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by: Dr. Maci Ryan

Peoples AAPTIS 100

Dr. Maci Ryan
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Maci Ryan on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AAPTIS 100 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/231614/aaptis-100-university-of-michigan in Foreign Language at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
AAPTIS 100 Key Terms Study Sheet 1 Histogy 7 Events such as myths or legends that are within one or more human societies It can be natural phenomena in oral tradition or even better in texts It began with the invention of writing in Egypt and Mesopotamia c 3200 BCE Prehistory 7 Course of human social technological and political development before the invention of writing Must be studied solely on the basis of artifactual evidence e g graves tools personal ornaments Began c 40000 BP Before Present with emergence of modern humans homosapiens in East Africa Hammurabi 7 Was the sixth king of Babylon 17951750 and extended the control of Babylon to Mesopotamia By the end of his death his government had completed control of Mesopotamia yet his successor was unable to keep this land BCE 7 Stands for Before the Current Era Used for dates before the year 1 CE No affiliation with Christianity Domestication 7 is the systematic adaptation of plants or animals through selective breeding so that they better suit human purposes Humans decide what specific species bread and over generations they have more than enough of what they want Initially used for food then later used for secondary products Hilly Flanks 7 A very fertile area of land enough rain suitable environment for domestication Fertile Crescent lies in northwestern Iraq Potsherd 7 Ceramic The use of clay to make vessels to store food and eat off of It was introduced in c 8000 BCE Ubiquitous yet fragile couldn t be repaired There were lots of changes over time due to different ideas of makers Changing styles allowed archaeologists to establish developmental sequences Pottery was extremely important in an archeological point of view the basis of archaeological dating of sites Hierarchy 7 Some members of society orgainized the labors of the others Organizers allot themselves a disproportionate share of communal wealth Rulers assure that their position passes to their children Position of rulers maintained by system of ideas ideology and by differentiation in adornment residence etc Hierarchy leads to religion Nubia 7 The region near Egypt just along the Nile which is now known as present day Sudan During the period of the old kingdom Nubia was known as a region for rich trade such as gold and ivory especially with Egypt The increase in trading turned Nubia into a stable strong region Sinai 7 The region between the Mediterranean and Red Seas also known as the peninsula of Egypt During the First Dynasty Sinai was known for its mining of turquoise by the Egyptians themselves Fertile Cresent 7 The term was introduced by James Breasted stated that the reagion had a horseshoe shape which was known for its rich soil crucial for agriculture in Mesopotamia and was responsible for the start of civilization in the region The Fertile Crescent was between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and extends to the Mediterranean sea Euphrates 7 A river towards the west of Mesopotamia that helped define the region with the Tigris river The river provided water for a region which became a civilization we now know as Sumer during 30004000 BCE Invisible Exports 7 The traded objects that have disappeared Uruk 7 was a manor of Innana Cuneiform 7 a type of writing system also known as wedged shaped Some types of cuneiform include Akkadian Sumerian Elamite and Hittite Many of these writing systems were written on tablets also known as cuneiform tablets Lugal 7 King in Sumer Nam Lugal or a kingship could only occur in one city at a time the kingship would move from one city to another Became a predominant term in Sumerian culture regarding the king Q 7 Spose of city god lordlady Ensi 7 A Sumerian word referring to prince or ruler During the Predynastic period the word was not clearly de ned and could be confused for en or lugal Then during the Ur III period around 2000 BCE the term then referred to the govemor s of the kingdom governor on behalf of city god Akkadian 7 Semetic language spoken in ancient Mesopotamia deriving from the city of Akkad The Akkadian language was instituted by Sargon of Akkad during 23352280 BCE Sargon 7 was an Akkadian king famous for his capture of Sumerian citystates He established in Southern Mesopotamia from 23352280 BCE He was also known as the True King and helped unify the region as well as the weights and measures between cities Naram Sin 7 Was the grandson of Sargon of Akkad who took over the Sargonic Empire 22552218 and ruined it because of arrogance He pushed the boundaries of the Empire to the Zagros mountains and was the first Mesopotamian king to claim divinity At the end of his reign the Gutians invaded and took over the region Gutians 7 People in Mesopotamia that were one of the outsiders They were also known as the viper s of the mountains and having cunning abilities of a dog Yet not much was known about these people and had no impact Amorites 7 they were called the westemers know not prayers dig up truf es eat raw meat have no house and are not brought to burial Later after the first century BCE a large group of Amorites penetrated into Mesopotamia and gained over the kingdom Sumerian King List 7 An ancient text in Sumerian which contained the names of all the Sumer kings from Sumerian and foreign dynasties The kingship was believed to be handed down by the gods passing it from one city to another This was because the kingship could only occur in one city at a time Deluge 7 A large down pour of rain Shulg39 7 was the second king of the Sumerian Renaissance who reigned for almost 50 years 2047 7 1999 BCE He was best known for his revision of the scribal s school curriculum and also spent a great