Saved quotquot TEE Ego Defender 13 September 1936 Chicafg Van Jon quot sspital Split Over Black Rule Tribune 18 September 1986 ILLINOIS CHICAGU WILLIS PHYSIO THERAPEUTIC sAa1TaRIUM Willis Floyd W quotThe Willis Physio Therapeutic Sanitarium JNMA 22 1930 159161 1LL1moI5 Evamsmoa COMMUNITY Ha p1TaL quotcammunity Hmspital JNM5 46 1954 204 quotThe ew Community Hospital of Evanston Illinois J g 45 1953 74n75 Perkins Lawrence Better Care For Negraes Modern Hos ital 65 November 1945 8889 1 JNMA 45 19521 154156 Pragress in Evansten Illineis quotThe Accident Zekman Pamela and Nustain Gene 18 19 20 Swindlers Chicago SunaTimes 1 February 1930 11 March 1930 INEIANA GARY ST JGHN psP1TAL Hedrick Robert L quotst John Hospitalquot AJQHA 22 19301 163 AT 39 K5NSAE7Kamp 5HS CITYj DOUGLASSi D5PITA Black Hospital in Kansas Ordered To Halt Abortions Douglass Hospital Kansas City Hos itals 45 August 19l 21 Cobb W Mantague Solomon HenryThompson MD 1870s 1950 JHHA 49 195 27427B 131 KENTUCKY LOUISVILLE RED CROSS HOSPITAL Johnson Waverly E Red Cross Hospital Louisville Kentucky JNMA 57 1965 332334 quotRed Cross Hospital Louisville Kentuckyquot National HegroiHea1thNeyo l8 JanuaryMarch 195G l3 l4 K75 3Er LI REE lcwwmll TALMEEOVREL li 3Pl1aT 39 l quotHumanitarian of the Hills Sepia epord January 1954 pp 56 59 LOUISIRNE MEWQRLE N iELINTGQOD lDGEHQ PIEAL HDSAB H aooo laca H5SPITAL Dent A W quotHow a Small Negro Hospital Helps Control Tuberculosis Modern Hospital 59 July 1942 S58 Downing L C quotEarly Negro Hospitals JNHA 33 1941 l3l8 quot Eleazer R B quotF1int Goooridge Hospital C ioie 40 July 1933 l5l 153 Fuller R T quotSarah Goodridge Hospita139New Orleans Louisiana J 5 1913 9495 Goldetein Hoisie H and MaeLean E C quotA Hospital That Serves As a Center of Negro Medical Educationquot Modern Hospital 39 Hovembe 1932 650 Knight H H FlintGoodrich sic Hospital JNM 22 1930 130131 Perry C and Perry G S Pennya Day Hospital White and Negro Doctors Work Together For Health of Negroes At Flint eoo ridge Hospital in New Orleans saturdax EvegingPg September 1939 30ff quotPostgraduate Course For Physiciansquot QQMAESB 194l G Sloan Raymond B quotFiveYears of Negro Health Activitiesquot Modern Hospital 48 tapril 1937 452 132 Louisiana NEW ORLEANS ROBINSON INFIRMARY awn CLIHIQ Cobb W Montague Paul Timothy Robinson HDm l89B 1966 Juan 53 l966 321323 LOUISIANA saaavaeoai quotHealth and Medical Care In A Selfisurvey of the Negro Community of Shrevepopp Louisia a pp 3440 Shreveport Council of Social Agencies 1952 Louisih a saaevaggao gang ANIEhRIUM Wallace William mexcy Sanitarium JNHA 22 1930 l53l54 i aARgLAHn BALTIMORE PROUIDE T HOSPITAL Baltimore MD a Provident Hospital JNMA 20 1928 13 Callie H A and Frost Clyde D A Hospital Animated By The Spirit of Interracial Cooperation Hodegn Hoggital 36 May l931 Sl 56 I heeney Alan H quotBaltimore39s Stake In Provident Hospital JNMA 48 1956 l3U 132 Cross R J Provident Hoapital Baltimore Marylandquot JNMA 22 I930 l44 l45 Davie Michael M Three Negro Hospitals Their Growth and servicequot Modern Hospital 39 September l932 5560 Fulwood Sam III Improvident Providentquot Baltimore Sun 11 December 1984 I Hines Fred Provident Hospital Curing Its Financial Illsquot Mehgopolitan Magazine February l9BD PP1 1012 I E Jackson Robert L and Walden Emerson C quotA History of Provident Hospital Baltimore Maryland JNMA 59 l96 156 164 Knudsen Mary and Warmkessel Karen E quotRussell Nameo As Trustee To Run Providentquot Baltimore sun 14 August 1985 I Miller Joseph M quotDemise oi Provident Hospitalquot JEN 75 19861 91920 133 quotProvident Hospital and Free Dispensary Approved For Training af Internee JNMA 22 1930 56 The Provident Hospital and Free Dispensary of Ealtimoresquot Editorial JNMA 20 19231 l8 quotProvident Hospital Baltimore From Receivership To Recovery Urban Health 5 April 196 2831 4143 Roylance Frank D quotBlack Hospitals In Critical Condition The vening Sun Baltimore September 2326 l985 Walden Emerson C quotProvident Hespital Baltimorequot Letter qmmh 41 1949 42 39 MICHIQAN DETROIT quotDetroit NAACP Opposes New Segregated Hospital JMMA 46 I954 68 quotForward Detroit Editorial JNMA 44 1952 146147 Henderson Allison E and Swan Lionel F Negro Physicians In Michigan J a 61 1969 448452 Private Hospitals Odd Law Makes Them Detroit39s Biggest Negro Business Ebenx October l950 pp 3 4l Thompson W Arthur and Greenidge Robert quotNegro In Medicine In Detroit QNMA 55 L963 45e484 gig laa DETRDITfj DUNBAR MEMORIAL Ho gTaL Hamilton Lucille quotDunbar Memorial Hospitalquot JNEA 22 1930 151i152 134 MICHIGAN DETROIT HAYNES MEMORIRL MEDICAL HOSPITAL quotHaynes Memarial Medical Hospital JNMA 42 1950 187 MICHIGAN DETROIT E KIRWODDGENERL HOSPITAL Cobb W Montague Kirwoed General Haspital JNHAXG1 1969 446448 quotA Good Place To Get Well Ebonz June 1968 p 92ff MICHIGAN DETRQT PARKSIDE HOSPITAL Detroit NAACP Ogposes New Segregated Hospitalquot J 46 1954 EB Sloan Raymond P quotParkside Teaches Learns Tooquot Modern Hospital 52 April 1939 5760 MICHIGAN DETROIT 0UTHWEST DETROIT HDSPITEL Barkholz Davie quotSouthwest Detroit Hospital Creates A Multihospital Systemquot Modern Healtheare 1 February 1985 2628 MICHIGAN RIVER ROUGE SIDNEY A sumer MEMORIAL HOSPITAL The Sidney A Sumby Memorial Hespital River Rouge Michiganquot JHMA 52 1960 6263 quotSumby Hospital General Practice Residency Approved JNHA 62 1950 6263 MISSISSIPPI American Medical Association Council on Medical Educatien and Hospitals Hospitals and Medical Care In Mississippiquot Journal of the American Medical Assgciation 112 1939 23l 2332 MISSISSIPPI MUUND BAYDU SARA WINIFREDBROWN MEMORIAL HOSPITAL Sara Winifred Brown Memorial Hospital Hound Bayou Mississippi JNMA 42 1950 2553256 135 Mrssxssgppl MOUND BAYOUiTABOBlAN HOSPITAL Covington Stuart quotThe Case For The Alle egro Hospitalquot Southern Hospital 19 September 1951 29i34 IS5ISSIPPIn YAZ00 CITY AFRO AMEElCAH HOSPITAL A o Amerioan Hospital Yazoo City Mississippi JNMA 45 1953 294 MISSQURI Barrett W H A The Missouri Hospital Situation J g 22 19301 140141 New Hospital in Kansas Cityquot JNMA 20 1928 15 Perry John Edward Forty Cords of Wood Memoirs of a Medical Doctor Jefferson City MD Lincoln University Press 1947 quotKansas City Missouri Hospitals JNMA 2 E1930 127 M1S ggRIKANSAS CITY Kgusgs CITY GENERAL HOSPITAL N0 2 Bradford Clyde Reed quotHistory of Kansas City General Hospital Colored Divisionquot Jackson County eqical Journal 26 8 October 1932 634 Dr Thomas Conrad Unthank Obituary JNMA 25 I933 86 quotKansas City General Hospital Crisis 31 1926 180 quotKansas City General Hospitals Nos 1 and 2 Consolidatedquot JNMA 50 1958 142 Rodgers Samuel U quotKansas City General Hospital No 2quot JNMA 54 1962 525544 Three Hospitals Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School Wheat1eyProvident Hospital General Hospital No 2quot JNMA 22 1930 155 MISSOURI KANSAS CITY MARTIN LUTHER KING JR HOSPITAL HHEATLEYPROV1DENT HOSPITAL AND PERRY SAHIT 1UM Cobb w Montague quotJohn Edward Perry MDquot JNMA 48 1956 292296 136 Dixon V L quotThe Martin Luther King Jr Hospital of Kansas City Missouriquot JNMA 64 1972 55la552 TM 7 and Tillman L H wheatleyProvident Hospital Medical Staff Jackson County Me ioal ociety eek1y Bulletin 50i3UJune 1956 15821583 quotDr Perry Honoredquot Editorial imam 22 1930 205206 Kenney John A quotPerry Sanitarium In his The Negro In Medicine p 47 Tuskegee Alabama 1912 Perry John Edward quotThe Pediatric Department of Wheatley Provident Hospital Kansas City Missouriquot QNMA 18 19661 126 l29 quotPlanning Group Frowns At Proposed Wheatley Provident Hospital Kansas City Missouri Modern Hospital 9 September 1961 206 Russell Frederick E wheatleyProvident Hospital Jackson County Medical Society Weekly Bulletin 50 30 June 1956 l58l l582 iwi T Three Hospitals Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School Wheatley Providemt Hospital General Hospital No 2 JNMAAEE 1930 155 wheatley Prouident Hospital Kansas City Missouriquot AJEMA 30 1933 194 MISSOURI KANSAS CITY ST VINCENT39 HOSPITAL quot onasegregation Works At St Vincent39s Kansas City Missouriquot Hospital Progress 34 