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Intro Biol

by: Mr. Elbert Greenholt

Intro Biol BIOLOGY 172

Mr. Elbert Greenholt
GPA 3.9

Kenneth Cadigan

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Kenneth Cadigan
Class Notes
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Elbert Greenholt on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 172 at University of Michigan taught by Kenneth Cadigan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 263 views. For similar materials see /class/231617/biology-172-university-of-michigan in Biology at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Bio Lecture 23 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation1152010 21000 PM Why don t E coli express all the genes all the time o Wastes too much energy inefficient o Some genes would be in conflict with other genes so they need to be regulated Constitutive expression gene product made continuously Regulated expression turned on or off Catabolic Metabolism o if glucose is not available bacteria break down lactose to generate glucose o Lactose beta galatosidaseegalactose and glucose glucose is the desired source of carbon Beta galactosidase produced to convert Lactose to galactose and glucose o In the presence of glucose E coli does not produce Beta galactosidase o Lactose inducerstimulates the expression of specific gene Genetic Screening o replica plating Master plate containing glucose mutagenized colonies o replica plate have some cells from original mutagenized colonies o in presence of lactose didn t survive galactosidepermease allows lactose to cross the plasma membrane c on DNA sequence the lacZ and lacY are physicially next to each other in genome highly regulated o LacI product is constitually regulated Operon portion of DNA including a set of genes involved in a specific metabolic pathway o Operator regulates the movement of promoter o bacteria can have multiple genes on one mRNA o multiple binding sites Negative Control regulatory protein shuts down transcription 0 Lac operon 0 Reg protein binds and blocks RNA polymerase lacI gene creates the repressor represser is always present in cell but it is regulated when lactose is absent the repressor blocks the transcription of lacZ and lacy lacI loss of function mutant continuous expression of lacZ and lacY turn on transcription because no repressor is being made Bacteria behaves as if lactose is constantly present in cell CAP DNA binding protein that regulates lac operon positively 0 requires cyclic AMP ie gas for polymerase Car 0 favor transcription in presence of cyclic AMP aka low level of glucose and so CAP is turned on 0 when cAMP is absent CAP doesn t bind to DNA polymerase binds to promoter inefficiently High levels of glucose low levels of cAMP cAMP is made by adenylyl cyclase high glucose 9 inactive adenylyl cyclase 9 low cAMP 9 CAP doesn t bind to DNA 9 lac operon negatively regulated dual regulation of lac operon no cross over between two levels of control 0 negative control by lac repressor 0 positive control by CAP Trp Operon 0 When tryptophan is absent transcription occurs of 5 genes coding for enzymes involved in tryptophan synthesis 0 tryp repressor binds to DNA when tryp is present so that tryp synthesis doesn t occur save energy 0 O O O O O O 0 Positive Control 0 Reg protein behind promoter and helps guide polymerase and moves transcription along 1152010 21000 PM Bio lecture 25 11102010 31000 PM Acetylation of histones opens up DNA for transcription DNA methylation lead to longterm transcriptional repression gene silencing o covalent modification of a base paire of DNA that changes how the chromatin is packaged o stable through successive cell divisions o cell remembers that the specific portion of gene should be regulated o silencer bound to transcription factor which attracts the DNA methyltransferasee specific area becomes methylated after cell division the methylation pattern is stable from generation to generation 0 Piggy back model mehtylated strand of DNA provides a marker on newly replicated duplex DNA methyltransferase recognizes the hemimethylated strands 0 most methylations are wiped clean during gamatogensis some methylations could be inherited epigenetics passage of modifications from one generation to another due to DNA methylations perhaps but not as a result of changes in DNA sequence clearly happening in plants similar to Lamarckian model of genetics n rejected but epigenetics reflects genes that might be regulated by Lamarckism mechanism of genetics 0 o difficult to reverse DNA methylation transcription 11102010 31000 PM same gene can give rise to two different protein products different exons are spliced together alternative splicing mRNA stability short interfering RNAs siRNA or microRNAs miRNA that interfere with mRNA siRNA promote mRNA degradation and miRNA block translation both are recruited by a protein RISC and bind to complementary sequence in mRNA target specific mRNA sequence which will cause the degradation of mRNA enzyme cuts the mRNA there can be posttranslational control 0 STATS regulatory transcription factor 0 activated STAT can go into nucleus and bind to enhancers and regulate transcription 0 phosphorylation of STAT is example of post translational regulation 0 receptor is always there but without signal it is not active post translational regulation Four primary differences between gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes packaging alternative splicing complexity eukaryotes more complex coordinated expression operons in bacteria Tardigrades also called water bears are microscopic segmented animals with 8 legs They are normally about 70 body water but they can survive extreme dehydration to just a few percent body water for up to 10 years After a decade you can add water and the tardigrades will start swimming around Say you work in a lab Your new boss gives you 5 dehydrated tardigrades and asks you to demonstrate that the tardigrades are alive in their dehydrated state How would you do this a b C Record their movement because movement is characteristic of all life Record their temperature because all living organisms maintain body temperatures different from their environment Record their energy use because all living organisms acquire and use energy Watch them to see if they reproduce because all living organisms must reproduce eventually None of the options listed demonstrate that the dehydrated tardigrades are alive ARCHAEA EUKARYA Exam Practice Question You sequence a portion of rRNA from three species The sequences are SpeciesAzAACTAGCGCGAT SpeciesBzAACTAGCGCCAT