time maintaining and generally improving road systems Indo European Languages 7 included Hittite Greek Latin Sanskrit German French English Aryans speakers of Sanskrit were the ancestors of speakers of IndoEuropean languages which were Nordic racial groups Semitic 7 Akkadians Armaeans and Amorites were all semites All their languages are considered to be Semitic languages Manetho 7 Egyptian historian and priest of ancient Egypt who lived during the Ptolemaic era recorded the history of Egypt work is often used as evidence for the chronology of the reigns of pharaohs wrote in Greek language even though was about Egypt Menes 7 Egyptian Pharaoh who founded the first dynasty around 3100 BCE the founding figure for much of the history of Ancient Egypt and was possibly a mythical founding king Appears as the first human ruler of Egypt directly inheriting the throne from the god Horus Djoser 7 An Egyptian pharaoh during the third dynasty Also known as Netjerikhet body of the gods many believe that he was the first ruler of the third dynasty and that he ruled for 29 years Cheop 7 a pharaoh of the Old Kingdom from 25892566 BC 2quotd pharaoh of the fourth Dynasty accepted as the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza remembered as cruel and ruthless military expeditions into Sinai Nubia and Libya Hatshepsut 7 fifth pharaoh of the 18Lh dynasty of Egypt She reigned longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian Dynasty Her death was in 1458 and she became pharaoh in 1479 BC She was the second woman to have power of Upper and Lower Egypt She was successful in warfare early in her reign then became very peaceful rerest Known for trading relationships and brought great wealth to Egypt Akhenaten 7 Died in 1336 BC Pharaoh of the 18Lh dynasty and tried to compel the Egyptians population in the monotheistic worship of Aten Only became leader because of his older brother 13531336 BCE TutanhkatenAmun 7 13411323 BCE was a pharaoh of the 18Lh dynasty during the new kingdom Was only 9 years old when became pharaoh and reigned for about 10 years His significance stems from his rejection of the radical religious innovations introduced by his predecessor ban on old pantheon of deities and their temples were lifted the traditional privileges were restored to priesthood and the capital was moved back to Thebes Ramses II 7 the 3rd pharaoh of the l9Lh dynasty regarded as egypts greatest most celebrated and most powerful pharaoh He ruled from 12791213 BCE led expeditions north into lands east of the Mediterranean modern Lebanon Syria and Israel and south to Nubia The early part of his reign was focused on building cities temples and monuments Kemit Black land land of Egypt Deshret 7 Red land desert anything other than Egypt Memphis 7 Capital for most of Old kingdom directly under Cairo Thebes 7 Capital of Egypt in the 11111 dynasty and most of 18Lh dynasty The Two Lands 7 Land of the Bee was upper Egypt southern Egypt vulture goddess and land of the papyrus was lower Egypt Northern Egypt snake goddess Pharaoh 7 great house 7 the White House equivalent King was deity incarnation of both the gods Horus and Osirus King after Horus dies kings were special and in Egypt entrusted by gods and made sure humans were doing what they were supposed to Giza 7 location of pyramids an Arabic word Southwest of Cairo home to some of the most famous monuments in the world Hieroglyphic 7 formal writing system used by ancient Egyptians that contained logographic and alphabetic elemtents used on papyrus and wood emerged from preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt earliest known use was around 3200 BCE however emerged from earlier usage Dynasty 7 Line of rulers usually familially related at least in principle Nome 7 Subnational administrative division traced back into Predynastic Period before 3100 BCE originally existed as city states but later began to unify Menes Completed its unification Lower Egypt had 20 and Upper Egypt had 22 nomes Nomarch 7 Semi feudal rulers of the provinces each held authority over one of the 22 nomes Sinuhe 7 a tale of adventure in ancient canaan set in the reign of sesostris sinuhe ees into canaan and talks about Egyptian messengers coming and going however the land was not ruled by Egyptians He becomes the champion of a group because he fights against another tribe and wins He also bevomes homesick for Egypt and is told the Sesostris isn t angry He was given a nice tomb afterlife importance to show how generous the pharaoh was Hykso 7 rulers of foreign lands 15Lh dynasty 2quotd intermediate period 16501550 BCE rival native dynasty at Thebes allied to cushites Nubians ethnic identity uncertain almost no remains in Egypt to know much about group some thought they were hourians or semites Palestine only words we have are the names of the kings 8 entered Egyptian not as army but in ltrated with low class jobs didn t control the whole place only the delta nile Kadesh 7 Located on the Orontes River in modern day Syria captured by Seti then lost back to Hittites then battle of Kadesh occurred The Hittites remained in control then it was destroyed in 1178 by the Sea Peoples Tell el Amama 7 East bank of the Nile River Created by Akhenaten heretic king This is where Akhenaten built his capital due to divine inspiration Where the Great Aten Temple is located amp 7 First of the Egyptian gods sun god Amun 7 Deity in Egyptian mythology who gradually rose form being an abstract concept to the patron deity of Thebes and to one of the most important deities in ancient Egypt before fading into obscurity Was associated with the breath of life in Thebes Pharaohs is the 183911 dynasty attributed all their successful enterprises to Amun and they lavished much of their wealth and construction of temples were dedicated to Amun m 7 Disk of sun in Egyptian mythology and originally aspect of Ra Beacme deity of Monotheistic religion of Akhenaten Aten was the life giving force of life Hierarchical Perspective 7 Class Society 7 Literacy 7 the ability to read write listen