November 1953 4750 MISSOURI ST LOUIS HOMER G PHILLIPS HOSPITAL AND ST QUIS CITY HDSPITRLa NO 2 H A Adams Huma P G An Interpretation Of The Signiticanoe Of The Homer G Phillips Hospitalquot JNMA 26 1934 quotCase Against Reopening Phillipsquot Editorial St Logis GlobeDemopgat 12 March 1951 City Hospital No 2 St Louis Missouriquot JNMA 28 19361 3233 Gross Leroy quotst Louis Hay Close BlackRun Hospital 137 Leaving Inner City Residents Without Facility gspital Physician l4 April 1978 45 4 quotHomer G Phillips City Hospital St Louis Missouri ggha 29 1937 70 quotHomer G Phillips Historic Training Hospital For Black Physicians Hay Pass From The Scenequot Urban Health 5 October l976 2222 Homer G Phillips Hospital The History and Development of Homer G PhillipsHospita1 St Louis 1945 quotThe Homer G Phillips Hospital Editorial JNMA 26 1934 30 3l quotHomer G Phillips Hospital Retains Identity JNMA 53 1961 410 Homer G Phillips Hospital St Louis Missouriquot Resident Physipian 6 1960 S ff Judge Clears Hospital Closing In St Louis p ospitals 53 16 October l979 20 Kenney John A The Homer G Phillips Hospital St Louis Missouri JNMA 30 1938 l718 McGuire James J quotRecent Advances At Homer G Phillips Hospitalquot JNMA47 19551 323324 quotSt Louis Dedicates New Negro Hospital Modetn Hospital 48 March l937 120 Venable H Philip quotThe Homer G Phillips Hospital JNA 53 19611 541551 Williams Edward B Jr quotA Negro Hospital Faces Changequot Editorial JNMA S3 1961 643 645 ISpURl 5 tools PEOPLE39S HQSPITAL Reid J L People39s Hospitalquot JNMA 22 l930 164 quotA Short History of People39s Hospital St Louis Missouriquot JNM30 1938 l516 MISSOURI ST LOUIS ST4 ARY39S HOSPITAL St Mary39s Infirmary St Louis Missouri JNMA 26 1934 178 138 Vaughn A M quotSt Mary s Infirmary As A Hospital For Colored Peoplequot JN o3D 1938 16 17 EHiJERSEY Ghee Euclid P quotA Plea For The Admittance of Negro Doctors To Municipal Hospital Staffsquot JNMA 28 1936 102106 N gZq RsErTgpNTcLAIR Kenneye John A The Interracial Committee Of Montclair New Jersey Report Of Survey Of Hospital Committee JNA 23 1931 9ei09 A Reasonable Program For Our Hospitalization Movement JNMA 23 1931 15B 160 NEW JERSEXJ NEWARK COMMUNITY HQ BTamp AND KEHNEY MEMQBJHL osPIEL Cobb W Montague John Andrew Kenney MD4 18741950quot JNMA 42 1950 175E177 Community Hospital Newark New Jersey Histgricgl Sketch of the CommgoiyHo pita1 Newark NJ June 1939 Executive Board of NMA Approve Donations For The Community Hospital Building Campaign QQMA 29 193T 120 W igh O ficers of NMA Endorse The Community Hospital JNMA 29 1937 120 Kenney John A quotKenney Memorial Hospitalquot Jung 22 1930 156lST 39 igi quotThe Negro Physician An Open Letter To The Hospital Boards and White Practitioners DE Essex Countyquot JNMA 31 1939 126 Stubbs Frederick D quotThe Purpose Of The Community Hospitalquot Jug 36 1944 iS2 154 FYORK sTA1 AMp NEW YORK cirr Charitable Segreqationsquot The Fraternal Review 10 January 1931 quotCharitable Segregationquot Editorial JMMA 1 1909 139 104105 Harris George W The Need For A Voluntary Hospital in Harlem Hosgitals 16 July 1942 4344 Manhattan Medical Society ggual Opggrtunity No Morai Ho Lessl Open Letter To Mr Edwin H Embree President of the Julius Rosenwal Fund New ork 28 i i January 1931 Murray Peter Harshall quotThe Hospitals In New York State and Harlemquot JHMA 22 1930 1326133 Rawlins E Elliot quotwanted A Negro Hospital In New York Cityquot Colored Amerioan magazine 16 1909 221222 New roar NEH YORK CITY HARLEHHDSPITAL quotThe Case of Harlem Hospital Crisis 23 November 1922 24a25 quotColored Doctors Editorial Commonweal 19 1934 284 Corwin E H L and Sturges Gertrude E ogggrtunities For The Medical Education of Negroes New York Charles Soribner39s Sons 1936 T Davidson Arthur T A History of Harlem Hospital JHMA 55 1964 373330 Du ois W E B quotPostscript Harlem Hospitalquot crisis 40 1933 4445 quotHarlem Hospital Crisis 41 April 1934 l01l02 Harlem Hospital Editorial Crisis 46 March 1939 B1 Leighton Barbara White Patient in Harlem Hospital Pays Tribute To Servicequot Hospital Management August 1944 B Locke Alain quotHarlem Dark Weather Vanequot Survey Graphic 25 I936 45462 493495 Maynard Aubre de L Surgeons To theEoor TheHarlem Hospital Story New York AppletonCentury Crofts 1978 quotNegro Doctors and Their Hospitalsquot Editorial Opgortunitg 3 August 1925 227 Report On Harlem Hospitalquot Crisis 41 March 1934 B3B4 140 St Louis and Harlem Hospitalsquot Editorial Acriais April 1937 ll3 NEW Egan HEW YQBK CITY Limcotw Hggpxrag an COLORED HOME awn HOSPITAL i Hospital and Training School ltamaquot Ameriga Jgurnal or Nursiag 1 l9 1 369 quotLinculn Hospital New Ybrkquot Criaia 36 November 1929 3BU 3Bl 39 Hullan Fitzhugh Whita Qoat clenched Fist The Pqlitical Education of an American Physician New Yarkz Macmillan l976 quotWhy Ho Internesquot J g 2 19101 l52153 NEW Yoga NEW YORK CITY LINCDLN HOSPITAL quotLincoln Hospital New Yorkquot Crisis 36 November 1929 33D 3El Why No Internesquot JN A 2 l910 152153 NEW roa tjutw YORK CITY sea McDONDUGHEDSPITAL quotHospitals in Praspect Editorial tJH 14 1922 165 NEE YORK NEW YQRK CITY NORTH GEMERiHOSPITAL Douglas Carlyle C quotHospital39s Staff Helps Improve Fiscal Health at North General New YGrk39Timas 4 March P B3 MEE Y NEW YORK CITY i SEDENHAM HOSPITampL quotAn Advance For Negro Health Modern Hospital 62 February l944 42 quotFirst Annual Report or The Trustees Of Sydanham Hospital T9 The Organizatian Committee For an Interracial Voluntary Hospital In The Harlem Areaquot Editorial JNMA 37 1945 6667 quotReorganized Sydenham Hospital Has Interracial Board and Staffquot Modern Hospital 62 February 1944 120 NEW yonx NEW YORK CITY viacrur sAN1ToRIUg Kelley William M quotThe RDmance390f A Negro Sanitorium In Harlemquot 0 ortuniti T 1929 177178 NORTH CAROLINA quotone First In which we May Take Justifiable Pridequot The Health Bulletin North Carolina State Board of Health 45 March 1930 38 Ross Mary quotImproved Negro Hospital Facilities Is Hopeful Sign For The South Modern Hospital 39 October 1932 5360 Winston M E quotDiscussion Some Special Problems of Southern Hospitals Transactions of the American Hospital Association 3 T1930 64852 ooetn cARoL1HA ASHEVILLE ASHEVILLE COLORED HOSPITAL RotaryStarted Hospital For Negroes Asheville Colored Hospital Rotariau 65 1944 2021 quot12000 Sought For Colored Hospital esheville Citizen Times 2 December 1942 p 1 NORTH CAROLINA QHARLOTTE GOOD SAMARITAN HDSPITAL Rann Emery L quotGood Samaritan Hospital of Charlotte North Carolina JNMA 56 1964 223226 NDRTH CAROLINA DURHAM LINCOLN Ho EiTAL quotAaron Mobu fie Moore Obituary JNMA 16 l924 724 Creedy John quotLincoln Hospital Provides Invaluable Service Here As Its Fame Spreads Far The Durham Herald Sun 26 November 1939 sec 2 p 1 Dixon Wyatt T quotHospital Built Instead Of Monument To Successquot Durham Sun 18 February l955 P1 2 Kenney John A quotLincoln Hospital In his The Negro In edicine Tuskegee Alabama 1912 quotLincoln Hospital Trustees Hold Annual Meeting Jun 23 1931 43 A New Hospital in Durhamquot JNMA 14 I922 290 142 Shepherd C H quotThe Lincoln Hospital JNMA 22 l93U 139140 shepherd C H quotReducing The Mortality of The negroquot odern Hospital 55 July 1926 5557 Watts Charles D and Scott Frank W quotLincoln Hospital of Durham North Carolina A Short History JNMA S7 1965 17al83 HORTH CAROLINA EAYETTEVILLE LEARPERRX Hoserrag quotLeary Perry Hospital Fayatteville North Carolina J 42 El9SU 332 NORTH CAROLINA GREENSBgRq L RICHARDSON MEMORIAL HOSPITAL Aarons ROa1th El quotL Richardson Memorial Hospital Fifty Years of Service will There Be Fifty Years Moroquot Resume Springasummer 197 pp 79 Case of Forced Extermination L Richardson Memorial Hospital Greensboro NC Resume May 1974 p 2ff Elkios Wilson 0 A History of L Richardson Memorial Hospital North Carolina Medical Journal 30 19691 l46151 also in JNMA 61 l969 205212 Sebastian S P quotL Richardson Memorial Hospital JNMA 22 19301 142144 quot Spohn Lawrence quotLocal Doctors Buy L Richardson Hospital For T Million Greensboro News and Rgoora 30 Dctobar 1985 NORTH CAROLINA NEW BERN GGOD SHEPHERD