New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intr to Info Studies

by: Yvette Hegmann

Intr to Info Studies SI 110

Marketplace > University of Michigan > Information > SI 110 > Intr to Info Studies
Yvette Hegmann
GPA 3.88

Robert Frost

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Robert Frost
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Information

This 212 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yvette Hegmann on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SI 110 at University of Michigan taught by Robert Frost in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/231623/si-110-university-of-michigan in Information at University of Michigan.


Reviews for Intr to Info Studies


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/29/15
Week I4 Cybercultu re J LI d e Yew mmmgmem l Whatis39Cybcrmlturc l Sum definition 39 v Vhy39Cybcrculturc l Impact DF39Cybcrculturc39 What is Cyberculture39 Earlyr de nitions of cyberculture I quotCyher is derived From quotcyberneticquot I Thar ward derives frnm Greek kyberncms meaning quotTo steer or pilotquot First use of the term 39cyber39 WILLA GIBSON u Ours is a world that is both everywhere and newhere hm i is net where budies live a quotquotThe tulmre EFKSIHE fmm the use of camputer networks as im eammunication entertainment Wuriue and buainessquot hm Pump in ll quotThis cybemulture may bl purely an uniim cuimm car it may span both virtual and physical warimehis ig no say that cybercultum is a culture endemic in mlime cammnities it 3 I16 just the cuiture that results From computer use but cuiturc that is directiy mediated by the camputcr W Rte 1 208 Access to technol V I og Convergence 2nd sense of convergence This convergence 5 shaped mpduwr l by decis auns made in corporate boardroom by tompenues wishing to tap their tressmeme UWHEI SI IIP and botLDmUp by decmams made m men s bedr eoms as they want to censeme the made they want when they want it and when th y want in Di sintermediation Ubiquity Keitai use quotThe development of mini uses and cultures is a complex alchermr 0f technological sDcial cultural ecanomlc and histurlcal factors that maloe wholesale transplantation dil cultquot Mlc mama Technosocial tetherlng Produsers V Air Enm 1026 Impact of cyberculture I Idchtity lmk m 1151 week39s Maura can privacy I Net sabrde Individualism and the inunnmze strangerquot I PEP rd emcncr aty Lifecasting Networked Individualism L39I39I 39r39r l l39ru39w Ir ll TC In t i 1 n quot U 7 ll 7 L4 gl I 3 I J I n J J l quot A a l I v E g l l quot quot 39 I l ilh a quot I n g I J 4 gt u I 39 a H p L l a m The intemct lets people have relatiranships they add not ham any other wayquot L1 91 ml The strength of weak ties Curcnw Iii Six degrees of seperation we m1 UV5 39U y Hg 0 U UV u VU A H 39 u w 039 quot 039 rkor 1 Vlt 98quot r vx 4 Dow N H A A a r L 139 Gives rise to the small wurld phenomena Friend of a frlend FDAF Social Media Landscape J Mtlu a l39 13911 Emerging mechnalagies and the growing Fewer oi consumers to lter what they see EusmnGlabe cram Pnnh 39 EH v baston om SEE FER YDuRsELF Marrulacruring my Open House ms smwvHAs arm mmsz m EAstmNYlNe Your electronic friends car TV and cell phone may soon be the key to letting almost anyone peek into your private life Hy Sepialie smung Club Su 792nnl bulb about same monitoring 39om me Emlyrmum TV set eellular plume orrmtedmmnmm hour wlreless phone ebmpames wlll know where you areas early as thls rall Proponents By these tenhnuluges provide a number br ebnsumer bene ts Cable ebmpames for mslarree R PM Mar rms n V gbvemmem abuse The pmblem lsllkely to yaw they say as sophlsumted TV sembp boxes and othEr equipment beebme mbre arrbruable the Center forDlgtzl Demmaey a nonpro t ebnsumer gbup m Washlnglun D c I an not seethls as a bauebrrwe have u make u lmu cyberrllv as u wdrPnH r rbl wnm lh um Boston Globe Online Print it quotYou have to be concerned that little Johnny and Jane might sit in front of your TV set instead of their TV and find out that Dad and Mom engage every once in a while in kinky viewingquot said Chester who is pushing for stronger government regulation Interactive TV takes shape Most Americans have never experienced interactive TV but the ranks of companies trying to bring it to homes are rapidly widening Liberty Media Corp Microsoft Corp and AOL Time Warner Inc are just a few of the big names hoping to track viewers as they switch channels skip commercials or surf the Web from their television sets according to a report last month by the Center for Digital Democracy A host of technology providers are also waiting for interactive TV to become a reality In Newton Navic Systems Inc has developed software that creates anonymous profiles of consumers based on viewing history demographics and quotpsychographicquot data That information allows cable satellite and advertising companies to distribute promotions to TV settop boxes Predictive Networks Inc a Cambridge company that also us es anonymous profiles recently applied for a patent on arti cialintelligence software that can tell which family member is sur ng the Internet or TV channels based on their mouseclicks or remote control patterns The interactive TV industry is trying to stave off additional regulation Already cable companies face strict privacy rules under the 1984 Cable Act said Ben Isaacson executive director of the Association for Interactive Media The organization plans to draft privacy guidelines applying to all interactive TV players including Microsoft39s UltimateTV personal video recorder TiVo and other services not covered by the cable law because they use phone lines Today the interactive TV business is a nascent one and most companies say they are not finding many uses for consumers personal information Ed Graczyk marketing director for Microsoft TV said the company only collects its viewers39 personal information for billing purposes and customer support quotToday we39re not tracking any usage behavior quot he said This fall ATampT Broadband will run an experiment in 30000 homes to see whether consumers will respond to advertising tailored to fit the demographics of specific neighborhoods But so far this is not the interactive TV that consumer advocates fear quotWe39re not therequot said Tracy Baumgartner a spokeswoman for ATampT Broadband quotWe can39t see what you re watching They39re talking about something that s very futuristicquot httpvaAAv hn tnn 39 ml 39 I uamostanyonepeekintoyourprivateifePshtm 2 of 5 7102001 951 33 AM Boston Globe Online Print it Whether ATampT Broadband s experiment will please advertisers is another matter Free Internet service providers for example have had a tough time proving that the collection of detailed consumer data boosts advertising revenue said Richard Smith chief technology of cer of the nonpro t Privacy Foundation quotIt39s an example of why spying on customers doesn t pay offquot said Smith who has criticized tracking by TiVo personal video recorders and Sportbrain exercise monitors Monitoring from the cellphone The push for wireless phone marketing has an unlikely ally the Federal Communications Commission In October an FCC regulation will force providers of wireless phone service to be able to identify the location of most 911 callers within 330 feet Yet the rush for compliance also puts wireless providers in a better position to offer a host of locationbased services to their customers In anticipation a lineup of rms is promoting technologies that promise bullseye advertising and other locationbased services One is SkyGo Inc a Redwood City Calif company that plans to create and track wireless advertising for cariiers and marketers In London iProx Ltd is developing the wireless version of the instant messaging service already popular with young Internet users IProx39s technology would continuously ping handsets for location information and notify users when someone on their preprogrammed buddy list is nearby The service would then create a map showing the friends street location Several factors could delay the launch of locationbased marketing A number of c ellular service providers have reportedly asked the FCC to push back the October deadline complaining of higherthan anticipated costs and slow response from handset makers Wireless service providers also must figure out a way to take advantage of new ad revenue opportunities without angering federal regulators and consumers In response to privacy concerns Congress included a provision in the 1999 Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act The law bars wireless companies like Sprint PCS and Verizon Wireless from disclosing location information without quotexpress prior authorizationquot from consumers That rm consent may be critical since consumers appear to be wary of wireless advertising In a Jupiter Media Metrix survey nearly half of people using wireless phones and personal digital assistants wanted absolutely no advertising even if they received discounted or free service httpvaAAv hn tnn 39 ml 39 I uamostanyonepeekintoyourprivateifePshtm 3 of 5 7102001 951 33 AM Boston Globe Online Print it Neither Sprint PCS nor Verizon Wireless has immediate plans to use location information to market to cellphone users But Sprint PCS considers locationbased advertising quota strategic opportunity that we would be evaluatingquot company spokeswoman Jennifer Walsh said GPS More than a road map In rental cars most people think of globalpositioning system devices as directional guides But some companies are using new locationmonitoring services to watch their customers instead Last week Connecticut authorities led a complaint against Acme RentaCar a New Haven company that fined a local customer 450 for alleged speeding incidents after using a wireless positioning system to monitor his rented minivan So far more than 25 Acme customers have called the state Department of Consumer Protection to complain about Acme s speeding nes The actually tracking though was done by AirIQ Inc a Canadian company that wirelessly controls globalpositioning devices installed in rentalcar and trucking eets With AirIQ s service rentalcar companies can locate stolen overdue and towed vehicles as well as automobiles that cross state lines against company policy said Miguel Gonsalves an AirIQ vice president Promotional material on AirIQ s Web site shows the service can be tweaked to perform other functions quotFor example a vehicle can be disabled or enabled and the