and speak Race 7 Any of the major biological divisions of mankind distinguished by color amp texture of hair color of skin and eyes and stature and body proportions Race is a biological and not socially constructed Race is a misuse for ethnicity In other words we continuously combine ideas of race and ethnicity as one idea yet they two differentiate Culture 7 A shared body of technological and intellectual property Culture can be defined as all ways of like including arts beliefs and institutions There are a variety of cultures in our world such as Egyptian French and Roman cultures Millenium 7 Old Kingdom 7 3rd millennium BC in Egypt when civilization in complexity and achievement were being attained included the 3rd to 8Lh dynasties nomes were created in 3rd dynasty Egyptians in this era worshiped pharaohs as god believing Nile was ooded by him necessary for crops 5 dynasty began with civil wars and the central government weakening eventually drought ended the Old Kingdom era New Kingdom 7 Between l6Lh and llLh century BCE and als01820Lh dynasties in Egypt It was the most prosperous time of Egypt expansion into Nubia held territories in Near East fought Hittite for modern day Syria Akhenaten was also in this kingdom Intermediate Period 7 Between Old and New Kingdoms included 7llLh dynasties in Egypt Abnormally high taxation even when Nile was low Upper Egypt was reunited Old Babylonian Period 7 Royal establishment where king became owner of temple and economy private sector where private property existed with individual families houses were small with public area in front and private quarters in back where women spent most of their time simple furnishings pottery vessels reed mats textiles Sumer 7 one of the earliest known civilizations in the world Located in southern Mesopotamia Lasted from 63911 millennium BC through 4th and the Dynastic periods in 3rd millennium BC cities of Sumer first to practice year round agriculture allowed for settling in and each city was an estate of its patron deity and administered as such by a human ruler Akkad 7 Central Mesopotamia reached height of power between 24Lh and 22quotd centuries BC following conquests of Sargon of Akkad who invaded Syria and Canaan four times and spent three years subduing the countries of the west to unite them with Mesopotamia into a single empire boasted of having the four quarters Its fall happened because of aridity thought to be but not confirmed Its economy depended on agricultural systems that included irrigated farmlands and the rain fed the agriculture As yria 7 controlled all of fertile crescent Egypt and much of Anatolia Properly refers to northern half of Mesopotamia 20 century BC to 612 BC Homeland near mountainous region along the tigris all the way to mountains of Ashur They invented excavation to undermine city walls battering rams to knock down gates as well as engineers to bridge rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with in atable skins for swimming Spoke Assyrian dialect of akkadian language Babylonia 7 Amorite state southern Mesopotamia Babylon capital Amorites were semetic and adopted Semitic Akkadian Language exaltation royal lands with ilkum allotted royal lands to peasants in return for perfomance of duties Palestine 7 Syria 7 Code of Hamurabi 7 was created in 1760 BCE as the ancient law code prologue king talks about how wonderful he is laws largest section epilogue had list of prices Babylon 7 a citystate in southern ancient Mesopotamia classes gentlement men with full rights slaves 2quotd class Dependant one who bows down different classes had different punishments Larsa 7 a city of Sumer one of five cities to exercise kingship in predynastic times was a capital of babylonia agriculture and stockbreeding ourshedirrigation long distance trade connected Euphrates with Indus valley through commerce in hides wool veg oil and ivory Markduk 7 Name of Late geration god in babylonia from ancient Mesopotamia and pation deity of city of Babylon connected with water vegetation judgement and magic Eridu was created by the god Marduk as the first city also the storm god Tiamat 7 Personified as goddess gives birth to first generation of gods and later makes war upon them and is split in two by storm god Marduk Enuma Elish 7 Babylonian creation myth centered on supremacy of marduk and creation of mankind for service of gods 183911 century BC Shamash 7 Common akkadian name of sun god and god of justice in Babylonia of Assyria Corvee Labor 7 ilkum Royal land allotted to peasants in return for perfomance of duties cultivate fields for king constuct roads military attendance Mesharum 7 freeing debt of slaves since could not be in military or do ilkum if had too much debt so was in favor of king to relieve him of debt Hammurabi did it Mushkenum 7 the dependent or the one who bowed down like in the old Babylonian classes under Hammurabi presumably did not own his means of earning a living and worked land owned by royalty Study Sheet 2 Hatti was a land in Anatolia present day Turkey and was situated from 2500 BCE to about 2000 BCE in the early and middle Bronze Age The people who inhabited this land were known as Hattians Because there was no written language for the Hattians officials used scribes who could write in Akkadian to conduct business within Mesopotamia Hatti had group of independent states about 1520 also known as Great Hatti Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west beginning approximately 2500 BC Hurrians established themselves as leaders of small kingdoms in Mesoptomia The largest of these empires was Mittani which was very in uential in Mesopotamia The Hurrians spoke their native language of Hurrian however during 2000 BCE the Hurrians adopted the Akkadian language as their own Luwians Also known as Luvians were closely related to the Hittites After 2300 BCE the Luwians settled in a region of southern Anatolia Their language Luwian was part of the Indo European language and is discovered in two forms cuneiform Luwian and hieroglyphic Luwian Peoples of the