HOSPITAL Johnson H I quotGood shepherd Hospital For Colored People New Bern North Carolina The Health Bulletin North Carolina State Board of Health 54 March l939 910 QQRTH CAROLINA OXFORD SHAW MEMORIAL HOSPITAL AND SUSEE CLAYTON E E ia HospTaL quotNew Hospital in Oxford NC JNMA 45 19531 l5la152 143 NORTH CAROLINA RALEIGH E 0NA p HOSPITAL Emerson Alice M Leonard Hospitalquot JNMA 5 19131 I NORTH CAROLINA RALEIGH j4McCAULEY PRIVATE HOSPITAL Another Race Hospital In The Page Of our Journalquot JNMA 18 I926 188 NORTH CAROLINA RALEIGH ST AGNES HOSPITAL Cobb W Montague quotSaint Agnes Hospital Raleigh Horth Carolina l896196lquot JNHA S3 1961 4399446 Delaney Lemuel T St Agnes Hospitalquot QEMA 22 1930 135136 Downing L C Early Negro Hospitals JNMA 33 l94l 13al8 quotRaleigh39s St Agnes Hospital Called Disgrace By Jurorsquot The Raleigh News and Dbserveg ll May 1955 p 26 Royster H A A Review of the Operations At St Agnes Hospitalquot JNMB 6 I914 22I 225 NORTH CAROLIQA wxtmlucgom COMMUNIT OSPITAL Avant F W quotThe Beginning and Growth of the Colored Community Hospital of Wilmington North Carolina The Health Bulletig North Carolina State Board of Health 54 March 1939 12 1s quotThe Community Hospital Wilmington North Carolinaquot JNMA 15 1923 114 quotCommunity Hospital Wilmington North Carolina JNMA 41 1949 135 136 quotCommunity Hospital Wilmington North Carolinaquot JNMA 41 I949 268 39 Eaton Hubert A quotpommunity Hospital Wilmington North Carolina JNMA 57 19651 7479 NORTH CAROLIQA WINSTONSALEM Pritchard Robegt W quotWinstonSalem39s Black Hospitals Prior to 1930quot JNMA 68 1976 246249 144 nonrs CARQLINA WIESTONSALEM KATE BETTING Esrnolos HOSPITAL Grimes William T quotThe History of the Kate Sitting Reynolds Memorial Hospital J g 64 l92 36381 onio cnsvsLAnD Garvin Charles H quotThe Hegro Physicians and Hospitals of Cleveland JNMA 22 1939 l24l2 quotOur Hospital Problemsquot Editorial JNMA 21 1929 ll4l16 onio CLEVELAND MERCY Hossiran Giffin Williams quotThe Mercy Hospital Controversy Among Clevaland s Afroshmsrican Civic Leaders 192 Journal of Negro History 61 1976 32 35G OHIO CLEVELRND FOREST CITY HQSPITAL Cobb W Montague quotCleveland39s Forest City Hospital Cslebratss First Birthday JHHA 5l i959 150153 oniq COLUMBUS BLPHAHOSPITAL Steward Gustavus Adolphus quotAlpha Hospitalquot Com atitor 2 1920 182184 OKLAHOMA OKLAHOM CITY EDWARDS MEMORIAL HQSPETAL quotFrances Edwardsquot Acrisis 56 March 1949 91 quotRacial Progress Mr and Mrs W J Edwardsquot Editorial JNMA 40 1948 222 Ruth Rant The Hospital Built On Faith Negro Digest 9 April 1951 8892 PENNSYLVANIA Coarssriair osrnsnrynrsrnson MEMORIAL HOSPITAL quotAtkinson General Practitioner or the Year of Pennsylvania Medical Society JNMA 53 i961 8586 quotAtkinson Hospital Receives Accreditationquot QNMA 52 1960 63 quotWhittier C Atkinson clinging to an Aging Hospitalquot 145 American Medicali eys 18 9 June l975J 10 PENNSYLVANIA PHILADEEFHIA Alexander Virginia and Simpson George E quotNegro Hospitalizationquot poenortunitl 15 1937 231232 248 Hospitalization of Negro Sick In EhiladelphiaHospital and Health survey I929 by Haven Emerson Sol Pincus and Anna C Phillips Philadelphia Philadelphia Hospital and Health Survey Committee l930 PsNmsrLvgmA PHILADELPHIA FREDERIQE DDUGLASS MEMORIAL HOSPITAL are NHESE mnarurns scnggr Cobb W Montague quotNathan Francis Mossell MD 1856 1946 JNMA 46 I954 ll8sl30 quotThe Douglass Hospitalquot Crisis 3 l9l2 ll8120 Douglass Hospital of Philadelphia Crisis 3 1912 I40 Downing L C Early Negro Hospitalsquot JHMA 33 1941 1318 The Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School In Philadelphia Hospital ago Health Survey 1929 by Haven Emerson Sol Pincus and Anna C Phillips Philadelphia Hospital and Health Survey Committee 1930 quotFrederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School l5l2 Lombard Street Philadelphiaquot In Charitable Institutions of Pennsylvania pp lO7 ll0 Compiled by Alexander Pedrick Commonwealth or Pennsylvania 1898 Gordon Alfred Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training Schoolquot In Philadelphia World39s Medical Center pp 5860 nd circa l930 Henry Frederick P quotFrederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training Schoolquot In Founders Week Memorial gqiume pp 725 72s Edited by rederick P Henry Published by City of Philadelphia in Commemoration of the Two Hundred and Twenty FiEth Anniversary of Its Founding l909 146 quotAHoapital Maintained By the Colored Race Affording Nursing Education and Internship to the Negro Modern Eospital 12 1919 43 quotA Renewe Douglass Hospitalquot Editorial JNMA 29 l93T 6970 Swan Thomas Wallace quotPennsylvania39s Memorial to Frederick Douglass Howaggjs American Magazine 4 October 1399 314 a Three Hospitals 9 Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School WheatleyProvident Hospital General Hospital No 2 JNM 22 1930 l55 PEN SYLVANIA PHILADELPHIA MERCY HOSPITAL ANDiSCHODL FOE NURSES Cobb W Montague Eugene Theodore Hinson MD lB3quot JNMA 48 19561 213 i i T quotHenry McKee Hinton lB70i946quot JNMA 4 1955 285286 Davis Michael M quotThree Negro Hospitals Their Growth and Service Modern Hospital 39 September 1932 5560 Howard J Imogen quotMercy Hospital and School for Nurses Philadelphiaquot In Founders Eegh Memorial Volume pp 742745 Editea by Frederick P Henri Po lished by City of Philadelphia in Commemoration of the Two Hundred and Twenty Fifth Anniversary oi its Fognding 1909 l Kane Francis Fisher quotHow Success was Achieved in Drive For Negro Hospital Modern Hospital 32 E1929 7373 Hinton Henry M quotMercy Hospital AJNMA 22 1930 l Mercy Hospital Crisis 23 March l922 2l6 quotMercy Hospitalquot Criaia 30 June 1925 80 Mercy Hospital JNMAl l909 43 quotMercy Hospital and School for Eurees In Phila elphia Hospital aqgHealth Survey l9ig by Haven Emerson Sol Pincus and Anna C Phillipa Philadelphia Philadelphia Hospital and Health Survey Committee 1930 quotMercy Hospital and School for Nurses Philadelphiaquot VJNMA 18 l926 1B0181 1439 quotHercy Hospital Philadelphiaquot JHMA 18 19261 137 quotA Philadelphia Hospital Crisis 35 192B 425426 warlick Lula G quotNew Nurses Home of Mercy Hospital and School for Nurses JNM5 22 1930 121 PENNSELVANIA PHIHADELPHIA Msscrspgustsss Hospirgg Cooper Edward S quotMercy Douglass Hospital Historical Perspectivesquot JNMA 53 1961 17 quotMercyDouglass Hospitalquot Editorial JNMQ 53 l96l 79 MercyDouglass Hospital in Phila elphia Closes JHMA 65 1973 552 553 Minton Russell F quotHistory of MercyDoug1ass Hospital Philadelphia Pennsylvaniaquot JNHA 43 1951 l53 l59 New MercyDouglass Hospital Dedicated JNMA 48 l956 2072D8 Philadelphia39s MercyDouglassquot our World 7 May 1952 4351 1 quotProceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integration JNMA 50 1958 14g l43 Prooope John L quotMeroyDoug1ass Hospital Todayquot JNMA 53 1961 B l3 quotRecent Developments at Meroy Douglass Hospital Philadelphia Pennsylvania JNHA 47 1955 355357 Rudwiok Elliott M quotA Brief History of Hercy Douglass Hospital in Philadelphia Journal or Negro Educatioo 20 Winter l95l 5066 Shay Howell Lewis The Doors will He openedquot Hos ital Management 31 March 1956 5053 131 PENNSYLVANIA PITTSBURGH HOOKER T WASHINGTQN HOSPITAL Hospitals in Prospectquot Editorial JHMA 14 1922 165 PENg rLvANIs PITTSBURGH LIVINGSTON HOSPITAL Anent Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Negro Health Problemquot National Negro Health News 3 Apri1eJune 1935 1213 143 eegitele in Preepeeta Editeriel JHMA 14 192E 165 SOUTH CAROLINA CHHRLEETDH HDSPITRL HEB TRAINIEG SCHBUL EGR HURSES Downing L C Ear1y Negre Heepitale JHHA 33 1941J I318 SDUTH CARGLINA EHAHLESTDH MECLENNDHBANKS MEHGRIAL HDSPITRL quotA Heepital fer Hegreee is Dedicated in Charleston Jeurnal ef the South Carolina Me ieal J urnal 55 1959i 330 SUUTH CHRDLIHE GEEEHILLE H WQEKIHG EENETQLEHT SQCIETE HU3PIT3L Finn Petra Werkinq Eenevelent Seeiety Heepitel JNMA 2E 1930 14 SQUT EQLIQA UNIQN UNION COMMUNITY HDSPITAL quotUnien Community Heepitel Unien Seuth Careline JHMA EU I953 21621 TENNESSEE CHATTAHGUGA CARVER MMDRIRL HDEPITQL Branten A E The Duly Heepitel ef