doors can be unlocked with the point and click of a mousequot Although Gonsalves declined to name the large carrental companies using its services the company39s Web site includes testimonials from Budget Rent a Car and Thrifty franchises After a vehicle was not returned on time to a California Budget of ce the owner used AirIQ s service to nd out that the car had been driven to Louisiana quotNeedless to say the customer did not dispute the evidence and I was able to collect a return on my investment enforcing the predefined mileage and insurance penalty for traveling outofstatequot the owner said on the Web site A Thrifty owner in Grand Rapids Mich suspected that a driver had been speeding before an accident So he checked with AirIQ And quotsure enough prior to the accident the vehicle was traveling at a speed of 100 mph for an extended period of timequot he said on the site Kimberly Mulcahy a spokeswoman for Budget Rent a Car Corp said corporateowned facilities which httpvaAAv hn tnn 39 ml 39 I uamostanyonepeekintoyourprivateifePshtm 4 of 5 7102001 951 33 AM Group campaigns against open source Tech News CNETcom Group cam paigns against open source By Matthew Broersma Special to CNET Newscom August 13 2002 116 PM PT httpnewscomcom21001001949635html Microsoft and other software companies are ramping up a lobbying effort that aims to convince governments to think again about adopting opensource software The Initiative for Software Choice which launched quietly in early May is chaired by an industry body called the Computer Technology Industry Association CompTlA but its biggest software industry backer is Microsoft Other supporters include Intel and software industry groups from countries in Europe and elsewhere The initiative takes aim squarely at what has become one of the major themes in the software business this year government use of opensource software best known as the development model behind the Linux operating system Governments in France Germany Peru and other countries have passed or are considering bills that would encourage the use of opensource software in the public sector A representative of CompTlA said that the initiative had arisen because of concern that governments particularly those in Europe were creating policies that favored opensource software quotWhen governments base their choice on a preference that takes merit out of the situation that39s a concern to usquot said Mike Wendy public relations and policy counsel for CompTlA quotMore options are always betterquot This week to coincide with the LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in San Francisco opensource advocates will unveil a legislative proposal to prohibit the state of California from buying software from Microsoft or any other company that doesn39t open its source code and licensing policies What marks opensource software as different from proprietary applications is the license under which it is distributed Opensource licenses allow organizations and individuals to use and modify and resell the code so long as any modi cations are given back to the programming community Software Choice takes aim speci cally at more aggressive policies such as those being pushed in California and Peru which would place restrictions on the purchase of proprietary software by public bodies quotPolicymakers should not make rigid intellectual property licensing choices a precondition for eligibility for procurement nor should they discriminate between developers that choose to license their intellectual property on commercial terms and developers that choose not to charge licensing feesquot states one of the quotneutral principlesquot advocated by the initiative While Software Choice39s principles rarely mention opensource initiatives directly they include a provision that governments should promote a quotbroad availabilityquot of the results of publicly funded research by making sure these results are kept clear of such opensource licenses as the GNU General Public License GPL used by Linux quotWhen public funds are used to support software research and development the innovations that result from this work should be licensed in ways that take into account both the desirability of broadly sharing those advances as well as the desirability of applying those advances to commercialized productsquot the group stated Microsoft and CompTlA argue that an opensource license means that software cannot be commercialized while opensource advocates say that companies such as Apple Computer and IBM have successfully integrated opensource software into commercial products Supporters of open source argue that the software can free governments from a dependency on proprietary document formats such as those used by Microsoft Software Choice on the other hand will try to convince legislators that open standards and open source don39t necessarily go together quotIt is important that government policy recognize that open standardswhich are available to any software developersare not synonymous with and do not require opensource software either for their adoption or utilityquot Software Choice stated httpnewscomcom21021001949635html 1 of 2 8142002 10515 PM Week 13 Privacy Eric Cook ericcooltumicnedu Guest Lecture SISOC 110 Nov 25 2008 Portions of these slides were taken from sl de and lecture materials authored by Prof Robert Frost 112108 Privacy as space of tension What is privacy in the information age At the boundaries between Hidden ltgt Public Individual ltgt Collective Defined by interactions between Laws Culture Norms Systems Photo of Slernlab BodyL r r A few definitions Lewis D Brandeis US Supreme Court H929 the right to be left alone Ruth Gavison three elements in privacy secrecy anonymity and solitude Fernando Volio Jimenez all human rights are aspects of the right to privacy 112108 Four Key Aspects of Privacy Information privacy Bodily privacy Communications privacy Territorial privacy A Brief History of Privacy The state Vs the people hotice the moderh termihology ih the British Empire MACH 780 iraditiohally based ih security of ohe s goods property freedom from rather thah freedom to A mah s home is his castle Fourth Amehdmeht protects agaihst uhreasohable search ahd seizure there i ho explicit right to privacy Writteh ihto US Bill of Rights Conternporary Legal Interpretations of Privacy Fourth Amendment litigation since i 960 Griswold V Connecticut i964 Sex information as private restriction on its diffusion as invasion of privacy Roe V Wade i973 The privacy of reproductive cnoice decisions Lawrence V Texas 2003 overturned Bowers V HardVVicllt i986 privacy of choices about sexual orientation 2003 MA Court on gay marriage combo of privacy and equal protection 112108 Again what is privacy in the information age Privacy as right Privacy as negotiation Privacy as tradeoff Negotiations ongoing at level of the individual and at the level of society Example Medical Records Legally vs functionally private Only your doctor yournurses your ospitaladministrative staff the billing company the transcription serwces the insurance company and ityou re using Google Health Google s servers have access to your Under HlPAA you can ask this information not be shared vmtn other doctors in the same practice u however they 0 no ave to agree to do ou ask quoting from httpvwwv hm govocr nipaaconsurnerjignts pdii More Examples Online transactions Privacy settings in Facebook secure banking secure shopping browser cookies Privacy and Security CCTV surveillance airport watch lists RFlDed passports 112108 Trade offs and Tensions Each of these involve different kinds of tradeotts and tensions Tensions between different agendas of interests agenda that may be opposing or at least not always aligned or considerate of one ano er Potential Benefits of Revealing Information Personalized Servtces Customization of lnformati on Payments in form of discounts customer loyalty programs Convenience Sa fetySecuri ty Downsides of Revealing Profiling individually and in the aggregate Tracking by gov t by companies by individuals Unauthorized amp unexpected reuse in other contexts Loss of control of your information 112108 Technology New Opportunities New Issues Data mining in various forms Network science amp new modes of analysis on large datasets example Net ix deanonymization Breakdowns at the technical level 77 system hiccups revealing data at the people level W people leawng laptops at the airport New contexts for negotiation example Google maps stree VI w Localized Contexts are Now GloballyAccessible My Bruiismen El 1084 Folsom St mirivessis appvciiiwr gtquot Illusions of privacy Lack of Transparency or The illusion of privacy You can39T see anyone looking aT you so you feel like a selling is safe anonymous ExcepT er 112108 I ElherPEG Fire 86quot P 1 Online 39 CONFEREN CE39 Reuse Transparency and expecTaTions AnoTher example of unexpecTed reuse downsTream UseneT daTa from The early 903 gt reappears in Google groups a decade laTer New kinds of auTomaTed archives Google caches lnTerneT Archive eTc Once H is in These archives how do you geT iT ouT and should you Who decides The Quick CutampRun on IT Basics What you need to know in conclusion Proprietary vs OpenSource Software Implications Proprietary software 39 CompanieszAll of em MicrosoftAdobe etc Source code as major company asset guarded jealously source of high markups Opensource Free Nobody owns the source code GPL license Linux Rewardincentive for innovation is peer recognition star status among friends Open source s advantages Cheaper overall even with its complicated design More secure due to more eyes IBM as opensource services company growing adoption by governments South Africa European Union Computing Meets CommunicationsThe Internet amp Beyond POTSphones Switched systems lnternet Packetized More robust efficient and less failureprone 39 Emergence of theWeb Tim BernersLee CERNand html 39 Hyperlinks as a mesh of web of info 39 Highly scalable and extensible 39 Emergence of middleware Web services and the Semantic Web role of XML an Sunk hm smgmmme amaan mm seattletimes com Wu H n u may man 2m mu m mm Pelmssron m 799nm or cow ms earlsphoto must be obtaer from The Seane mes Cal2064M3113 oremarreea seamenms com mm younemesz Setting online works free doesn t please everyone Hy snth swam 3200am m Emma Tm In me sWArhng debate uva ng39al ngqts and mtelledual pmpe y a ram Cehen ran mm a surpnsmg scuvay as he Eveluped anewsu ware mm m e pail ymr us an uphll