SpeciesC1TTCTAGCGGTAT Which tree drawn below best ts the data What type of bond is most likely to be formed between two atoms with very different electronegativities hydrogen bond ionic bond polar covalent bond nonpolar covalent bond 005 How does the word theory in science differ from its use in everyday English A There is no difference the usages are interchangeable B A scientific theory is always right and never changes C Scientific theories are testable explanations not speculative guesses D A scientific theory can be confirmed by experiments designed to prove its accuracy Which functional group is not found on the side groups Rgroups of the normal set of 20 free amino acids A Hydroxyl B Sulfhydryl C Amino D Phosphate Exam Practice The R group or side chain of the amino acid aspartate is CH2COO The R group or side chain of the amino acid isolleucige is C4H9 Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in aqueous so ution WOOD Both aspartate and isoleucine would be in the interior of the globular protein Both aspartate and isoleucine would be on the exterior of the globular protein Both aspartate and isoleucine would be in the interior and on the exterior of the globular protein Aspartate would be in the interior and isoleucine would be on the exterior of the globular protein lsoleucine would be in the interior and aspartate would be on the exterior of the globular protein What type of interaction is directly responsible for the formation of secondary structure in proteins A Peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids B Peptide bonds between cysteine amino acids C Peptide bonds between two different proteins D Hydrogen bonds between portions of the polypeptide backbone E Hydrogen bonds between the side groups of the amino acids Which of the following would be the same in an enzymecatalyzed or uncatalyzed reaction WPDPU Danao quot00 Progress of the Reaction During a laboratory experiment you discover that an enzyme catalyzed reaction has a AG of 20 kcalmol If you double the amount of enzyme in the reaction what will be the AG for the new reaction A 40 kcalmol B 20 kcalmol C O kcalmol D 20 kcalmol E 40 kcalmol Which ofthe following reactions could be coupled to the reaction ATP H20 ADP P 73 kcalmol A P AP 10 kcalmol B P BP 8 kcalmol CP C P 5 kcalmol DP D P 10 kcalmol E P EP 5 kcalmol 1110090 What happens to KM Vmax Competitive Noncompetitive inhibitors inhibitors KM Vmax Bind to enzyme What type of interaction is directly responsible for the formation of secondary structure in proteins A Peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids B Peptide bonds between cysteine amino acids C Peptide bonds between two different proteins D Hydrogen bonds between portions of the polypeptide backbone E Hydrogen bonds between the side groups of the amino acids Which of the levels of protein organization is correctly paired with the interaction that might be responsible for producing the structure A primary structure ionic bonding between different amino acids B secondary structure hydrogen bonding between the side chains of different amino acids C tertiary structure van der Waals interactions between hydrophobic amino acids D quaternary structure disulfide bonds between different cysteine residues in the same polypeptide Exam Practice Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true A Enzymes decrease the free energy change of a reaction B Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction C Enzymes change the direction of chemical reactions D Enzymes are permanently altered by the reactions they catalyze E Enzymes prevent changes in substrate concentrations Imagine an enzymecatalyzed reaction proceeding under typical conditions for that enzyme Which of the following should you do to increase the rate of the reaction A Add more substrate B Add more product C Increase the temperature by 20 C D Lower the pH to 30 Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of the following denaturation ofthe enzyme allosteric inhibition competitive inhibition noncompetitive inhibition insuf cient cofactors W905 Which of the following metabolic reactions can occur without a net influx of energy from some other process A ADP Pi gtATP H20 B CoH1206 6 02 gt 6 CO2 6 H20 C 6 C02 6 H20 gt C6H1206 6 02 D amino acids gt polypeptide E glucose fructose gt sucrose Which of the following observations is the strongest argument in favor of the hypothesis 900w that protein structure and function are correlated Denatured proteins do not function normally Enzymes tend to be globular in shape Proteins function best at certain temperatures Proteins have four distinct levels of structure and many functions Characteristic Simple Facilitated Active Diffusion Diffusion Transport membrane transport carrier component proteins responsible for transport binding of yes transported substances energy requirement no direction of down concentration transport gradient specificity very specific saturation at high yes concentration of transported molecules rate of transport slowest Exam Practice A biologist discovers a previously unknown primitive organism Which of the following would be the best prediction about its molecular makeup A It will contain some of the same steroids found in humans B Its membranes will contain phospholipids C Its proteins will serve as the primary energy storage molecules D Its monosaccharides will serve as important structural molecules E Its DNA will have unusual nucleotides I ITJ I Exam Practice H H H H H H H H H D U I I II I l I if ccgccecegecc H i l DH H H H H H What type of macromolecule is shown in A What type of macromolecule is shown in B What kinds of bonds are indicated by the dotted lines in B Exam Practice The element nitrogen is present in all of the following except A proteins B nucleic acids C amino acids D DNA E monosaccharides EXAM PRACTICE In which cell would you expect to nd the most lysosomes 7 1 uquot calmmm Pearson mum in nunnsmms BamamquotCmm na gt muscle cell in the thigh of a longdistance runner pancreatic cell that makes digestive enzymes macrophage white blood cell that engulfs bacteria to prevent infection nerve cell extending through the wrist ovarian cell that produces estrogen a steroid hormone OF quot10 Smooth ER Rough ER 2M EXAM PRACTICE nd the most membrane bound ribosomes muscle cell in the thigh of a longdistance runner pancreatic cell that makes digestive enzymes macrophage white blood cell that engulfs bacteria to prevent infection epithelial cell lining the digestive tract ovarian cell that produces estrogen a steroid hormone 09gt quot39U


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