Sea The Peoples of the Sea was on a temple in Egypt The picture depicted how Ramses III defeated these people that were causing havoc near the Mediterranean The invasion of the Peoples of the Sea which swept over Anatolia just after 1200 BC completely transformed the political map of the country In the end the invasion resulted in the destruction of the Hittite empire Great King This was part of international hierarchy in Mesopotamia during the International Age Every great power had a great king and when kings of two strong nations discussed issues they would refer to one another as brother as if they were equals However at times there were some kings that didn t believe in this equality A letter to Assyrians shows that Hirheteshu did not think that the Assyrians were becoming a Great Power In other words the two empires were not both strong and Hirheteshu says in the letter Why are you speaking of brotherhood binding and oaths Major terms used in a treaty which was written in the Akkadian language diplomatic language Within this treaty contained to major terms necessary for it to be official binding ishuil rikiltu and oath lengais mamitu The binding was the stipulations of the treaty In other words what was required or demanded The oath was a sworn promise to the gods who were the witnesses of the treaty This oath is done in order to assure that the peoples within the treaty would follow the guidelines One example of this was the treaty between Ramses II and Hattusili III after the Battle of Kardush in 1258 BCE Unlike a treaty between vassals a treaty between two kings is a symmetrical agreement meaning both parties abide by the same stipulation in the treaty Aramaeans were Semitic seminomadic and pastoralist people who lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria Aramaeans never had a unified empire they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East Arameans used the Aramaic language Around the 8th century BC Aramaic language and writing competed with the Akkadian language and script cuneiform in Assyria and thereafter it spread throughout the Orient However where the Arameans originated from is still unknown Chaldeans During the late 2nd century and the early 1st century Chaldeans were the newcomers of Assyria After becoming situated in the region they organized three tribes and decided to take over Babylon At times the Chaldeans were very successful in leading resistance against Babylonia At one point they had control of the Persian Gulf making Babylon have difficulty trading with surrounding regions in Mesopotamia The Chaldeans were traditional allies of the Elamites and Persians in their struggle against the Assyrians Hattusili I reigned c 165071620 BCE early king of the Hittite Old Kingdom in Anatolia Hattusilis penetrated the Taurus range and invaded northern Syria attacking the kingdom of Yamhad and extended the Hittite domain to the sea His reign was troubled by domestic intrigue leading him to disown three rebellious sons in the line of succession A cuneiform tablet found in 1957 written in both the Hittite and the Akkadian language provides details of six years of his reign Mursili I Hittite king during the Old Kingdom reigned c l620w 1590 BC He first continued his predecessor s campaigns in northern Syria destroying Aleppo and raiding Babylon putting an end to the Amorite dynasty there This significant event recorded in Babylonian sources firmly linked Hittite chronology with that of Babylonia Mursilis also fought the Hurrians on the upper Euphrates River and returned to his capital Hattusas with rich booty and many captives Soon after his return however he was killed in a palace conspiracy planned by his brotherinlaw Hantilis Suppiluliuma 1 He was a Hittite king reigned c l380w 1346 BC who dominated the history of the ancient Middle East for the greater part of four decades and raised the Hittite kingdom to Imperial power Suppiluliumas began his reign by rebuilding the old capital Hattusas and consolidating the Hittite heartland Suppiluliumas39 military career was almost exclusively devoted to struggles with the kingdom of Mitanni in the east challenges with the thendominant Egyptian empire for lands between Mediterranean and Euphrates and the reestablishment of a firm Hittite foothold in Syria Suppiluliuma then took advantage of the tumultuous reign of the Pharaoh Akhenaten and seized control of Egyptian territory in Syria inciting many Egyptian vassals to revolt The Deeds of Suppiluliuma compiled after his death by his son Mursili II is an important primary source for the king s reign Mursili II Hittite king during the New Kingdom who reigned c 1346 1320 BCE He is the son of the great Hittite conqueror Suppiluliumas Mursilis renewed the allegiance of North Syria particularly Carchemish and the kingdom of Amurru he also conducted a successful campaign against the western kingdom of Arzawa one of the main threats to the Hittite realm A proli c personal annalist Mursilis also edited an account of his father s exploits his detailed descriptions of his own campaigns have yielded valuable information about Hittite military strategy HattuSili 111 Great King of the Hittite Empire 126737 Best known accomplishments are diplomatic with the peace treaty with Egypt Ramses II the most notable 1259 15 years after the battle of Qadesh the two states established an arrangement to end hostilities establish a defensive alliance and exchange political refugees Puduhepa Hattusili III s wife a very active queen brought Hurrian culture with her from her Hurro iLuwian homeland which when she became queen had a great impact on Hittite culture A very vigorous monarch in her own right she conducted royal correspondences in her own name and remained active in affairs of state after her husband died David ruled from 1007 to 967 BCE He was the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and was depicted righteous although not without fault He gained his rule by killing the first king of Israel Saul when Saul tried killing him first He faught Goliath