hame m cunvmce penple thatmdlvxduals En rmketharvmrk freely amiable uva me Internet amahle fur fulks m use huwever uney want When any ehhgauens Cehen a Z rymrruld indepEndEnl pregamrner m San Frannscu 15 me treatur er ExtTunent a piece er su ware desxgqedlu make me Lmnsfa39 uflarge ehunks er mfm39mauun uva me Imamel mure custref nem Hxs gual 15 m makeExlTun39em s pmmenl an upenlechmml standard fur pearlur pea le hansren 7 the kmd eneehnelegyhehmn Napster imme Emeway that hup hypmen Lmnsfa39 pmmeel has heeeme a standard fur transmmmg mfm39mauun betwem bruwsers and Web servers Tu encung uns Cehen placed as fewresmmuns un me pmgam s use as pussxble 7 that is he placed nu resmmuns amazing n maad mm me puhhe dumam Bum turns uutthaL mmany me Euncept er puble durram deeply tmubled hs pmspeenve Eu umErs and users Theumenenm Cehens apparml 21 er genemsny was that era dumesumled ammal that s suddenly let gm They many knuwwhat m du wnh me freedum The Seattle Times Setting online works free doesn39t please everyone quotBasically the objection was that there s not enough legalese on there there s been a lot of fear uncertainty and doubt spread by lawyers and some opensource people saying that you can t just put something in the public domainquot Cohen said Cohen s experience is one small re ection of just how politicized the issue of intellectual property on the Internet has become on every level The Internet once lauded as a frontier of freedom and a place for innovation to ourish has become a battleground in an emerging war over who should own vast swaths of information and the next good idea On one side are the large players in the businesses of software publishing movies cable television and music many of whom have made piracy a priority concern Their stock prices and livelihoods depend on longestablished revenue streams guarded by increasingly stringent copyright laws global treaties education campaigns and digitalrightsmanagement technologies On the other are a rapidly growing number of people including opensource advocates consumers civilliberties advocates and professors at some of the nation s top universities They argue that the large companies are abusing intellectualproperty laws and creating new technologies to privatize and close off access to information effectively choking off innovation and restricting progress 39Public domain39 at stake One casualty in this war charge intellectualproperty experts is the public domain It is a hard concept to defend because not even the intellectualproperty experts can agree on what exactly is in the public domain It is a moving target Yet there is a growing sense among even sophisticated intellectualproperty practitioners such as Intel that it is an important and valuable concept and that we may need to do more to identify what is in it as well as its value and relationship to the process of innovation quotThe public domain for the most part has been uncharted terrainquot Pamela Samuelson a pioneering law professor in the field of intellectualproperty law at the University of California Berkeley notes in an academic paper quotSometimes it seems an undifferentiated blob of unnamed size and dimensionsquot nwsnurre M g5 39 39 nn39 39 M quot 3 39 39 39 2Rd 20020610 2 of 5 6122002 30807 PM The Seattle Times Setting online works free doesn39t please everyone But as we increasingly become a networked digital economy driven by ideas and as more information and knowledge go digital attempts to define the public domain could become valuable in determining the impact of public policy on publicinformation resources and the value and importance of certain kinds of information to public interest and innovation says Samuelson who is also co director of the Berkeley Center for Law and Technology Meanwhile efforts to clarify the issues are under way Several research reports published in May by the New America Foundation a Washington DC think tank attempt to illustrate types of information that might be in the public domain including collaborative efforts between Internet users that produce online databases opensource software initiatives Internet libraries and archives and peer topeer filesharing activities Clarifying the issues This fall the idea of a constitutionally guaranteed balance among incentives to innovate progress in science and arts and the public domain s contribution to that progress will receive heightened scrutiny when a couple of highprofile projects spearheaded by a partisan in the debate Stanford Law School professor Lawrence Lessig come to fruition One centers on Eldred v Ashcroft a legal case concerning copyrightterm extensions that the Supreme Court has agreed to hear Lessig is representing Eric Eldred whose Eldred Press posts literary works on the Internet The other is the launch of a nonprofit corporation Creative Commons wwwcreativecommonsorg an ambitious effort dedicated to the idea that it s possible to finetune the exercise of intellectualproperty rights in cyberspace Most lawyers would say the public domain is made up of intellectual property on which creators exclusive rights have expired But the pool of works that would qualify under this definition has evaporated over the years say critics of the global intellectualproperty system Previously creators had to register their works with the copyright office and renew their registrations otherwise their works fell into the public domain But changes myquot 39 nmnurm M gi39 39 onquot w W quot 39 wada200206103of5612200230807PM The Seattle Times Setting online works free doesn39t please everyone in copyright laws in 1976 and 1988 shifted the balance by making copyright protection automatic The length of some of the terms extended to 95 years Reacting to these developments as well as to what they describe as old business models Lessig and his colleagues are attempting to build an online database of creative works as a way to show how creativity can be encouraged online without fostering piracy The Creative Commons project he and his colleagues unveiled in midMay seeks to become a clearinghouse of rights while providing customized licenses for movie makers musicians and authors seeking as Creative Commons executive director Molly Shaffer Van Houweling puts it quotFame fortune and freedomquot By that she means an ability to easily and cheaply experiment with different ways of promoting their work and using other peoples work online The purpose of the project is to counter the mentality that quotit s a choice between property versus anarchy that it s a choice between the American Way versus some bizarrely communistic system that we thought we had defeatedquot Lessig said at the unveiling of the project in May How it works People who are interested in using the system would simply surf to the Creative Commons Web site and fill out a template for the kind of license they want placed on their work These licenses would tag their work Then people looking for a certain kind of work a teacher seeking illustrations for an online lesson plan for example could use the Creative Commons search engine to find work with the appropriately generous license The Commons also has plans to establish an intellectual property conservancy where creators explicitly donate their works for use in the public domain For some like Cohen the software developer projects such as the Creative Commons raise more questions than they answer because of the complexity and the many kinds of intellectualproperty rights bundled in complex creative works In his own case Cohen met the resistance to his initial nostrings offer by obtaining nwsnurma M gi 39 39 nn 39 I n A A Aquot y 39 39 39 9Rd2f920020610 4 of 5 6122002 30807 PM Feature Arti cl e SEARCH ESE l SHOE7 WEB ACCOUNT l CONTACTIEEE Membership Publlc ns Servlces Standards Conferences CareersNobs Home gtgt Feature Story I I u FEATURE ARTICLE WEEKLY FEATURE THE NET EFFECT AS CHINA39S INTERNET GETS A MUCHNEEDED MAKEOVER WILL THE NEW NETWORK PROMOTE FREEDOM OR CURTAIL IT BY STEVEN CHERRY China39s openmarket reforms begun a quartercentury ago launched an unprecedented social experiment Never in modern history has there been a truly enduring technological and economic world power that wasn39t a democracy a free economy without free speech Forthe experiment39s first 15 years the Chinese government had no trouble keeping a firm grip on the reins ofthe news media Then came the Internet Could the government open the floodgates to the waves of information washing up on every shore yet keep out the ideas it was afraid of such as ones about sexuality democracy religious expression and Taiwanese independence So far the answer has been yes China39s Internet is the most efficiently censored in the world From a computer in China try to visit the Web site of the banned activist organization Human Rights in China based in New York City and your request will be blocked by filters in the network httpwww r 39 39 39 1 of1071205 1218 PM Feature Arti cl e httpwww r Instead of the group39s home page you39ll get an innocuous error message such as quotFile not foundquot Hundreds maybe thousands of sites are similarly blacklisted The exact number can39t be determined and changes daily Now China39s experiment in cyberspace censorship is about to take a dramatic turn A massive upgrade to the country39s Internet will soon give China a robust stateoftheart infrastructure easily on a par with any in the developed world China Telecom Corp in Beijing is investing US 100 million in what it calls the ChinaNet Next Carrying Network or CN2 The former national telephone monopoly is snapping up new network routers from four ofthe largest telecommunications equipment companies in the world Cisco Systems and Juniper Networks ofthe United States the French giant Alcatel and Huawei Technologies the only Chinese company to get a CN2 contract During the next 12 months the routers the vertebrae of an Internet backbone are to be installed in 200 cities throughout China39s 31 provinces autonomous regions and municipalities Few doubt that China will emerge as a 21stcentury global power The questions now are about when it will emerge and what kind of power it will be The issue of how China continues to censor its Internet even as its infrastructure becomes vastly more sophisticated has implications beyond what ideas China39s populace almost onefifth of humanity will be allowed to tap into For one thing if censorship technology flourishes in China it will be easier and cheaper for it to also take