its Kind Mdern Heegital T1 November 1943 E9 TEHHESSEE CLARKETILLE HGHE INFIRHARY quotThe Heme Infirmaryquot JHHA22 1938 162 Kenney Jehn A quotHeme Infirmary In his The egre in Medicine PP 464 Tuskegee labame 1912 TENNESSEE KHDXUILLE KNDKUILLE GENERAL HOSPITAL NEGRQ UNIT Gary J J quotThe Heepite1 Unit Knexvi11e Tenn JHHA 34 1942 131 Dr H H Green An gpreeietien A Fraetieal Expeiment Editeriel Jena 2 1935 vsa Green H M Our Hesgitel Preblemquot JNHA 2 1935a 149 Heynee T H dquotKn EVil1E General Heepitel Hegze Unit Explaine Seuthern gepitege 13 March 1945 1 E quot nexville General Heepitel Knexville Tennesseequot JHHA KneEEille Genezel Heepitel Hegre Unitquot JHHA E5 1933 1E T A TENNESSEE MEMPHIS Memphis HARE Ezaneh Reeein e Endereement ef egre Heepitel AJHEE 44 1952 3143l5 TENNESSEE MEMPHIS 3 E g ERUMP HEHUEIAL HDSPITE Bax H P Adaptability is the Herd fer New Unit EWEHW Crump Memurial Hospital Memphis Tenneeeeea Hedern HeEitEl 9 June l95EJ B3BS New Hespital Dpened in Memphisquot JHH E4E 1956 206 TEHHEEEEE EEEEELE TERRELL MEmEEALEoEETEL JEEE TERRELL EEEEIETEEEEEgELLEEEEeEEETIET H SPITAL E quotTerrell Hemeriel Heepitel In Negro Yea Beak epd Q 30 Memphis Hegre Cha ber ef Cemmeree TENNESSEE EEEEEIELE Remen Ca V The Heepital Situatien in Nashville Tennesseequot EJM 22 I930 131 TEEEEEEEE NASHVILLE iGE RGE w EUEEEEE EEEEIEEL EeeEge39W Hubbard Heepitelp QHMA 5 l9l3j H5BE Halsey Ashley 3rd quotEmpty Eiekbede Enaenger Black Medical Seheel Pi1edelphiEnqui eE 24 may 1982 p 2 Hansen Exel George W Hubbard Heepiteli 1 1Dil9E1g JEEEE54 13521 116 Herrieen Grace quotHubbard Hesgitel and Meherry Heaieal Cellege fer NegEeeEHEEhEi1le TenneEEee MA Thesis University ef Chieaqej L945 quotHubbard Heepitalquot Seuthern Heepitale 1 May 1949 El 150 Lyttle Hulda M quotA School for Negro Nurses at the George W Hubbard Hospital and Meharry Medical College Nashville Tennesseequot American Journal 0fEursing 39 1939 l33 138 quotMeharry Medical College Nashville Tennessee JNME l4 l922 l3Dl31 quotNew Hospital Opened Todayquot J g 3 l91lJ 105107 Stuart Reginal Meharry Medical College of Nashville Fights Vanderbilt for Hospital Rights gew Eork Tim a 26 April l982 see 3 p ll Eummerville James Educating Black Doctors A History of Meharry Medical College University Alabama University of Alabama Press 1983 TENNESSEE NASHVILLE MERCY HOSPTTAL Green H M Mercy Hospital JNMA 22 1930 147E148 Kenney John A quotin Memoziamz Dr L A westquot g g 35 1943 65 TENNESSEE NASHVILLE E MILLIE E HALE HOSPITAL Cobb W Montague quotDr John Henry Halequot g MA46 1954 7980 Kenney John A In Memoriam Dr John Henry Halequot JNMA 36 1944 130131 Ragland John Marshall quotB Hospital for Negroes with a Social Service Programquot Ogportunitg l l923 Thomas John J quotTribute to Dr J H Hale JNMA 31 l939 7879 TEXAS Negro Medical Facilities in Texasquot Texas State Journal of Medicine 51 August 1955 495 TEXAS BEAUMONT i CENTRAL HUSPITAL Proceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integrationquot Jm g 49 1951 356 151 TEXAS BEAUMONT SPROTT HOSPITAL quotProceedings of the Imhotep Netienal Conference on Hospital Integrationquot JNQQ 49 1957 356 TEXAS HOUSTON LOCKWODD HOSPITAL Viewpoint An Interview with Willie Melvin Administrator of a PredominantIyBlack Investore wned Hospitalquot FAH Review 5 Winter 1972 3941 39 TEXS HOUSTON RIVERSIDE HOSPITAL AND HOUSTON NEGRO Hq pTgL Bright M H The Houston Negro Hospital JNMA 22 I930 143 quotDr J Edward Perry and the Houston Negro HospiteIquot JHMA 39 1947 163 Houston39s Race Hospitalquot JNMA 21 1929 30 Perry Eugene B quotRiverside General Hospitalquot q MA 57 1965 258263 quotRiverside General Hospitalquot Texas Hospitals 16 April 1961 11 quotRobinson Rape with Resumequot Resume Summer 1976 p B TEXAS HOUSTON ST ELIZABETH HOSPITAL Help For St Elizabeth39s Hospital Houston Texas gg ional Negro Health News 14 April June 1946 2223 Roach Rev John J A Negro Hospital Takeg Stock Hospital Progress 29 August 19481 277278 TEXAS HOUSTON PRAIRIE VIEW HOSPITAL Franklin J M Prairie View Hospital JNMA 22 I930 16I l62 VIRGINIA BURKEUILLE 9 PIEDMONT SRNITARIUM Frances J J quotA PQetGreduate Course in Tuberculosis et the Piedmont Sanitarium Eurkeville Virginia JNMA l2 19201 1621 152 VIEQINIE HAMPTON DIXEE HOSPITAL AND TRAINING SCEOGL FOR NURSES Bacon Alice Mabel quotThe Dixie and Its Workquot Southern Wortpan 20 November 1891 244 Folsom Cora M quotThe Dixie Hospital in the Beginning Southern Workman 55 March 1926 121126 Goodloe Henry L1 quotA Hospital Heals Itself Modern Hospital 56 May 194l 5960 quotNo Prejudice Here Modern Hospital 61 October 1943 8 quotProceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integrationquot Jung 49 1957 l95sl96 Sloan Patricia E Commitment to Equality A View of Early Black Nursing Schoolsquot In Historical Studies in Nursing pp 6B 85 Edited by Louise Fitzpatrick New York Teachers College Press l98 VIRGINIA Lrucssges quotNegro Foundation Seeks Hospital at Lynchburg Virginiaquot Modern Hospital 50 May 1933 ll2 VIRGINIEI NEWPORT usws 4WHITTAKER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL Grannum E De quotWhittaker Memorial Hospital Newport News Virginiaquot JQM 56 1964 119123 Hancock Jay Hospital Gets New Name New Building Daily Press Newport News Virginia 20 June l9B5 Holmes M R quotWhittaker Memorial Hospital and School for Nursesquot JNMA 22 1930 153 Proceedings of the lmhotep National Conference on Hospital Integrationquot JNMA 49 1957 197 Scott C waldo Whittaker Memorial Hospital Newport News Virginiaquot QNMA 42 19501 260 VIRGI IAr NORFOLK COMMUNITY HOSPITAL 33D TIDEWATER HDSPITAQ The Community Hospital Project JNMA 31 1939 3233 Hoffler Oswald Norfolk Community Hospitalquot JNMA 58 1966 151154 L53 quotNorfolk Community Hospital Norfolk Virginiaquot JNMA 26 1934 35 quotNorfolk Community Hospital Norfolk Virginiaquot JNMA 43 19511 279 quotProceedings of the Imhotep National Conference on Hospital Integrationquot JNM 49 19571 1979198 The Tidewater Colored Hospitalquot Editorial JNMA ll l919 21 Trigg Frank Ryder Tho Tidewater Hospitalquot Southern Eog man 52 July 1923 350351 vrneiaig axcauouu quotFactual Study to Improve Raoe s Hospital Facilitiesquot National Negro Health News 13 JulySeptember L945 10 VIRGINIA aicaoonngg COMMUNITY EDSPITAL quotPattern of Biaok Hospital Closings Interrupted as Richmond Community Hospital Revitalizas Old Hospital in New Plantquot Utpan Healtp 9 June 1980 3Bi39 quotRichmond Community Hospital Richmond Virginiaquot JMMA 26 1934 133 VIRGINIA RICHMOND ST PHILIP quotThe Saint Philip Hospital For Negro Patients Exclusively Richmond M ical College of Virginia Hospital Division nd Sutton Lee E Jr quotThe Saint Philip Hospital Postgraduate Clinic for Negro Physicians A Five Year Report gouthern Medical Joptnal 29 1936 640644 yIRGINIA3 ROANOKE g RELL MEMORIBL HOSPITAL Cobb W Montague quotBurrell Memorial Hospital Roanoke Virginia JNMA 55 1963 256i257 Downing L C urrell Memorial Hospitalquot JNMA 22 1930 15B159 154 WEST VIBGIN1 Hill T Edwaro quotHospitalsquot In The Negro in West Virginia Report of the Directog Bureau of Negro gifafe and Statistics 19251926 pp 4950 C arleston west Virginia was VIRGINIA DEwMnRi STATE COLORED TUBERCULOSIS SAHITARIUM Criohlow B A West Virginia State Colored Tuberculosis Sanitarium Denmar West Virginiaquot JEMA 11 19193 The West Virginia State Colored Tuberculosis Sanitarium Editorial gymh 11 1919 19 WEST iRGINIA HUNTINGTON BARNETT HOSPITAL quotMore Hospital Progressquot JHM 17 1925 251 wnsr VIRGINIA iixim 9 STATE HOSPITAL FOR coLo3ED INSANE quotLakin State Hospital Lakin West Virginia JNMA 50 19531 391 Lakin State Hospital in West Virginia Crisis 39 October 1932 323 Opening of State Hospital or39Co1ored Insane in West Virginiaquot Editorial JHMA 13 1926 136 quotWISCONSIN MILWAUKEE ST ANT gH 39S HOSPITAL More Sister Thomas Mission to a Metropolisquot Hoogital Erogress 37 May 1956 1L118 Philomena Sister M and Brielmior Leo A A Problem in Integration the New Addition to St Anthony s Hospital Milwaukee Hospital Progresg 29 February 1943 4244 PART III TABLES 156 The third part of the monograph contains statistical