a Gittite giant who challenged David to a single combat and kills him by stoning him to death with a sling Besides being a great warrior he was a musician and a poet He was also regarded as the founder of the Judean royal dynasty Solomon Traditionally regarded as the greatest king of Israel he ruled c 930 BCE and was the son and successor of David According to biblical sources his reign was marked by foreign alliance like with Egypt and Phoenicia and he built numerous cities constructed copper smelting furnaces and had the first temple built in Jerusalem He maintained his dominions with military strength and established Israelite colonies outside his kingdom39s borders The crowning achievement of his vast building program was the famous temple at his capital Jerusalem It is significant to note that historical evidence of King Solomon independent of the biblical accounts is scarce Nothing indisputably of Solomon s reign has been found Assur nasirpal I was the king of Assyria from 1050 to 1031 BCE He was marked by famine and war with nomads from the deserts in west He ruled during a very unhappy time interval Tiglath pilesar III Prominent king of the Neo Assyrian Empire He ruled from 744727 BCE He initiated the structural reforms for Assyrian to become a dominant empire NeoAssyrian Empire He initiated a policy of territorial expansion and focused on centralized the power of the empire which is one reason he is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history According to the royal inscriptions of TiglathPileser many of the inhabitants were deported to other parts of the Assyrian empire a practice that was commonly enacted by his predecessors Sargon II 721705 Ruler of Assyrian empire He restricted the Assyrian state internally and campaigned almost annually outside its borders and started to incorporate foreign territories into Assyria The internal restructuring focused on thwarting the powers of local officials so that they might be limiting allowing the king increased control His main focus was in territorial expansion beyond the borders of traditional Assyria Specifically he help reorganize the army by replacing the annual levy of troops from the Assyrian population with a standing professional army using conquered people Assurbanipal Known as the last great king of Assyria he ruled from 668 to 627 BCE Famous for his expansion of the NeoAssyrian empire Under his rule he led the army to conquer Susa in southwest Iran which led to the end of the Elamite state and he quelled a revolution in Egypt at Memphis In addition his military action should not overshadow his administrative skills for the empire prospered economically during his rule He was also a person of religious zeal rebuilding or adorning most of the major shrines of Assyria and Babylonia such as house of Succession and the Ishtar Temple at Nineveh He assembled the first systematically collected and cataloged library in the ancient Middle East in Nineveh as well Nebuchadnezzar 11 605560 Stands out as the great military leader of the NeoBabylonian dynasty Famous for his campaigns against Egyptians in a bid to control the SyriaPalestine area His other focus was in building activity He aspired to make Babylon the center of the universe through its elaborate and extensive architecture eventually recognized as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world Nabonidus 555539 A man of nonroyal descent succeeding Nebuchadnezzar for the Babylonian throne Nabonidus gave special devotion to the moon god earning hatred from the Marduk priesthood He abandoned the capital Babylon to move to the desert of Teima This disrupted the cultic cycle of religious temple practices Nabonidus s move to put a personal mark on Babylonian culture and tradition was highly unpopular giving him a very negative image Ebla In northwest Syria Ebla dominated trade routes notably the Babylonian route and had widespread diplomatic contact during the early dynastic period The 3600 tablets found in the ruins of Ebla have given new insight about Ebla including languages trade and diplomatic events Hattusa The capital of the Hittite Empire Established by Hattusili I literally man of Hattusa Hattusa served as the capital of the Empire for most of history and was the location from which the expansion began This city and the following line of Great Kings legitimized the empire at the time Emar A citystate on the Euphrates It had a strategic location on the Euphrates trade and was tied to Ebla by dynastic marriage thus making it an important city both for supporting Ebla diplomatically and providing a trade point on the Euphrates Major archaeological site in Syria for the many tablets discovered mostly private records Mari Mesopotamian city that ruled the middle Euphrates and was eventually sacked by Hammurabi of Babylon in the 18th century BCE Tablets archives and diplomatic reports found in the local palace of Zimrilim have extended the knowledge of Assyrian geography and history as well as create a graphic picture of life of the period Ugarit Located in modern day Syria along the Mediterranean sea Ugarit was a major port city that allowed trade with Egypt and Cyprus It was one of many citystates Ebla Emar Mari etc that lied between Anatolia and Mesopotamia and acted as a hub for traders Jerusalem The captial city of the territory of the Kingdom of Judah was a highly sought after city and territory granting access to the Mediterranean sea Additionalyl it was a key to controlling the SyriaPalestine region As the NeoBabylonian empire attempted to expand it was faced with competing threats from the Egypt In Judah Babylonians had a hard time asserting their authority as states constantly rebelled in support of Egypt The city was conquered by Nebachenezzar II and was eventually a province of the Babylonian empire Samaria was the capital of ancient Israel Assyrian King Sargon II later conquered it During Sargon II s conquest citizens were deported and settled in Syria and Western Iran It is located in the northwestern part of current