root elsewhere quotThe concern I have is that this is laying the foundation for a much more intrusive and censorshipfriendly Internet infrastructure for all countriesquot says Roger Clarke a consultant in Canberra Australia affiliated with the Australian National University quotThe features that China wants installed in intermediating devices and software will gradually find their way into all ofthe suppliers39 products if only because it39s cheaper that wayquot Whether China39s Internet censorship continues at the same level or with its powerful new equipment increases will probably play a significant role in answering the quotWhat kind of global powerquot question Experts say that up to now there have been technological constraints on the amount of censorship possible at the router level In the network now taking shape in China those constraints will be largely eliminated making censorship more a matter of politics than of technology Given the choice will China move toward the openness of say South Korea Or will it become something not yet seen in the postindustrial age a closed capitalist colossus No one now can say China39s telecom and Internet infrastructure already is so mammoth the authorities must wonder if they can really control it China Telecom is the largest phone company in the world with about 190 million users Its ChinaNet subsidiary is the country39s biggest Internet service provider Almost 100 million Chinese are online and analysts predict the number will triple by 2008 All that traffic has outpaced capacity so China39s Internet is now a bottleneck to the country39s massive push toward greater industrialization Without stateof theart phone and Internet networks the myriad routine exchanges that keep a technologybased economy humming start to break down Bank fund transfers are slower and less reliable videoconferences falter and email gets lost Supply chains become weaker for importers such as WalMart Inc in Bentonville Ark which bought 18 billion worth of goods last year from thousands of Chinese suppliers and for exporters such as the Haier Group in Qingdao which sells its refrigerators and other appliances in 160 countries But the Internet in China as it is everywhere is more than a development tool It39s also the main medium for political speech organizing and social networking 2 0f1071205 1218 PM Feature Arti cl e httpwww r quotIt39s a dilemma for the Chinese leadersquot notes Xiao Qiang who left China after the 1989 Tiananmen Square prodemocracy uprising and now directs the Berkeley China Internet Project at the University of California at Berkeley39s graduate school ofjournalism quotOn the one handquot Xiao says quotthey need a competitive economic development environment and you cannot do that without the latest communications technologies they are indispensable for a globally competitive economy On the other hand there39s the explosive nature of communications technologies which cause much greater freedom of expressionquot Today a vast sophisticated and multifaceted program of control has evolved to monitor China39s Internet It blocks access to banned sites and uses a long and continually updated collection of keyword filters that prevent Chinese citizens from viewing sites deemed pornographic or subversive In addition Internet service providers and Internet cafes see photos quotCafe Societyquot and quotChina Onlinequot are subject to numerous state regulations Tens of thousands of dedicated quotInternet Policequot reportedly do nothing but enforce those regulations a special police force that has no parallel elsewhere in the world Yet in the shadowy struggle that Internet censorship has become the censors39 first line of defense will surely be the routers and other machines that filter what Chinese users can see online As the flow of data coursing through China39s Internet becomes as wide as the Yangtze River the government will need to raise its barriers to free speech to the height ofthe Three Gorges Dam UNDERSTANDING HOW Internet censorship works in China and how long it can go on requires some background on the country39s networks and plans China Telecom39s current network dates back to 1994 which doesn39t sound so long ago But it has been a busy 11 years think Netscape and Napster eBay and Amazon Yahoo and Google Today with fiberoptic cable snaking through the Chinese countryside torrentially firing data at those routers and servers the machines are being overloaded see quotWiring SmallTown Chinaquot in this issue In addition China39s decadeold Internet infrastructure wasn39t designed to stream data for fastgrowing applications such as Internet telephony voice over IP video on demand and Webbased radio Those applications are far more sensitive to network congestion than are email and static Web pages You don39t really care if a Web page takes 5 seconds to paint across your monitor screen But even 1second gaps in a telephone conversation orvideo feed are annoying especially if they happen repeatedly China Telecom39s CN2 project is designed to solve such problems For example CN2 will introduce a feature known as multiprotocol label switching which tags timesensitive packets of data that are part of a streaming video clip or voiceoverIP call The tags let the routers know that those packets should get a higher priority than the ones that make up email or a static Web page It is also incorporating the nextgeneration Internet protocol IPv6 which adds security features helpful to ecommerce The groundwork for CN2 was laid in mid2004 when China Telecom39s Research Institute in Beijing took bids from many of the world39s largest telecommunications equipment suppliers Juniper Networks Cisco and other firms offered up their burliest machines mainframe class routers costing around 100 000 each and capable of moving a trillion bits of data per second In the vast postal system that is the Internet routers are the post offices directing streams of data that have been grouped into packets The packets flow into a router and are then hurtled out to others closer to their eventual destination It39s a firemen39s bucket brigade with bytes instead of water Generally bigger and faster is better in the router world not least because the tens hundreds or thousands of data packets that make up an email message or Web page might be forwarded a dozen times or more from router to router before finally milliseconds later showing up half a world away 3 0f1071205 1218 PM Feature Arti cl e httpwww r Up to now Cisco which first came to China in 1994 has dominated the router market there with as much as a 70 percent share in 2003 For CN2 though China Telecom awarded six contracts splitting them up among Alcatel Cisco Huawei and Juniper The roles the four companies will play in CN2 can be understood only in terms ofthe distinctive structure of China39s Internet It is highly centralized with three layers which can be thought of as concentric rings The innermost ring consists of core routers to be built by Juniper a surprise choice for this key contract given its late entry into the Chinese market They are expected to be as sophisticated as any in the world The core routers being installed in eight large strategically located cities including Beijing Shanghai and Chengdu are the principal means by which data packets will cross from one region to another or make their way to the outside world The outermost of the three rings consists of routers located throughout China CN2 awarded Cisco a nationwide contract for these devices called edge routers which businesses and institutions will use to make their highspeed connections to one another and to the world If the core routers are the interchanges ofthe autobahns of China39s Internet the edge routers are the intersections to its local streets The middle ring consists of metropolitanarea networks the network39s state and county roads CN2 will upgrade routers in at least 193 ofthe nation39s largest cities dividing China39s provinces autonomous regions and municipalities into four regions and giving each ofthe four vendors its own territory Thus CN2 gave Juniper and Cisco two contracts each nationwide ones for core and edge routers respectively plus regional contracts Alcatel and Huawei each got only regional contracts see map quotSix Contracts Four Companies Although in most countries Internet traffic ends up flowing through a relatively small number of routers China39s network is centralized by design instead of by economic evolution Moreover in China almost uniquely most traffic including all its international traffic is effectively under state control Data sent by a restaurant in a remote village that is buying pigs from a farm two towns over might not travel through the metropolitan network But most data whether it39s a request for a Web page in Australia or an email message to a colleague 500 kilometers away would go through one or more metropolitan networks be pushed through a core router and go from there across the country or to the outside world How will censorship work with four different companies39 products According to Seth Finkelstein a Cambridge Mass network programmer and an expert on Internet censorship routerbased censorship can and does take place at any point in the network Each of the routers in the CN2 contract in all three rings can be expected to access a database of banned names and words either within the router itself or in a subsidiary server connected to the router Those subsidiary computers known as proxy servers can be ordinary PCs and they39re notjust in China they39re everywhere today Corporations use them to keep employees from shopping online or playing games during working hours Internet companies like AOL use them to create quotfamily friendlyquot spaces online free of pornography Libraries in many countries including the United States are required to use similar blocking lists to keep pornography away from underage viewers China39s mechanisms of censorship have been widely scrutinized most notably in a 2002 study by the Berkman Center for Internet amp Society at Harvard Law School in Cambridge Mass quotThe primary and most longstanding means of blocking is at the router levelquot says Derek Bambauer a resident fellow at the center who participated in an April 2005 followup study as part of a project called the OpenNet Inititative 4 0f1071205 1218 PM Feature Arti cl e httpwww r Since 1998 at least Cisco has been developing and selling equipment that was designed to help