tables and a cumulative listing of black community hospitals These entries were culled from many sources including volumes of the Negro Year Book and Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro the American Medical Association39s registries of approved hospitals and bibliographic references The lack of shared definitions of black hospitals and the failure of many sources to define their use of the term produced some difficulties in the compilation of these tables For example Lincoln Hospital in New York City was listed as a black hospital by some sources in the l920s The hospital had evolved from an institution established in 1842 by the Society for the Relief of worthy Aged Indigent Colored Persons to care for runaway and freed slaves In lB9B the hospital moved from Manhattan s East Side to the then seni rural and predominantly white South Bronx In 1912 the name of the institution was changed from the Colored Home and Hospital to Lincoln Hospital By the 19205 the hospital had a predominantly white patient population and no black medical staff The hospital however operated a training school for black nurses The hospital39s continued listing as a black hospital referred to its original mission rather than to its aotnal operations at the time Because of these definitional problems the tables are less a compilation of historically black hospitals than a compilation of institutions that various sources have identified or perceived as black The statistical tables are listed chronologically and 157 according to source The cumulative table is arranged geographically and contains where available the dates of the ineiitution The table is far from complete and any deletions corrections and additions are welceme and encouraged Irregar less of its incompleteness the table remains the most comprehensive listing of black hospitals that is currently available 153 TABLE 1 BLACK HOSPITALS END NURSE TRAINING SCHOOLS 1912 STATE NUMBER Alabama i District of Columbia 1 Florida 3 Georgia 5 Illinois 2 Indiana 2 Kansas 2 Kentucky 2 Louisiana 2 Maryland 1 Massachusetts 1 Mississippi 1 Missouri 2 Mozth Carolina 5 Oklahoma 1 Ohio 1 Psnnsylvania 3 South Carolina 3 Tennessee 8 Texas 6 Virginia 4 West Virginia 3 Total 65 Source John A Kennsy quotHospitals and Nurse Training Schools Etcr in his ThsNsg p in Msdicins Tuskegee 1912 pp 424 159 TABLE 2 BLACK HOSPITALS AND NURSE TRAINING SCHOOLS 19121919 STATE 1912 1913 19141915 19161917 i91Bj1919 Alabama 6 9 10 10 Arkansas District of Columbia Florida IDLu I Georgia Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Mississippi Missouri New York I l JJquot New Mexico North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Pennsylvania South Carolina Tennessee Ii Texas C1 Virginia IE 3 1 1 3 B 3 3 2 3 4 1 1 D 2 3 1 1 8 D 2 5 7 7 9 6 4 west Virginia on Totals 051 Lu 39 44 KO na 95 11B Sources Monroe N work ed quotHospitals and Nurse Training Schoolsquot in The Negro Year Book and Annual Eogyglgpedia of the Negro Tuskegee Institute hlabamaa Negro Yearbook Co 1912 pp 1557 1913 24851 19141915 33841 19161917 35361 l91B 1919 4246 160 TABLE 3 BLACK HOSPITALS AND NURSE TRAINING SCHOOLS 19211933 STATE 19211922 1925a192E 19311932 19311938 Alabama 12 14 14 10 9 Arizona 1 1 1 Arkansas 5 B 8 7 Caiifornia 1 1 1 1 Colorado 2 2 2 District of Columbia 1 3 4 4 Florida 7 10 11 Georgia 12 15 16 16 Illinois 4 3 5 5 Indiana 5 5 3 4 Kansas 3 3 3 3 Kentucky 6 7 6 7 Louisiana 4 5 3 3 Maryland 2 3 3 3 Massachusetts 1 1 E Michigan 3 2 3 3 Mississippi 4 5 Y 7 Missouri 4 4 I 7 New Jersey 1 1 2 2 New Mexico 1 1 1 1 New York 3 3 2 3 North Carolina 10 11 15 17 Dhio 3 41 5 5 Oklahoma 5 5 9 B Pennsylvania 4 4 2 3 South Carolina 9 12 14 15 Tennessee 9 14 16 13 Texas 11 13 8 3 Virginia 11 12 10 11 West Virginia 3 4 5 6 Total 144 13 186 191 Sources Monroe N Work ed Hospitals an Nurse Training Schoolsquot in The Negro Year Book and Annual EnCYc1oDedia of the Negro Tuskegee T Institute Alabama Negro Yearbook Co 19211922 pp 37Ua2 19251926 pp 41620 19311932 pp 5275 19371933 2902 161 TABLE 45 BLACK HOSPITALS 1938 STATE E NUMBEE Alabama J i B i K Arizona 1 Arkansas 4 Delaware 1 District of Columbia 2 Florida 8 Georgia 7 Illinois 2 Indiana i 2 Kansas 3 Kentucky 1 Louisiana 1 Maryland 3 Michigan 8 Mississippi 2 Missouri 7 New Jersey 1 New York 2 North Carolina 10 Oklahoma 4 Pennsylvania 3 South Carolina 6 Tennessee 5 Texas 2 Virginia 11 west Virginia I 1 Total 105 Souroe E R Carnef quot ireotory of Negro Hospitals in the United Statesquot I938 TABLE 5 BLACK HdaPiIaLs 1944 STATE NUMBER alabama 9 Arkansas 5 District nf Columbia 3 Florida 11 Gadrgia 3 Illinois 2 Indiana 2 Kansas 3 Lauiaiana 1 Michigan 10 Maryland 4 Dalawara 1 Mississippi 4 Hiaanuri aw Jaraay 1 New Yark 1 Narth Carolina 13 klahama 4 Pannaylvania 3 South Carolina 7 Tannaaaaa 4 Texas 7 Virginia 10 Heat Virginia 4 Tatal 124 1945J 3 isanraa Eugene H Bradley quotHealth Hospitals and the Magra Hndarn Hnapital 65 auguat 152 163 TABLE 6 BLACK HOSPITALS AND RELATED INSTITUTIONS REGISTERED BY THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 1929 1934 1946 1943 STATE 1929 i934 1946 1943 Alabama 8 8 Arizona Arkansas California Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Michigan Mississippi Hissouri New Jersey New York North Carolina 1 Ohio Oklahoma Pennsylvania South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia west Virginia mJtnasmruxsesmwahauiwwershiewomocaqmodseapam o lgI lI5I39C31LJL l I lJtJJU3 E1uLfII t tJrJ I uDDlI QLn I oneqsLmroeocmacawosemmmyrFeruJnGrdtor bhl wm h mtoLALnoJhJucHqis g hasa usahJaw4moecotoca Total 122 109 105 105 Note Related institutions include school and prison infirmaries nursing homes and institutions other than hospitals and sanitoria which are designed to give medical and nursing care To be registered by the American Medical Association39s Council on Medical Education and Hospitals hospitals and related institutions had to meet a set of minimum standards relating to staffetraining recordakeeping and diagnostic and therapeutic facilities Sources American Medical Association Council on Medical Education and Hospitals quotHospital Service in the United States Ninth Annual Present tation of Hospital Data JANA 94 1930 92le87 American Medical Association quotHospitals For Negroes Registered By The American Medical Associationquot 10 October IQ34 Typewritten Guzman Jessie Parkhurst ed quotNegro Hospitalsquot in her Negro Year Book A Review of Events Affecting Negro Lire 19411946 Tuskegee Institute Alabama The Depart ment of Records and Research Tuskegee Institute 1947 PP 3368 and American Medical association quotHospitals For Negroes Registered By The American Medical Associationquot 1 April 1943 Typewritten 164 TABLE HI5TUEIChLLT39 BLACK MQSFITHESF 193 George W Hubbard Hsspitel Nashville Tennessee Howard University Hsspital Wsshingten DE Hughes Spaulding Favillien Atlanta Gesegis Jehns Andrews Cemmunity Hsspitsl Tuskegee Institute Alabama L Riehsrdssn Hemsrial Hsspitsl Greensburs North csselins Newport News General Hespitel Neepert News Virginia Nsrfslk Csmmunity Hospital Nerfslk Virginie Rishmsnd Csmmunity Hespibal Riehmsmd Wisginia Riverside General Hospital Hsustun Texas Seuthsest Detreit Hsspitel Detroit Michigan Ssurees Nathaniel Hesley Jr quot1985 Black Hespitals Listing and Selected Commentary Trs itien Cempetitisn and The Management sf Changes Washington 1936 Unpublished p 22 ans Perssnel Csmmunieatisn with Nathaniel Wesley Jrr august 193 STATE ALAERHA Birmingham Decatur Bemnpnlis Enslay Eufaula Huntsville Mobile Montgomery THELE B CUMULATIVE TABLE E IlT 394ls Chi1dren 5 Heme Gearge Eleveland Hall Hnme Harthside Old Fnlks Home and Hospital Slnssfield Maternity Tuggle Institute ncnbtage Hume Infirmary and Nurse Training Schnnl Juanita Coleman Huly Family colnred Infirmary Sanitarium akHGod Hanual Training Schnul BianvillE Infirmary Blesse Martin de Pnrres Harris Sanitarium John F Taylnr 1 EairvieH Me 1ca1 Center Fraternal 1922 1923 1900 1943 1941 1951 1919 mvrzs J IF Ki39NGW39H 1965 195 present EST STATE ALABAMA ARIZONA ARKANSAS Montgemery Normal Ate Coilegel