day Palestine West Bank Cyrus Ruler of the Persian Empire noted for his military pursuits When coming to power Cyrus defeated the Median kingdom effectively taking over the entier territory the Medes had controlled Soon after he conquers Lydia and eventually conducted conquests in eastern Iran and later conquering Babylonia making him the ruler of the entier NeoBabylonian empire Darius I Pioneered the Persian military and was extremely y effective in bringing together numerous states and empires under one rule and rather quickly The army could draw on an enormous population for its soldiers and successfully coordinated the different populations with their specific military skills Instead of a number of areas with different systems of rule the empire was turned into a uniform structure of 20 provinces Darius accelerated the extension of the use of provinces redrawing political boundaries Xerxes 1 Son of Darius succeeded him in the thrown The swift expansion of the Persian empire and its vast size presented one of its greatest challenges Local desires for independence led to rebellions which remained a constant feature throughout the history of Persia Xerxes was forced to quell numerous rebellions as well as stabilize competition for power within the Persian royal house itself His empire was highly centralized and respectful of the multiplicity of the people it governed acknowledging the fact that its inhabitants have different cultures languages and political organization Achaemenids Term used to refer to the Persians Persian Empire Descendants of Achaemenes Empire reigned from 550330 BCE Cyaxares First king of Media Iran 625585 King Cyaxares allied with Nabopolassar of Babylon to destroy Assyrian empire end of 7th century Medes A group of pastoral mountain peoples in western Iran and the Zagros originally hired by the Assyrians as mercenaries Originally the Medes swore loyalty to the Assyrians and acted as vassal states They later allied themselves with Babylonia and conquered major Assyrian cities eventually leading it to its downfall This was thought to be the result of Assyria s brutal policy toward the territories it conquered with deportations and heavy demands for tribute made rebelling very appealing Persians The Persians of southwest Iran created an enormous empire covering the entire Near East and regions including the Indus Valley Greece central Asia and southern Egypt It successfully brought together areas with different languages cultures economies and sociopolitical organization and was the first in Near eastern history to acknowledge the variety among its people During its rule it established new patterns of rule and administration that in uence the Near East for many centuries to come Satrap Under Darius I the empire was regularized under imperial control Rather than have a number of different systems of rule the empire was turned into a uniform structure of 20 or so provinces These provinces are called satrapies Darius did not invent the idea of provinces but accelerated the extension of their use These areas are significant in that it was the first time that different peoples were recognized in a highly centralized system They were acknowledged for different cultures speaking different languages and having different political organization Magi A term used since at least 4th century BCE to denote a follower of Zoroaster or rather a follower of what the Hellenistic world associated Zoroaster with which was the ability to read the stars and manipulate the fate that the stars foretold Greek for magician Astyages Last king of Media Iran 585550 Son of Cyaxares Dethroned by Cyrus the Great in 550 Sun goddess 0f Arinna top of the Hittite hierarchy along with the storm god Identified with Hurrian Hebat Yaz1hkaya was a sanctuary of Hattusa the capital city of the Hittite empire Has rockcut reliefs portraying gods from the Hittite pantheon Thousand Gods of Hatti Believe and worship in gods of lands they conquer Gods are still worshipped in their native language thus suggesting hierarchical polytheistic practice in addition to some syncretism Identification of a deity in one religious system with a similar deity in another E g Greek Aphrodite with Roman Venus Hittite Stormgod with Hurrian Tesub Papratar The purpose of the majority of rituals however was the restoration of a person to his or her proper functioning within a particular sphere of life The cause of the impairment might be divine anger but the problem might also be due to papratar a kind of pollution Whether this pollution was the result of a person s own misdeeds or had been sent by an enemy through black magic it had to be removed and rendered harmless This was often accomplished by means of analogic magic Syncretism Amun was not eclipsed totally as the supreme deity but he was eventually syncretized union of opposing practices such as religion with Re whose cult center from the early periods was Heliopolis Babylonian exile refers to the deporatation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar II in 586BC in fact the exile started with the first deportation in 597BC The Persian ruler Cyrus the Great after overthrowing Babylonian empire allowed Jews to return in 538BC calculated frightfulness Care and feeding of the gods r meals Splendid garments Entertainment Praise ie the sort of life enjoyed by a human of the ruling class Mainly a Mesopotamian practice Isis Egyptian goddess of fertility daughter of Geb sister and wife of Osiris Osiris also known as the Earth God Osiris was the husband of Isis and father of Horus He was the primary deity throughout the height of Egyptian civilization He was generally referred to as the lord of Abydos but he was a relative latecomer to Abydos According to the earliest beliefs Anubis was clearly the ruler of the underworld but Osiris a deity associated with the Delta and with the earth and vegetation eventually replaced him and became the ruler of the realm of the dead No death of Osiris is mentioned in the collection of religious spells called the Coffrn