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by: Miss Oceane Trantow
Miss Oceane Trantow
GPA 3.62

Thomas Duda Jr

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Thomas Duda Jr
Class Notes
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Popular in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Oceane Trantow on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EEB 390 at University of Michigan taught by Thomas Duda Jr in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/231606/eeb-390-university-of-michigan in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Lecture J Population Structure Ancl Genetic Drift 1 Genetic Drift Random fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next a Coalescence Derivation of the gene copies in one or more populations from a single ancestral copy viewed retrospectively 911NquotG1 X1N i The genealogy of the genes in the present population is said to coalesce back to a single common ancestor The population s genes descended entirely from that ancestral gene copy must eventually become monomorphic one or the other of the original alleles becomes fixed reaches a frequency of 100 1 The smaller the population the more rapidly all gene copies in the current population coalesce back to a single ancestral copy 2 Evolution by genetic drift proceeds faster in small than in large populations b Random Fluctuations n Allele Frequencies i Random quot 39 ofallele 1 39 will quot lead to alleles being either lost or fixed RANDOM WALK c Effect of Population Size i Smaller population have faster fixationloss processes 1 Can fix deleterious alleles faster allowing for decreased fitness ii The probability of fixation of allele frequency of allele 1 If there is a high frequency of the allele there is a high chance that it will be fixed 2 If there is a low frequency of the allele there is a low chance that is will be fixed 2 Conclusions About Genetic Drift Reduces Frequency of heterozygotes Strength of drift is inversely related to population size Probability of fixation allele frequency c9591 Causes genetic differentiation without natural selection If we measure the actual number N of adults in real populations the number we count Census size may be greater than the number that actually contributes genes to the next generation Effective population size Ne Effective Population Size number of individuals in an ideal population in which the rate of genetic drift would be the same as it is in the actual I 39 39 lthe39 quot 39 39 39 that contribute genes to the next generation 1 EX In elephant seals the population is effectively smaller than it seems since only a few dominant males mate with all the females in a population 2 EX If we could 10000 adults in a population but only 1000 of them successfully breed genetic drift proceeds at the same rate as if the population size were 1000 Can be smaller than census size for several reasons a Sex ratio different from 11 lowers the effective population size b Variation in the number of offspring c Overlapping generations offspring may mate with parents d Fluctuations in population size 3 Founder Effect The principle that the founders of a new population carry only a fraction of the total genetic variation in the source population a Caused by BO39I39I39LENECK EFFECT restrictions in size through which populations may pass i Ex When a new population is established by a small number of colonists or founders sometimes as few as a single mating pair b Lower rate of 39 increase and lower number of founders decrease level of heterozygosity more UNTIL MUTATION SUPPLIES NEW VARIATIONS 4 The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution Although a small minority of mutations in DNA or protein sequences are U and are fixed by natural selection and although many mutations are disadvantageous and are eliminated by natural selection the great ma39ority of those mutations that are fixed are effectiver neutral with respect to fitness and are fixed by genetic drift b After Modern Synthesis different alleles have different effects on the phenotype i Their frequencies are affected chiefly by natural selection ii Minor levels of genetic variation in populations


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