China Telecom comply with government censorship claims journalist Ethan Gutmann author of the 2004 book Losing the New China A Story ofArnerican Commerce Desire and Betrayal In an interview Gutmann reiterated a charge documented in his book that China quotcould not have controlled this radical new means of communication without overwhelming technical assistance from North American corporationsquot In his book he quotes among other sources unnamed Cisco representatives and a nonCisco Internet engineer identified only as Wen who all claim that Cisco modified its equipment and software at the censors39 bidding A Cisco spokesman responded that the company rejects Gutmann39s assertions quotHe has never produced one shred of evidence to support his claimsquot the spokesman insisted Elsewhere too Cisco has flatly denied any complicity in Chinese censorship In response to a challenge by an activist shareholder two years ago Cisco declared that the products it sells in China quotdo not contain any detection or monitoring capabilities which are different from the products the company sells to anyone anywhere else in the worldquot And indeed today most routers are designed to work with proxy servers without further modification IN THE EARLY DAYS of China39s Internet the mid1990s the routers had to shoulder the entire censorship burden The censorship was unsurprisingly simpler than it is these days and more heavyhanded with the routers doing nothing more than blocking IP addresses An IP address is a string of numbers separated by decimal points such as 19216814124 It is the main identifier used for personal computers routers and all other nodes on the Internet Domain names such as ieeeorg are translated into the appropriate IP addresses by a parallel network of servers called domainname servers within the Internet Because routers recognize only numerical IP addresses blocking a domain such as xamaxcomau or a specific Web address URL such as www xamaxcom auCVRC html at the router requires a separate entity a proxy server Domain name and URL filtering can be done within the device that does the routing but network designers usually assign that taskto a separate process The proxy server can reside within the device or be an external computer attached to it In a network39s design the proxy server resides between the Web surfer39s PC and the targeted server A typical purpose is caching it stores frequently requested Web pages so that when for example millions of people want to view the latest Olympics results the relevant Internet server isn39t overwhelmed But because their basic function is to intercept requests proxy servers are also routinely used to block access an application known in this context as filtering Here the proxy server intercepts requests to a domainname server finds the domain name that39s being sought and checks it against a table of forbidden URLs or domains If the requested address is on the list the proxy then quottells a liequot says the Australian National University39s Clarke quotIt returns an IP address which is willfully incorrectquot When the request is forwarded to that incorrect IP address the server responds correctly that the requested page isn39t available there No one outside ofthe involved officials themselves knows for sure ifthat is how Internet censorship is done in China but outside experts have little doubt quotIt39s the most likely techniquequot Clarke says adding quotI39ve had some students assess whether it is a breach of international law It is of course a rather hazy issuequot TODAY THERE39S A CATANDMOUSE GAME between the authorities and publishers of Webpages deemed offensive After having its Web pages added to the forbidden list a publisher has two options put the content on a new server with a new IP address or leave it where it is and acquire a replacement IP address Either way surfers eventually find the new IP address So however do the authorities who then add the new address to the forbidden list The game took a twist in the late 1990s when the government erected what has come to be called the Great Firewall of China It introduced a whole new form of censorship by using proxy servers to inspect URLs themselves for words that indicate banned topics such as quotfalunquot in httpfwww faluninfo net The URL request passes through the first of many routers on its way to the Web server wwwfauninfonet It39s a simple matter for the router to also pass the URL through the proxy which looks for the banned string of letters Once it finds it the proxy gets in touch with a Web server that has been set up to mimic the servers containing 5 0f1071205 1218 PM Feature Arti cl e httpwww r banned content The masquerading Web server then sends an innocuous error message File not foundquot or quotService unavailablequot back to the surfer who requested the banned page ZHAO ZIYANG39S DEATH N JANUARY WAS IGNORED BY NEWSPAPERS AND TELEVISION BUT NOT ON THE NET That39s not all The proxy server also might note the IP address ofthe computer that requested the forbidden page and suspend all transactions from that machine for a while Here the game gets downright Byzantine To shield themselves from identification surfers sometimes take countermeasures Their tool of choice is none other than another kind of proxy server Suppose someone has helpfully placed one ofthese anonymizing proxies on the Web and left it open for anyone to use Recall that a proxy can sit between the surfer and the Web server that has the pages the surfer wants The anonymizing proxy lets the user enter a desired URL such as httpwwwhrichinaorg as a field in a Web form which the censoring proxy server can39t see it only sees the user innocuously interacting with the anonymizing proxy That is the censoring proxy sees URLs that look like this httpslwww proxywebnetl The actual page request to wwwhrichinaorg comes from the anonymizing proxy proxywebnet which is typically located outside of China and is therefore beyond the reach of Chinese censorship Proxyweb net is a service of Aaex Corp Nassau Bahamas So the user gets to see the Web page in this case wwwhrichinaorg39s home page after all It shows up as a frame on a page provided by the anonymizing proxy in this case https wwwproxywebnetantilogphp The OpenNet Initiative investigators don39t believe that routerbased filters are looking deeply within packets of data for banned keywords quotThere are no technical problems with doing thatquot says researcher Bambauer quotBut it would place an enormous load on the routersquot So the CN2 upgrade to the router infrastructure might enable the authorities to employ even more keyword filtering than is done now Sites that deal with banned topics but avoid banned keywords in their domain names generally don39t fool China39s censors for long thanks to the Internet police When they find such sites they put the addresses on the blocking lists The Internet police force established just five years ago has between 30 000 and 50 000 officers says Xiao ofthe Berkeley China Internet Project quotAccording to government publications it operates in 700 citiesquot he adds quotEvery police department has a division called lnternet Police just like it has traffic or fire police The Internet police investigate lnternet crimes such as viruses and online matters concerning financial security pornography and politically sensitive materialsquot BLOCKED POLITICAL sites are generally inaccessible for months not minutes That was the experience of Yan ShamShackleton a resident of Hong Kong who goes by the Internet nom de guerre Glutter Girl and writes a blog about China39s underground democracy movement see photo quotBanned in Beijingquot Hong Kong is located just outside the virtual gates ofthe Great Firewall On her birthday last year she wrote quotMy 30th Birthday Wish Democracy in Chinaquot That entry got her blog at httpwww glutler org banned in China for several months As a protest she altered its design putting white text on a black background In sympathy a hundred or so sites around the world also reversed their layouts and 39Went blackquot an action that in turn was noticed on the discussion site Slashdot ShamShackleton says Slashdot itself one of the most popular locales on the Internet was unviewable for a time within China As of midApril the Glutter Girl blog was filled with photographs memorializing former premierZhao Ziyang a hero to students and intellectuals for having opposed the violent1989 crackdown at Tiananmen Square His death in January was deliberately ignored by Chinese newspapers and television but generated a lot of traffic on the Net quotThere were thousands and thousands of messages on Chinese bulletin boardsquot ShamShackleton says But they had to be surreptitious avoiding any direct mention of Zhao quotA typical one was 39My 7 0f1071205 1218 PM Microsoft and the Commoditization of Software httpwwwsynthesistnetwritingoneavingmshtm home 2barns book writing 1 of4 22403 1014 AM Microsoft and the Commoditization of Software httpwwwsynthesistnetwritingoneavingmshtml Advice to Microsoft regarding commodity software 1 2003 David Stutz The market for shrink wrap PC software began its slow upmarket ooze into Christensen obsolescence right around the time that Microsoft really hit its stride That was also the time of the Internet wave a phenomenon that Microsoft co opted without ever really internalizing into product wisdom While those qualified to move the state of the art forward went down in the millennial flames of the dotcom crash Microsoft39s rigorous belief in the physics of business reality saved both the day and the profits But the tide had turned and a realization that quotthe netquot was a far more interesting place than quotthe PCquot began to creep into the heads of consumers and enterprises alike During this period most core Microsoft products missed the Internet wave even while claiming to be leading the parade Office has yet to move past the document abstraction despite the world39s widespread understanding that websites HTML H I39I39P various embedded content types and Apache mods are very useful things Windows has yet to move past its PC centric roots to capture a significant part of the larger network space although it makes a hell of a good client Microsoft developer tools have yet to embrace the loosely coupled mindset that today39s leading edge developers apply to work and play Microsoft39s reluctance to adopt networked ways is understandable Their advantaged position has been