Selma Selma Talladega Tueealoesa Tuskegee Tuskegee Institute Fort Huachuea Phoenix Alexander Hot Springs HOSPITAL Hale39s Infirmary Northern Sanitarium virginiatmccormiek Burwe1l s Infirmary Negro Baptist Good Samaritan Goodnew Stillman Institute Government Hospital for Disabled Soldiers United States Veterans Administration Hospital No 913 John A Andrew3 Tuskegee Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School Station Hospital 1 Booker T Washington Thomas C Mc ae Memorial Sanitarium Pythian Sanitarium Royal Circle of Friends W odmen of Uninn DATES IF KNOWN 1839 1907 1922 1909 1923 1913 1892 1942 1922 1931 1922 1953 1983 gresent pJ EE EIquotMI 1913 1965 991 sTAg ARKANSAS CALIFORNIA COLORADO DELAWARE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Little Rock Pine Bluff Taxiarkana Los angalaa Colorado Springs Marshallton Washington HOSPITAQ Bush Memorial Colored Infirmary Fraternal Royal Circle of Friends United Friends Circle of United Links State Hospital for Negroes Great Southern Fraternal Lucy Memorial Jamison Dunbar King Drew Medical Center Morningside West Adams Community Whitney M Young Lincoln Sanitarium National Sanitarium for Colored Edgewood Sanitarium Adams Burwell Carson39s Private QATES IF KNOWN 1921 1922 1919 1901 1901 1953 1971 1914 1919 PIESEHE 1980 1973 1975 1933 L91 EIEEE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA FLORIDA CITYVTOWM washimgten Daytona Beach Daytona Fgxville Fort Lauderdale Fort Myers Jacksonville Lakeland Miami Oeala HOSPITAL Curtis Private Surgical Sanitarium Dowling39s Private Eye Francis Sanitarium Freedmen39s4 Howard University4 Halifax Halifax District Hospital Colored nnex McLead Hospital of Daytona Industrial School Bethune Cookman Cgllege Bruster Negro North Boulevard Provident Provident James Walker Breweter5 Hefey Negre Tuberculosis City Hespital for Golered Lakeland Emergency Christiana Mercy Hospital and Nurse Training Scheel EAT TE KNOWN 1925 1933 1923 1863 1975 1975 present 1912 1935 1964 1923 1902 1966 1926 1918 1983 B91 STATE FLORIDA GEORGIA Orlando Palatka St Petersburg Tallahassee Tampa West Palm Beach Americus Atlanta Atlanta Morris Brown University Atlanta Atlanta Spelman Seminary HOSPITAL Philips Memorial Blue Circle Mary Lawson Sanitarium Mercy Florida AampM College Clara Frye Clara Frye Tampa Municipal Negro Venezuela E Small Pine Ridge Palm Beach County Tuberculosis Sanitarium for Negroes Amerieus Colored Douglass Infirmary Dunbar Dwelle e Sanitarium Fair Haven Grady Memorial Emory University Division Hughes Spaulding Hospital Evarts Wards paras IF KNOWN 1920 1915 1911 a 1972 1907 1938 1926 1922 1923 1909 present 1952 present 1386 1900 591 Atlanta Spelman Seminary Atlanta Augusta Bainhridge Cordeie La Grange Lithenia Macen Rome Savannah e Macvicara Mercy Southwest Communitg Hospital and Medical Centera William A Harris Bruce Burrus39 Sanitarium Lamar Hnepital and Nurse Training Schoel Negro Heepital of the University Of Georgia Medical School Johnson Memorial Gillespie St Lukes Community Dr George W Evans Sanitarium Lundy Colored St Luke39s Erookhaven Sanitarium Samaritan Charity East Side Sanitarium Georgia Infirmary DATES 1900 1919 1966 1923 1901 1394 i928 1B95 IF HNUWNL present GL1 STATE GEORGIA ILLINOIS Sparta Statasbcra Valdosta Waycrcas Chicago Evanatcn HOSPLTAL Hancock Memorial Statesbcro van Euren39s Sanitarium Frederick and Strickland Washingtcn Sanitarium Bethany Bailey Hcspital and Sanitarium Fart Dearborn Hospital and Nurse Training School Hinsdale Sanitarium Hcme Sanitarium John T wilscn Medical Foundation Lake Park Lakeside rcvident Medical Center10 Rcseland Community Hospital St Barnardll Tabernacle Cummunitylz Willis HydroTherapeutic Sanitarium community13 Sanitariuml DATES IE KNGWN 1913 1920 1926 1923 1891 1905 1910 1914 1 1975 present 1932 1987 present 1977 1981 1930 T11 STETE INDIANA KHNSAE KENTUCKY Jacksonville Evansville Gary Indianapolis Martinsville Terre ute Kansas City Leavenwerth Tepaka Frankfert Hepkinsville Lsuisville HOSPITAL Heme Sanitarium KenniebEew39s Infirmary Belated Mcmitnhell Sanitarium St Jean39s Charity Dre Jeseph H Hard Sanitarium Linesln Seutharn Sanitarium Hnever39s Sanitarium Deuglass Hespltal ans Training Schnel Mitchell Bays Industrial Seheel Kansas asatienal Sehaeli Flerenee Crittenten Nellie Johns Memorial Winnie Annstt Santa Heere Clinic Citizens Natianal Fraternal Rea Crass DELT as 1929 1393 1595 133 19GB 1 IF KNOWN EQT 195 ELI 5TnTE VCITYTTEWN KENTUCKY Middlehnrn Paris Richmnn sheibyvilie Snmaraat Virgin L UIEIn n New rlaana Scntlandvilla Shravannrt MARYLAND Baltimore H SPIT L Ennnar T Waahingtnn Colored nnnan Marcy Mamnrial Eaatarn Kentucky Cnlnrad Amanda Smith Cnlnred Kings Daughters Andarnnn Sanitarium Community Mamnrial Charity Flint anadridge14 Phyllis Whaatlay Sanitarium and Training Snnnnl Ear Cnlnre Nnrsns1 Prnvidanca Sanitarium Rnhinsnn Infirmary and Clinic Sarah Gnndridga13 Snutharn University Dr F T1 Janna Sanitarium Marcy Sanitarium Dr Hhita 5 Maternity Gnnd Shepherd Prnvidentl Tuhernuinaia Hnsnital for Cnlnrad DATES IF HNUWN 1923 1915 1911 IBQE 195D 1901 1921 1925 1394 present 1935 1901 1953 Cast 1911 1936 ELI STATE MARYLAND MASSACHUSETTS MICHIGAN CITYgTDWN Baltimore Cheltenham Crawnaville Henryton Boston Detrcit River Rouge HOSPITAL Victory House of Reformation Crownsvi11e State Maryland Tuberculosis Sanitarium Piymouth Hospital and Nurse Training School Bethesda Boulevard Generalla Burton Mercyl Dunhar17 Edyth H Thomas Fairview Sanitarium Good Samaritan15 Haynes Memorial Kirwood Mercy General Parkside17 St Auhin General Southwest Generall Trinity15 Wayne Diagnosticla Milton Communitylg 1872 1923 1903 1931 1963 1949 1918 1936 1931 1925 1950 1943 1918 1931 1974 1932 1939 1984 ampTES IF KNOWN 1974 1974 early 1960s 1944 1985 1976 1963 1a e 19405 present 1963 1949 1997 bLT STATE MICHIGAN MISSISSIPPI MISSOURI CITYTOWN River Rouge Westland Clarksdale Greenville Greenwood Jacksun Lexington Mound Bayou Natchez Rosedale Scatt Delta and Pine Land Company Tougaloo Yazna City Kansas City HOSPITAL Sidney A Sumbylg westland Medical Centerzo Ancient Order of Watchmen Colored Kings Daughters Greenwood Colored Colored Colored Mound Bayou Cammunity Sara Winifred Brown Memorialzl Taborian Dumas Infirmary Dr Noble39s Clinic Colored Hospital Plantation Tnugaioo University Afra American Sons and Daughters thfroahmerican Dr Mi1ler s Yazoa clinic and Hospital Florence Crittentan Home for Colored Girls DATES IF K w l 1938 1934 present 1927 1942 1983 1941 1918 1970 1929 e 1940 a 1975 QLT STATE MISSOURI Kansas City St Louis Sedalia NEW JERSEY Newark HOSPITAL Kansas city General Hospital No 2 Kansas City Coloredlzz Lange Martin Luther King23 Perry Sanitarium23 Provident23 St Joseph39s St Vincent s Wheatley Q Provident33 Colored Maternity Home and Infirmary Homer G Pni11ips34 Peop1e39s25 PrDvident25 St Louis City Hospital No 2 City Public Hospital E0 co1ored2D St Mary39s Infirmary25 City Hospital No 2 Community27 Kenney Memorial wright Sanitarium and Maternity Home 1908 1903 1972 1910 1914 1874 1909 1917 1937 1918 1899 1919 1877 1927 1935 1927 1921 DATES IE KNOWN 195 1933 1913 1917 19 est a 1972 1979 7 1955 1915 1937 1969 1935 9L1 STATE NEW MEXICO NEW YORK NORTH CAROLINA Silver City New York City Asheville Charlotte Durham HOSPITAL Hawkins Sanitarium Arthur C Logan Backer T Washington Cnlored Orphan Asylum Colored Home and Hos italza Dr Wiley Wilson Private Sanitarium Edgecomb Sanitarium Harlem International Lincolnza Mcnonough North Genera1 Haspitalzg Sydenham Vincent Sanitarium Ashefille Colored Blue Ridge Colored Hospital and Sanitarium Shuford Clinic Good Samaritan30 Community Hospital for Colored DATES IF KNOWN 1862 1836 1342 1337 1382 1898 1979 1927 1929 1943 1922 1941 1833 1978 1882 present present 1980 1929 1930 1942 1963 Lil STATE NORTH CAROLINA CITY TQWN Durham Fayetteville Gastonia Goldsboro Greensboro Henderson Monroe Mt Olive New Bern Oxford Pinehurst Raleigh Shaw University Raleigh l aleigh St Augustine School Emithfield g llikw Lincolnal Leary Perry32 Gaston County Negro33 Gaston County Co1ored33 B N Duke Memarial Orthopedic