Texts but his resurrection is constantly referred to Maat Eternity is the proper functioning of universe dependent upon maintenance of ma at equilibrium justice The pharaoh was the upholder of ma at monarch had to maintain ma at to indicate he was acting properly and offered ma at to the gods The goddess Ma at in many ways Seth s positive counterpart represented the deified concept of world order balance harmony justice and truth The symbol was the feather Seth Seth a god who had national significance in the Early Dynastic Period was later identi ed as the one who brought disorder and confusion and was associated with some of the negative elements of the environment These elements enhanced over time became incorporated in a very complex nature In the earliest periods however Seth could be held in high esteem and later in the Ramesside Period his name appeared as an element in the names of several rulers His nature underwent many changes so he could appear in several categories This variety can be seen in his depiction as the evil murderer of his brother Osiris as an effective aid to the sun god in repelling the latter s archenemy the serpent Apophis during the hours of the night and as a complex figure with traits almost opposite to the quantities of order balance and harmony incorporated in the goddess Ma at At one point Seth is the enemy and hostile uncle of Horus at another the two contenders are reconciled Amun Amun god of Thebes identi ed with earlier chief deity Re the Sun as AmunRe He was also known as The Hidden One In the religious literature Re the king of the gods was said to die symbolically every sunset and to be reborn at the dawn of each new day Other texts however describe him as aging and aged Horus Horus was the falcon deity that was the son of the gods Osiris and Isis He gave legitimacy to the King of Egypt He was the god of the sky He became more prominent than his predecessor Ra He was also the rst National God where it was recommended by the state to worship him He slew Seth to avenge the death of his father Ptah is the dei cation of the primordial mound of Ennead Cosmogony of Egyptians He was known as the God of Craftsmen creator and was believed to have created the world He is also the God of Reincarnation and the underworld Thoth Is one of the main deities of the Egyptian Pantheon He is depicted with the head of an Ibis He was considered the heart and tongue of Ra the Egyptian sun god He was also the father of all works of science Anubis was the Egyptian deity that was characterized by a jackalhead god and was associated with the process of mummification He was the god to protect the dead in their tomb and to take them into the afterlife He was very important during the Old Kingdom and was replaced by Osiris during the New Kingdom dyad Triad At Thebes the sacred triad was Amun Mut and Khonsu at Memphis it was Ptah Sekhmet and Nefertem and at Abydos it was Osiris Isis and Horus Ennead The Ennead were the nine great Osirian gods Atum Shu Tefnut Geb Nut Osiris Isis Set and Nephthys The term is also used to describe the great council of the gods as well as a collective term for all the gods Natron Mummif1cation ideally preserved and protected the beauty of the human form A crucial component of this process was a carbonate salt known as natron The use of natron however was not reserved for the dead Based upon the records left to posterity natron was a fairly ubiquitous product for the living as well Natron was ancient Egypt s supreme cleansing product Canopic jars In ancient Egyptian civilizations kings that passed away were mummi ed which required the organs of the Kingsqueens to be removed The organs were placed in four jars one for each organ which were found in the tombs next to the mummies Sarcophagus A stone encasement in which a mummy was placed It consisted of elaborate inscriptions to aid the deceased in their passage to the otherworld A mummy would be placed in a wooded coffin which was then placed in a sarcophagus Enlil Part of Mesopotamian Dogma Satisfactory service was rewarded with prosperity and a long life failure sin was punished with adversity disease and untimely death Enlil who as leader of the gods was in any case served if not by humanity then by the lesser gods cared little for what happened to human beings and was prepared to destroy them even for minor offenses such as disturbing his sleep A whole host of quotEvil Daysquot collective death executed Enlil s decision to put an end to the empire of Ur Whoever tried to escape what is decreed his or her fate was hunted down by supernatural quotConstablesquot Spirits like quotFatequot quotEvil Dayquot quotProsecutorquot and quotConstablequot might like human officials escape the control of their divine employer and act on their own Enki A Mesopotamian deity of the Earth and the Spirit of apsu underground waters His hometown was Eridu in Mesopotamia He is viewed as a trickster figure in their religion which at times worked on behalf of the people He helped out the people by advising them to pray to the gods of plague famine ood etc Ninhursag The Earth and Motherdeity of Sumer She is one of the principal seven deities in Mesopotamian belief Shamash is the Sun deity in Mesopotamia Assyria and Babylon He is also the god of Justice Shamash appears on the stele over The Code of Hammurabi Apsu The Babylonians believed that the source of all kinds of water rivers lakes streams etc was Apsu The Babylonian creation epic Enuma elish When on High states that at first there existed only the male Apsu and female Tiamat gods of the deep They raised a family of gods that were so unruly that Apsu resolved to destroy them Rebellion and chaos ensued Among the deities was Marduk the god of Babylon Me innate qualities and skills that exist in everyone story about one of the goddesses in Mesopotamia stealing a everyone s me for her city Indo Iranian group of languages constituting the easternmost major branch of the IndoEuropean family of languages only the Tocharian languages are found farther east