built over the years by adhering to the tenet that software running on a PC is the natural point at which to integrate hardware and applications Unfortunately network protocols have turned out to be a far better fit for this middleman role and Microsoft intent on propping up the PC franchise has had to resist fully embracing the network integration model This corporate case of denial has left a vacuum of course into which hardware companies enterprises and disgruntled Microsoft wannabes have poured huge quantities of often inferior but nonetheless requirements driven open source software Microsoft still builds the world39s best client software but the biggest opportunity is no longer the client It still commands the biggest margin but networked software will eventually eclipse client only software As networked computing infrastructure matures the PC client business will remain important in the same way that automotive manufacturers rail carriers and phone companies remained important while their own networks matured The PC form factor will push forward the Pocket PC the Tablet PC and other forms will emerge But automakers railroads and phone companies actually manufacture their products rather than selling intangible bits on a CD to hardware partners Will Microsoft continue to convince its partners that software is distinctly valuable by itself Or will the commodity nature of software turn the industry on its head The hardware companies who actually manufacture the machines smell blood in the water and the open source software movement is the result Especially in a maturing market software expertise still matters and Microsoft may very well be able to sidestep irrelevance as it has in the past The term quotPC franchisequot is not just a soundbite the number of programs written for the PC that do something useful drive a loom control a milling machine create a spreadsheet template edit a recording is tremendous But to continue leading the pack Microsoft must innovate quickly If the PC is all that the future holds then growth prospects are bleak I39ve spent a lot of time during the last few years participating in damage control of various sorts and I respect the need for serious adult supervision Recovering from current external perceptions of Microsoft as a paranoid untrustworthy greedy petty and politically inept organization will take years Being the lowest cost commodity producer during 2 of4 22403 1014 AM Microsoft and the Commoditization of Software 3of4 such a recovery will be arduous and will have the side effect of changing Microsoft into a place where creative managers and accountants rather than visionaries will call the shots If Microsoft is unable to innovate quickly enough or to adapt to embrace network based integration the threat that it faces is the erosion of the economic value of software being caused by the open source software movement This is not just Linux Linux is certainly a threat to Microsoft39s less than perfect server software right now and to its desktop in the not too distant future but open source software in general running especially on the Windows operating system is a much bigger threat As the quality of this software improves there will be less and less reason to pay for core software only assets that have become stylized categories over the years Microsoft sells OFFICE the suite while people may only need a small part of Word or a bit of Access Microsoft sells WINDOWS the platform but a small org might just need a website or a fileserver It no longer fits Microsoft39s business model to have many individual offerings and to innovate with new application software Unfortunately this is exactly where free software excels and is making inroads One size fits all one app is all you need one api and damn the torpedoes has turned out to be an imperfect strategy for the long haul Digging in against open source commoditization won39t work it would be like digging in against the Internet which Microsoft tried for a while before getting wise Any move towards cutting off alternatives by limiting interoperability or integration options would be fraught with danger since it would enrage customers accelerate the divergence of the open source platform and have other undesirable results Despite this Microsoft is at risk of following this path due to the corporate delusion that goes by many names quotbetter togetherquot quotunified platformquot and quotintegrated softwarequot There is false hope in Redmond that these outmoded approaches to software integration will attract and keep international markets governments academics and most importantly innovators safely within the Microsoft sphere of influence But they won39t Exciting new networked applications are being written Time is not standing still Microsoft must survive and prosper by learning from the open source software movement and by borrowing from and improving its techniques Open source software is as large and powerful a wave as the Internet was and is rapidly accreting into a legitimate alternative to Windows It can and should be harnessed To avoid dire consequences Microsoft should favor an approach that tolerates and embraces the diversity of the open source approach especially when network based integration is involved There are many clever and motivated people out there who have many different reasons to avoid buying directly into a Microsoft proprietary stack Microsoft must employ diplomacy to woo these accounts stubborn insistence will be both counterproductive and ineffective Microsoft cannot prosper during the open source wave as an island with a defenses built out of litigation and proprietary protocols Why be distracted into looking backwards by the commodity cloners of open source Useful as cloning may be for price sensitive consumers the commodity business is low margin and high risk There is a new frontier where software quotcollectivesquot are being built with ad hoc protocols and with clustered devices Robotics and automation of all sorts is exposing a demand for sophisticated new ways of thinking Consumers have an unslakable thirst for new forms of entertainment And hardware vendors continue to push towards architectures that will fundamentally change the way that software is built by introducing fine grained concurrency that simply cannot be ignored There is no clear consensus on systems or application models for these areas Useful software written above the level of the single device will command high margins for a long time to come Stop looking over your shoulder and invent something httpwwwsynthesistnetwritingoneavingmshtml 22403 1014 AM A Short History of Humanity William H McNeill During the twentieth century the physical sciences converged with biology in transforming the Newtonian world machine governed by eternal universal and mathematical laws into an evolv ingindeed explodingcosmos where uncertainty prevails and human efforts at observation affect what is observed This brings the mathematical sciences closer to the social sciences and turns his tory into another kind of black hole from which no branch of knowledge can now escape Few historians have so far paid attention to this extraordinary intellectual transformation but sure ly it is time for the historical profession to broaden its inherited aspiration to achieve quotscientificquot history through criticism of sources and the like and try to connect human affairs with this revised scientific portrait of evolving reality by fitting the human career on earth into its cosmic biological and social context My own ideas of how this might be done are unlikely to carry very far but let me sketch them anyhow in hope of provoking others to do better1 What makes us different from other forms of life is our capacity to invent a world of shared feelings and symbolic meanings and then act upon them in concert Across the millennia of human life on earth cooperative effort among larger and larger numbers of human beings proved capable of get ting desired results more or less dependably Moreover agreedupon meanings associated with any new skill or idea that worked better than previous ones tended to spread and alter the way humans did things Shared meanings in other words were capable of rapid evolution radically outpacing older biological processes of genetic mutation and selective survival But the process of symbolic evolution does not appear to be fundamentally very different from biological evolution any more than biological evolution was fundamentally very different from the physical and chemical evolu tion of the cosmos that preceded and sustained it How did symbols arise and acquire such powers How is agreement on symbolic meanings sus tained among groups of human beings And how do agreedupon meanings that provoke unusually satisfactory actions cross cultural boundaries between different human societies These are the critical questions for a satisfactorily scientific human history or so it seems to me Let me reck lessly suggest a few tentative answers First how did we acquire our strangeil am tempted to say magical powers and learn to five within a symbolic universe of our own invention I start by assuming that the processes propelling organic evolution apply to the human species as much as to any other life form Accordingly before fully human societies arose I imagine that effective cooperation among a large number of individuals was a critical factor promoting the survival of our ancestors on the savannas of Africa where hu man evolution seems to have centered I also believe that the first notable innovation allowing large bands to stick together which started protohumans along an evolutionary path that diverged from the one followed by our closest relatives the chimpanzees was the invention of rhythmic voicing and dance As I argued in my book Keeping Together in Time rhythmic voicing and dance had the effect of dissipating personal rivalries and enhancing a warm feeling of togetherness among participants as community song and dance and other rhythmic exercisesiaerobics marching in step grandstand cheering and the likestill do As a result large bands sustained by the emotional side effects of voicing and dance were capable of cooperating more effectually Indeed those who engaged in such exercises had such great advantages that only bands that learned to dance and make sounds together were able to survive Rhythmically voiced sound and dance thus became a distinguishing 1 This article is based on a