State L Richar son Memoria134 Trinity Jubilee Duality H111 Sanitarium Rivera Clinic Good Shepherd Memorial Shaw Memoria135 Susie Clagton cheatham Memoria13 Pinehurst Infirmary Leonard Mcca ley Private St Agnes Fur1onge39s General DATES IF KNOWN 1901 1950 1937 1920 IBBO 1927 1911 1912 1937 1953 1927 1382 1923 1896 1929 1976 1967 1935 present 1967 1966 1967 1953 1915 1961 BLT STATE NORTH CAROLINA OKLAHOMA Smithfield Wilmington Wilson Winston Sa1em Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Wilberforee Xenia Holey Guthrie HOSPITAL Johnston County Negro Community Hospital and Nurse Training School Mercy35 Wilson Hospital and Tuberculosis Home3 Kate Bitting Reynolds Colored Hospital of WinstoneSa1em37 Rays Slater State39s Williamson39s Culley Private Colored Mercy Hospital and Nurse Training School Forest City Alpha Tawawa Dr H R Hawkins Sanitarium City Dr Conrad s Sanitarium Park Sanitarium 1920 1930 1912 1933 1920 1899 1913 1958 1920 1918 1913 ATES IF KNOWN 1967 1955 e 1927 1974 esb Q 1912 1977 ELI STATE c1TrTDwN OKLAHBHA Muskogee Oklahoma City Okmulgee Taft Tulsa PENNSYLVANIA Coateeville Philadelphia HQSPITAL City Hospital for Colored Morrison Mucklerny Muskogee Provident Edwards Memorial Great Western Dkmulgee City Colored Taft State State Hospital for Negro Insane Bryant Clinic Frissell Memnrial Hubbard Memorial Clinic Maurice Willows Moton Memorial Municipal Hospital No 2 Wilson Sanitarium Clement Atkinson Memorial Erederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Nurse Training School33 House of the Good Shepherd Jackson39s Sanitarium Mercy Hospital and School for Nurses3B DATES IE KNDWN 1925 1943 1909 1922 1931 E 1957 1937 1931 1395 1949 1907 1947 081 STATE PENNSYLVANIA SOUTH CAROLINA cITrlTQHN Philadelphia Pittsburgh Charleston Columbia Conway Denmark vorhees Industrial School Georgetown s ood Samaritan Waverly HOSPITAL Mercy Douglase33 Beaker T Washing on Hospital and Nurse Training School Livingston Colored Hospital and Nurse Training School39 McclennonBanks Memoria139 Benedict College Good Samaritan40 40 Mrs Dr Rhodes Private Palmetto Tuberculosis Sanitarium Colored Division of Seuth Carelina Sanitarium People39s Infirmary St Luke39s Taylor Lane Waverly Fraternal40 Horry County Colored Booker T Washington Colored Florence Williams pgEs IrW Moww 1949 1897 1959 a 1914 1927 1939 1910 1924 1925 1973 1936 1977 1927 1939 1974 1927 1939 1928 I81 I T SOUTH CAROLINA TENNESSEE cITY TowN Greenville Greenwood Mullins Newherry Urangeburg Spartanburg State Park Summarviile Union Bartlett Bristol Chattanooga Clarksville Columbia HDSPITAL St Luke39s41 working Benevolent Society41 Brewer Marion County Tuberculosis Sanitarium People39s Nurse Training Department State College John Nina42 Spartanburg Co1ored42 Palmetto Sanitorium coiored Division of South Carolina Sanitarium Arthur E Lee43 Majority44 Union Communityqq Lynkrost Mercy Carver Memorial Waldon Hadley39s Private Infirmary Hope I firmary Maury County Negro DATESiIF KNOWN 1921 1927 1924 1929 1916 1922 1927 1932 1947 1915 190E 1949 1930 1937 1930 Z81 STATE TENNESSEE Conway Fayetteville Jackson Knoxville Memphis Nashville HosPITAL DATES IF KNOWN Colored Lincoln County Colored Brookhaven Eliza E Wallace Memorial Helen Mae Lennon 1922 Knoxville General Hospital 1933 Negro Unit Central Tennessee Collins Chapel Connectional 1909 l91 Friendly Clinic E H crump Mamoria145 1956 1974 Hairston Infirmary June Terrell Baptistq l909 Lynkrest Sanitarium Mercy 1917 Negro Baptist Hospital45 Old Folks Home and Hospital Royal Circle of Friends 1921 St Anthony39s Hospital for Colored Terrellmemorial Hospitalqe Cottage E31 STATE TENNESSEE TEXAS CITY TOWN Nashville Beaumont Corpus Christi Dallas Denison HOSPITAL George W Hubbard47 Hadley s Private Infirmary fqr Women Only McMillan lnfirmaryqa Mercy48 Millie E Hale Riverside Adventist Hospital Rock City Sanitarium Wilson39s Infirmary Central Jefferson County Tuberculosis Hospital Colored Unit Sprott 39Carline Clinic Colored Dr Blu1tt39s Sanitarium Forest Avenue Hospital McMillan Sanitarium MerganeBusch Sanitarium Pinkston wright Cuney Memorial Mercy D TE IF KNOWN 1909 a present pre 1930 1915 pre 1930 1915 1933 1927 1933 1924 1967 1966 1985 1923 i 1951 1925 2 bB1 IampI TEX S CITY Town Fort Worth Gainesville Galveston Houston Marlin Marshall Prairie View San Antonio Booker T Washington Sanitarium Ethel Ransom Memorial BookerT Washington Sanitarium Negro Unit of John Sealy Hospital Hubbard Sanitarium Moore Sanitarium Feagin39s Houston Negro49 i927 Loekwood50 1957 Megro49 1919 People39s Sanitarium Riverside49 1961 St Elizabeth39s i947 Union Watts Sanitarium for Colored People Hunter Clinic Hospital 1923 Standard Sanitarium Bath House Dr Sheppard39s Sanitarium 1912 Prairie View 1913 Physicians and Surgeons Infirmary HOSPITAL 39 DATES IF KNOWN 1961 1981 1927 present present 1 E S81 STATE TEXAS VIRGINIA CITIWTUWN San Antonio Burkeville Christianburg Danville Hampt n Lawrenceville Hartinsviile Newport News NOrf0lk Petersburg Richmond HOSPITAL Tent Colony for Colored People Whittier Infirmary Piedmontusanitarium Christianburg Industrial Institute Providence Winslow Dixie Hospital and Training Schaal for Nurses Laulie Taylor Letcher Memorial st Mary39s Newport News Genera151 Whittaker Memorial l Drake Memoria152 Norfolk Community52 Tidewater53 Central State Epps39Memoria1 Baker Emergency Piedmont Sanitarium Richmond Richmond Community53 St Phi1ip54 DATES IF KNQWN 1913 1920 1391 1927 1914 1930 1932 1915 1870 1949 1920 1985 1932 present 1930 present 1963 STATE VIRGINIA WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN Richmond ROEIICJKE Biuefield Charleston Clarksburg Denmaz Hinton Huntington Kimball Lakin Northemountain Milwaukee HOSPITAL Sarah G Jones Memorial Hospital and Nurse Training School5e women s Central League Burreli Memorial Brown39s Lomax Sanitarium Mercer Providence Community Williams Sanitarium State Colored Tuberculesis Sanitarium Ralley Sanitarium Barnett Hanrieon Henrietta Dismukes State Hospital for Colored Insane North Mountain Sanitarium St Antheny39s55 QQTES IF KNOWN 1922 1915 1912 1917 1925 1929 1926 I884 1949 1979 present LEI 133 Notes 1 The hospital operated previously as St Jude39s Hospital and Fairview Hospital 2 In October i954 the Veterans Administration ordered the end of segregation in all its hospitals 3 In 1913 Tuskegee Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School became John A Andrew Memorial Hospital In 1980 it became John A Andrew Community Hospital Currently the hospital is operated under management contract with Erlanger Health Services Chattanooga Tennessee 4 Control of Freedmen39s Hospital was transferred from the United States Department of Health Education and Welfare to Howard University on 1 July 196 In 1975 a new facility Howard University Hospital opened 5 Brewster Methodist Hospital closed its doors in 1966 The following year the hospital reopened as Methodist Hospital an integrated facility 6 A group of black physicians and businessmen attempted to establish New Christian Hospital in 1965 However their efforts were blocked when the State Department of Rehabilitative Services revoked the hospital39s certificateof need T The hospital previously known as Hughes Spalding Pavillion was established with Hil1 Eurton funds to provide hospital beds for black pay patients It was designed to be a selfesupporting unit of Grady a public hospital 3 Evarts Ward the infirmary at Spelman Seminary opened in 1885 In 1900 Macvicar Hospital a brick building with thirty beds replaced the ten bed Evarts Ward 9 Formerly a Catholic institution Holy Family Hospital it was transferred to black community control in 1955 It is a clinical facility for Morehouse College School of Medicine l0 Provident Hospital opened a new facility in 1983 and changed its name to Provident Medical Center In June 1987 it filed for Chapter 11 reorganisation 11 Although established in 1905 St Bernard has operated under black community control for approximately fifteen years 12 Tabernacle Community Hospital was purchased by a black church in 1972 13 In 1930 