Scholarly consensus holds that the IndoIranian languages include the Iranian and IndoAryan Indic language groups Some scholars suggest that the Nuristani and Bangani languages belong in the IndoIranian group as well ZoroasterZarathustra born c 628 bc probably Rhages Iran died c 551 site unknown Iranian religious reformer and founder of Zoroastrianism or Parsiism as it is known in India A major personality in the history of the religions of the world Zoroaster has been the object of much attention for two reasons On the one hand he became a legendary figure believed to be connected with occult knowledge and magical practices in the Near Eastern and Mediterranean world in the Hellenistic Age c 300 bcic ad 300 On the other hand his monotheistic concept of God has attracted the attention of modern historians of religion who have speculated on the connections between his teaching and Judaism and Christianity Though extreme claims of pan Iranianism ie that Zoroastrian or Iranian ideas in uenced Greek Roman and Jewish thought may be disregarded the pervasive in uence of Zoroaster s religious thought must nevertheless be recognized Ahuramazda was the chief deity of the Zoroaster religion He created all of the good things in the world He is considered the creator who is uncreated similar to Muslim depiction of Allah he creates but is not created Ahriman was the principle of evil in Persian mythology He was personi ed as quotthe destructive spiritquot who introduced death into the world He also led the forces of evil against the quotthe holy spiritquot who assisted quotthe wise lordquot and nal victor in the cosmic war important to understand Persian perception of goodevil Philip of Macedonia As regent he promptly overthrew his infant nephew the king and crowned himself king in 359 BC In his early twenties however he had been a Macedonian hostage living in Thebes during the heyday of the Theban hegemony When he assumed the throne of Macedon he promptly pacified all the European tribes to his north seized gold and silver mines by conquering the city of Amphipolis to his south and began to build new cities and large standing armies He was the father of Alexander the Great Alexander 111 the Great Came to power in 336 BCE at the age of 20 He was responsible for expansion of the Macedonian Empire He led the Macedonians to overthrow the Persian Empire He was victorious in his first battle the Battle of Issus 333 BCE against Darius III which was the first time ever that Darius III had lost in combat The Battle of Gaugamela 331 BCE is when he finally defeats the Persian army He created the largest empire in all of history Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who lived from 384 7 322 BCE He was the teacher of Alexander the Great Issus Was a city in Southeastern Anatolia It is known for the Battle of Issus 335 BCE which was a decisive Macedonian victory where Alexander the great began the conquest over the Persians defeating Darius III for the first time ever This battle marked beginning of fall of Persian power Phalanx was a Greek military with a rectanglelike formation The front soldiers would line up and lock their shields together with the soldiers behind them poking their spears over them towards the enemy This allowed for a better attacking strategy where more soldiers were involved in combat rather than waiting behind This was a very effective method unless the front line was broken Seleucid Kingdom 3124 bc an ancient empire that at its greatest extent stretched from Thrace in Europe to the border of India It was carved out of the remains of Alexander the Great s Macedonian empire by its founder Seleucus I Nicator See also Hellenistic Age Seleucus one of Alexander s leading generals became satrap governor of Babylonia in 321 two years after the death of Alexander In the prolonged power struggle between the former generals of Alexander for control of the disintegrating empire Seleucus sided with Ptolemy I of Egypt against Antigonus I Alexander s successor on the Macedonian throne who had forced Seleucus out of Babylonia In 312 Seleucus defeated Demetrius at Gaza using troops supplied by Ptolemy and with a smaller force he seized Babylonia that same year thereby founding the Seleucid kingdom or empire By 305 having consolidated his power over the kingdom he began gradually to extend his domain eastward to the Indus River and westward to Syria and Anatolia where he decisively defeated Antigonus at Ipsus in 301 In 281 he annexed the Thracian Chersonesus That same year he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus the disgruntled son of Ptolemy I Ptolemy Macedonian king of Egypt reigned 107788 bc who under the direction of his mother Cleopatra III ruled Egypt alternately with his brother Ptolemy IX Soter II and around 105 became involved in a civil war in the Seleucid kingdom in Syria Son of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Ptolemy Alexander was sent to Cyprus as governor in 114 after the opposition of the people of Alexandria prevented his mother from securing the kingship of Egypt for him When at the instigation of the queen mother his elder brother Ptolemy Soter was expelled from Egypt in 110 Ptolemy Alexander was recalled from Cyprus and replaced him as coregent in Egypt Following a reconciliation in early 109 Soter returned and occupied the throne while Ptolemy Alexander depa1ted for Cyprus as king of the island Another bitter quarrel between his brother and mother brought Ptolemy Alexander back to Egypt as coregent in 107 but Cleopatra III took official precedence and was the actual ruler Persepolis It was built in a remote and mountainous area during the reign of Darius I who made it the capital of Persia replacing Pasargadae In 330 bce Alexander the Great plundered the city and burned the palace of Xerxes I The city s ruins cover an extensive area and comprise a number of colossal buildings including palaces of early Persian kings a great staircase an audience hall and a treasury


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