lecture quotPassing Strange The Convergence of the Sciences in the Twentieth Cen turyquot delivered at a conference quotThe World 2000 held in Austin Texas February 1012 2000 William H McNeill A Short History of Humanity New YarkReview afBaaks XLVIIll June 291999 9ll gt9 1 human trait since the members of no other species ever spontaneously invented this way to express themselves and strengthen social bonds in doing so Large bands in turn provided the setting within which voiced signals developed into articulate speech and grammatical languages introducing another and very powerful way to make coopera tion more exact and exible among large numbers of persons Language needless to say also be came universal among human communities and its power to shape consciousness and focus attention on some aspects of a situation while dismissing others as trivial meant that the continu ing importance of song and dance for sustaining human communities was almost entirely obscured Words do not easily describe the emotional affects of keeping together in time and we still fumble when trying to explain what happens to human brains and bodies when we sing and dance None theless it seems to me that the evolutionary advantages that accrued to human communities from the introduction of language were fundamentally similar to those previously arising from rhythmic voicing and dance to wit more effective cooperation across time and space and among larger num bers of persons than had been possible before The behavioral effects of language are familiar First and foremost it defined what ought to be done in daily life by reducing proper behavior to rules that are communicated to infants by voice and gesture and sustained among adults by gossip Human societies thereupon became automated so to speak by custom Effective response in different circumstances was usually guaranteed by conforming to traditional rules of behavior and frictions were minimized because everyone knew what to expect of one another in all ordinary situations Customary rules expressed in words there fore minimized quarrels maximized effective cooperation and allowed increasingly complex di vision of labor among indefinitely large numbers of individuals who spoke the same language But language also has a contrary power facilitating invention of new kinds of behavior whenever experience disappoints expectation This arises from the fact that language allows us to move to and fro in imagined time remembering useful things from the past and planning what to do in the future On the one hand planning makes concerted action more precise since by talking things over in advance different roles can be assigned to different individuals and rules for sharing the results of specialized cooperative behavior can be laid down in advance But acting consciously on the basis of verbally formulated rules and expectations has its pitfalls Hopes and expectations can and sometimes do diverge from experience Disappointment in turn invites and sometimes com pels revising plans and altering behavior accordingly An impulse to innovate which still prevails among us thus arose starting humankind an a path of technological and cultural change that tended to accelerate as knowledge and tools became more complex powerful and correspondingly prone to error Abrupt increase in the variability of delib erately shaped stone tools which set in sometime between 60000 and 40000 years ago may be the archaeological residue of what happened when humans first began to use fully developed lan guage to make plans and as a result also started to make mistakes and their tried to correct them by deliberately altering the way they did things Language is so powerful and pervasive in human lives that it seems right to say that our ancestors became fully human only when they began to use language and act not on the basis of sensory stim uli alone but in accordance with plans and hopes and verbally formulated ideas about themselves and everything around them A prolonged tangled and repetitive exchange of verbal messages still turns infants into human beings as parents of any twoyearold can attest And once the human plane of facetoface verbal coordination of most everyday behavior had been achieved major sub sequent landmarks of our history depended principally on improvements in communication that al lowed messages to travel farther and more accurately across time and distance than spoken words ordinarily do Always it was networks of messages delivered in verbal form supplemented by gesture and some times solemnized by ritual that created and sustained local human communities and the particular William H McNeill A Short History of Humanity New YarkReview afBaaks XLVHll June 291999 9ll gt9 2 meanings transmitted back and forth de ned relationships and expectations among participants It was in small groups whether hunting bands pastoralists or agricultural villages that most peo ple lived and died This was where until almost the day before yesterday facetoface communi cation assured biological and cultural continuity even though an increasing proportion of these primary communities came to be incorporated into larger communication networks centered in cit ies and sustaining what we call civilizations Civilizations brought strangers together and separated classes of people living side by side into dis tinct semiautonomous groupings Priests and rulers warriors and artisans merchants and travelers masters and servants lived very differently from one another yet all depended on exchanges of goods and services regulated by customary rules on the one hand and on the other by demograph ic and material limits on supply and demand As compared to primary communities urbanbased civilizations were and still are tumultuous and unstable social structures but they were also more powerful coordinating the actions of larger numbers of persons partly by obedience to deliberate commands and partly by negotiated more or less voluntary exchanges of goods and services Larger numbers working together whether willingly or unwillingly deliberately or inadvertently had the same effect that cooperation within larger bands of more or less undifferentiated individuals had had at the beginning of human history In other words civilized forms of society exerted power over the natural environs and over much larger human numbers than more homogeneous societies were able to do Ever since the first civ ilizations arose civilized social complexity therefore tended to spread until in our own time almost all humankind is caught up in a single global system exchanging messages furiously fast and up setting traditional ways of life almost everywhere For all practical purposes details of how small roving bands that experienced only sporadic outside contacts evolved into today39s One World are infinite and the happenstance of surviving documen tation means that much of what mattered most will never be definitely known But an appropriately imaginative historian can hope to discern major landmarks in the civilizing process by focusing on breakthroughs in communication and transport that altered the range and ow of messages among human populations and thereby accelerated the propagation of novelties far and wide that met hu man wishes or wants better than before Here I can only sketch what I surmise to have been major steps ofthis process From the beginning people walked and ran This is what allowed hunters and gatherers to spread across most of the earth within as little as 50000 to 60000 years From the start adjacent bands encountered one another from time to time and intermittent clashes over territorial boundaries were probably chronic Rut bands also met peaceably on festival occasions to dance and sing and used such occasions to exchange mates and information Such gatherings constituted a sporadic ge netic and communications network that allowed humankind to remain a single species despite its worldwide dispersion Seepage from band to band could also propagate new techniques and ideas across long distances Ile spread of bows and arrows is one partially known example Invented in EurasiaAfrica some time between 30000 and 15000 years agono one yet can say wherebows spread very widely and when Eskimos brought the device across the Bering Strait about 100 CE bows began to spread through the Americas also The process was still going on in 1492 when Europeans arrived in the Caribbean and encountered raiding parties of seafaring bowwielding Caribs from South America bent on attacking people in the Caribbean islands who lacked these formidable weapons Seepage by means of overland contact with neighborswhether peaceable or violentwas compar atively slow as the diffusion of archery shows But when people first learned to use paddles and sails to propel rafts and boats possibilities for longrange encounters opened up along the coasts of easily navigable seas Almost certainly parts of Southeast Asia and especially the offshore is lands of Indonesia were the principal sites of this breakthrough A vague horizon for seafaring is William H McNeill A Short History of Humanity New YarkReview afBaaks XLVIIll June 291999 9ll gt9 3 established by the fact that people who reached Australia some 40000 years ago and perhaps even earlier than that must have used some sort of otation device to get there But wooden rafts and ships seldom leave archaeological traces and since melting glaciers subsequently raised sea levels substantially early coastal settlements in Southeast Asia and everywhere else have been inundated Still it seems clear that at an early time sailing vessels began to exploit the reversible monsoon winds to sail to and fro in Southeast Asia and along the shores of the Indian Ocean Such seafaring was well developed by the time Sumerian records offer a glimpse of the sea network that connected the land of Sumer at the head of the Persian Gulf with Indus and Egyptian societiesand with a wid er world of seagoing peoples beyond Sumerian cities in fact arose where this sea network connected up with a newer network of cara van PortageDonkeys the first important caravan animal were domesticated about seven thousand years ago but since caravan management was almost as complicated as seafaring it presumably took a while for overland portage to become significant But when local peoples learned that letting caravans pass for a negotiated protection fee assured a better supply of exotic and desirable items than plundering them