the Evanston Sanitarium a proprietary institution was incorporated as Evanston Community Hospital a noneprofit institution 139 14 The Phyllis Wheatley Club a black women39s organisation opened in 1896 the Phyllis Wheatley Sanitarium and Training School for Colored Nurses In i901 New Orleans University assumed control of the hospital in order to provide a clinical facility for Flint Medical College at this time the name of the hospital was changed to Sarah Goodridge Flint Medical College closed in 1911 however Sarah Goodridge Hospital continued operations as FlintGoodridge Hospital Flint Goodridge ceased to function as a blackecontrolled hospital in 1983 when Dillard University sold it The buyer National Medical Enterprises owned several other hospitals in New Orleans Prior to this sale a group of black physicians unsuccessfully tried to purchase the hospital Initially National Medical Enterprises promised that the hospital would continue operations and maintain its commitment to the black community However before it closed the hospital in May 1985 it had transferred FlintGoodridge s licensed bed capacity to other hospitals that it owned 15 On 31 August l9d6 Provident Hospital merged with Lutheran Hospital to become Liberty Heights Medical Center It no longer operates as an autonomous black institution 16 Wayne Diagnostic Hospital changed its name to Burton Mercy Hospital in 1949 In 1953 the old Trinity Hospital reopened as Boulevard General Hospital Burton Mercy and Boulevard General in 1974 merged with white hospitals Delray General Hospital and Trumbull General Hospital to form Southwest Detroit General Hospital 17 Dunbar Hospital changed its name to Parkside Hospital in the late 19205 13 In 1944 Good Samaritan Hospital converted to a convalescent home 19 Sidney A Sumby changed its name to Milton Community Hospital in 1984 The same year it rebuffed a takeover offer from Southwest Detroit Hospital 20 Southwest Detroit Hospital leased Wayne County General Hospital for ten years with an option to buy in 1984 Its action created the nation39s first blackcontrolled multihospital system Wayne County General Hospital was later renamed Westland Medical Center 21 In 1950 the United Order of Friends of America a black fraternal organisation began a fundraising drive to build this hospital There is no data to confirm whether the hospital was actually built 22 Kansas City General Hospital No l for whites and No 2 for blacks consolidated in 1958 23 Perry Sanitarium operated as a private hospital until 1913 when the Provident Hospital and Nurse Training Association assumed control of the hospital and renamed it Provident Hospital The hospital association merged with the Phyllis Wheatley association l90 in 1915 and in 1917 the hospital was incorporated as Hheatleye Provident Hospital when the hospital moved into a new facility in May 192 it was renamed in honor of Dr Martin Luther King Jr 24 St Louis City Hospital No 2 began operations in 1919 A new municipal hospital for black people opened in 1937 and was named in memory of Homer G Phillips a black attorney who spearheaded the campaign for the new hospital 25 lo hpril l916 Provident Hospital closed temporarily for repairs and reopened as People39s Hospital in 1918 26 although established in 187 St Mary39s Infirmary did not operate as a black hospital until 1933 27 on i January 1935 Dr John A henney the ownerfounder of Kenney Memorial Hospital donated the hospital to the Booker T Washington Community Hospital Association The hospital association operated the institution as Community Hospital 28 In i342 the Society for the Relief of Worthy Aged Indigent Colored Persons established a home for runaway and freed slaves The work of the institution increasingly included medical care and in 1882 its name was changed to The Colored Home and Hospital ln 1898 the hospital moved from Manhattan39s East Side to the then semi rural and predominantly white South Bronx The name of the institution was again changed in 1912 to the Lincoln Hospital and Home in 1925 the hospital39s board of managers sold it to the New York City Department of Public welfare 29 North General Hospital is the only voluntary hospital in Harlem It opened in the facility that had previously been occupied by the Hospital for Joint Diseases 30 In 1963 Good Samaritan Hospital became Charlotte Community Hospital a chronic care facility 31 Lincoln Hospital transferred its ownership to the Durham County Hospital Corporation in i973 and in 1976 the hospital began operation as Lincoln Community Health Center an ambulatory care faoility 32 This was a maternity hospital 33 A black voluntary organization operated The Gaston County Colored Hospital until its demise in 1935 Gaston County Negro Hospital opened in 193 with financial support from Gaston County City of Gastonia and the Duke Endowment 34 L Richardson Memorial Hospital was sold to a group of local physicians in Uotoher 1985 35 On 1 February 1953 Susie Cheatham Hospital closed and its patients were transferred to a new hospital Shaw Memorial Prior to the hospital s closure its trustees had donated all of the hospital39s assets to Shaw Memorial Hospital 191 36 Wilson Hospital and Tuberculosis Home operated as a private hospital until 1927 In March 1930 it reopened as Heroy Hospital a noneprofit institution 3 Kate Bitting Reynolds Hospital merged with the hospital authority in 1974 38 In 1949 Mercy Hospital and Douglass Hospital merged to Eorm Meroysnouglass Hospital 39 HoclennonBanks Hospital opened in 1959 as the replacement for the old Colored Hospital and Nurse Training School 40 In 1927 Mrs Dr Rhodes Private Hospital became Good Samaritan Hospital a noneprofit institution Good Samaritan merged with Waverly Fraternal Hospital in 1939 41 St Lukels Hospital had practically oeased to operate when the Grand Lodge of the Working Benevolent Society a black fraternal organization bought it In 192 the society opened the Working Benevolent Society Hospital 42 After the closure of Spartanburg Colored Hospital a plan developed to operate another black hospital under the name John Mina Hospital However it is unolear whether the latter actually ever existed 43p In 1937 Arthur B Lee Hospital merged with Summerville Infirmary a white only institution to form Dorchester County Hospital a mixed institution 44 Majority Hospital operated as a proprietary hospital until April 1930 when it became incorporated as Union Community Hospital a noneprofit institution 45 Crump Memorial merged with the hospital authority in 1974 46 Dr A A Terrell opened Negro Baptist Hospital in 1909 The hospital was later renamed Jane Terrell Baptist Hospital in honor of Dr Terrell39s mother It was later renamed Terrell Memorial Hospital after Dr Terrell39s death 4 George W Hubbard Hospital was under management Contract with the Hospital Corporation of America from 1979 to 1981 43 In 1930 it was reported that these two hospitals were no longer in existence See C V Roman quotThe Hospital Situation in Nashville Tenn JNMA 22 1930 131 49 The Negro Hospital operated in a remodeled house until the construction of the Houston Negro Hospital Houston Negro Hospital became Riverside General Hospital in 1961 Riverside is eurrently under management contract with Quadrus International of Texas 50 Lockwood Hospital opened in 1957 under white control blacks assumed control in 1966 192 5l In June 1935 Whittaker Memorial Hospital moved into a new facility and changed its name to Newport News General Hospital 52 The Tidewater Colored Hospital Association established Tidewater Hospital in 19l5 The hospital became Drake Memorial Hospital in 1930 In 1925 the Tidewater Coloredi raduate Nurses Association opened a maternity ward and in 1932 this ward merged with Drake Memorial to form Norfolk Community Hospital 53 in 1949 Sarah G Jones Memorial Hospital and Nurse Training School became Richmond Community Hospital 54 Merged with the Medical College of Virginia hospitals in 1968 55 Although established in 1884 St Anthony39s Hospital did not operate as a black hospital until 1931