did overland portage across relatively long distances began to connect di verse populations more insistently than before And it is surely not an accident that it was in Sumer where an already ancient seagoing network intermeshed with a newly accessible hinterland that the first cities arose between 4000 and 3000 BCE Goods and ideas moved along these communi cations networks and where they converged the Sumerians were in an optimal position to pick and choose elaborating and improving upon skills and knowledge coming from far and near Sumerian achievements such as writing metallurgy wheeled vehicles and an impressive religion spread outward along the same networks For example on distant northern steppes IndoEuropean herdsmen accepted the Sumerian pantheon of seven high godssky earth thunderstorm sun moon fresh water and salt water And with subsequent adjustments their Aryan Greek Latin Celtic German and Slavic descendants carried this pagan pantheon with them into India and across Europe Similarly wheeled vehicles in the form of twowheeled chariots reached China by 1400 BCE and helped to consolidate the power of the Shang dynasty But of all Sumerian innovations their resort to writing was perhaps the most significant since it added a new dimension to information storage and retrieval Being more capacious enduring and reliable than human memory written records allowed priests and rulers to collect and disburse indefinitely large quantities of material goods ac cording to deliberate rules As a result government became more powerful commands became more enforcible even at a distance and coordinated effort among thousands and eventually mil lions of persons became routine Writing also assisted longdistance trade as ancient files of letters exchanged between families of merchants in Anatolia and Assur show Their caravans connected distant peoples and local rulers with the heartland of Mesopotamian civilization and assured relatively rapid transmission of infor mation back and forth Ships moving across the southern seas and after about 5000 BCE through the Mediterranean as well did the same Human societies thereby acquired something resembling a nervous system carrying messages stimulating innovations and accelerating social change all along their routes In due course early centers of civilized complexity also arose in China and India and around the shores of the Mediterranean From the start these new centers of civilizations were in slender con tact with one another and the Americas saw comparable forms of civilized society emerge about two millennia later But the EurasianAfrican web of communication always remained larger more highly skilled and more powerful than any other constellation of human societies A few cursory remarks about how links connecting Eurasian populations with one another became inescapable and more efficient will show why that was so William H McNeill A Short History of Humanity New YarkReview afBaaks XLVIIll June 291999 9ll gt9 4 Caravans became more capacious when larger animals were induced to carry heavier loads first mules then camels Domesticated camels only became available in suitably large numbers after about 200 CE and by dint of their ability to cross deserts and feed on wildgrowing forage along the way transport by camel caravans became remarkably cheap and farranging They brought much of Africa into regular contact with Eurasian peoples and made the deserts and grasslands of Central Asia and the Middle East into a highway that tied China the Middle East India and Eu rope into a single interacting whole Shipping and navigation also improved across the centuries following rather different technical paths in Paci c and Atlantic waters Yet the upshot was similar after about 900 CE allweather Chinese and European ships started to sail routinely even across stormy seas thereby reinforcing the interconnectedness of EurasiaAfricathat camel caravans sustained Then when European sea men deciphered the wind patterns of the Atlantic within a single generation between 1492 and 1522 they began to sail across all the oceans of the earth and soon converted every inhabited coastline and its hinterland into a globally interacting whole Military technology and organization also played a parallel role by spreading information and es tablishing advanced practices wherever raiding parties or invading armies penetrated Needless to say warfare was destructive always But destruction sometimes cleared the way for reconstruc tion along more effective lines This it seems to me is the basic upshot of political history with which most historians have been principally concerned The story is too long for me to enter into here but it is clear that the Eurasian grasslands from Manchuria to Hungary became the seat of nomad horsemen whose cavalry raids into settled agricultural lands challenged civilized armed forces and governments from shortly before 700 BCE until the Manchu conquest of China in 1644 brought steppe conquests to an end These same nomads with their herds of domestic animals were very hospitable to caravans as well This meant that raid and trade supplemented one another throughout the Eurasian steppes and deserts and the resulting exchanges among groups both peaceable and violent tended to accelerate the diffusion of new practices that somehow satisfied human wants and needs better than before Finally what about truth and beauty Religion Science Art These dimensions of our lives also contributed to human satisfaction and survival and evolved across time in response to conscious choices Precise formulations varied widely and attachment to local tradition was usually very strong But on the whole people still prefer truth to falsehood and beauty to ugliness whenever they recognize the difference And every so often a new doctrine a new system of thought or some more modest rearrangement of signs and symbolsia new idea or style of artstruck home and was accepted as being clearly better than anything previously known The spread of the Sumerian pan theon among IndoEuropean tribesmen is an early example and the spread of Newtonian astrono my around the earth is a more modern case in point Ideas in fact are among the most contagious aspects of human culture even though when trans lated into a new language and required to fit into a different social context they have a chameleon capacity to change meaning sometimes only slightly sometimes radically Technological innova tions are almost as contagious as ideas and they too alter their meaning and importance when crossing linguistic and cultural boundaries Printing for example split European culture apart by juxtaposing Christian and classical pagan learning with a ood of new and often incompatible in formation about the wider world whereas in China where printing had originated several centuries before it reached Europe the effect was to consolidate traditional literary and intellectual culture by assuring wider access to Confucian and other classical texts This is an extreme example of how different contexts can alter the effect of a given technique Nonetheless it suggests that uniformity will never arise among human societies however closely modern communications may connect them About the worldchanging destructiveconstructive consequences of more recent advances in com munication much has been said and I forebear from comment on the formidable array starting William H McNeill A Short History of Humanity New YarkReview afBaaks XLVII11 June 291999 911 gt9 5 Handling Information The Structure and Functioning of Computers and Networks an introduction R002va noel Scmoloflnfovmaflon SW svsocllo lnfrodmfbnfo Information n21 I 2005 Robert L Frost smelleer um pleasecne Monday September 17 2007 l Goals of This Module 9 How computers and networks are structured and how they operate critical cost issues for deployments 9 How those structures inadvertently create bottlenecks that can be exploited by the greedy or powerhungry 9 The importance of technological standards in terms of serving users and focusing innovation 9 open or expert standards vs proprietary standards 9 notthe same as open source which we also address 9 A brief view of emerging possibilities in computing and networks 9 cognitive communities 9 emergent machine intelligence computers thinking on their own 9 a systematic creation of a virtual world parallel to the real world Robert L noel saw of Information W a a svsocllo lnfvodmmnfo lnfovmamn ll2ll 2005 Robert L Frost smelleer um pleasecne Monday September 17 2007 Why are We Getting Technical Now 9 Facing the IT revolution since about 1980 basic practices and rules of the game in information and knowledge delivery are transformed and traditional practices are rendered obsolete 9 In order to understand the new terrain we need to know some basics about IT networks and communication infrastructures QThis will be tough for some boring for others so please let us now 9A few questions in an informal poll 9 How many know what an API is 9 The difference between bitmaps and vectors 9 The concept of abstraction layers 9 What a BIOS is R002va noel Scmoloflnfovmaflon SW svsocllo lnfrodmfbnfo Information n2 2 2005 Robert L Frost smelleer um pleasecne Monday September I7 2007 Defining Digital 9 A world of toggles differences in kind desno and the spinouts from truth tables 9 Compare to analog differences in degree 9 Sound 9 Language 9 Images 9 How the brain fills in missing information 9 How robust How scalable How replicable 9 Compare LPs to CDs 9 Pattern recognition R002va noel Scmolol Information 2005 Robert L Frost svsocllo lnfrodwmnfo Information l2n Slum smelleer um pleasecne Monday September I7 2007 Can your PC identify this guy swatmmmmh mm m Manm fi Sewamhar i7 mm Side 5 5m Mama at 5 Adldisadvantages of digitallty Precise reproducible wellrdeflned vs Nonrllnear elusive busy poorat generalities amp Interpretation have to sample and reconstruct to approximate continuity smi tn hwdmlmhhn m l quot6 Sure Amman ftnm 5 av Sevtamher mm Computers and Brains A Spurious Comparison QAnalogous or separate but equal QThe failed promises of arti cial intelligencequot 9 The Turing test oAgenda adaptation to intelligent agents 9Next generations com uting better fuzzy quanta parallel processing multiple modes s i il nLmm 7 mm Bi quot7 5m Mama at 7 Monday September 172oo7 The Current Laws QMoore s Law on transistor density 9 Metcalf s Law on network effects lt3Frost s Law on forces of habit but the real issue of legacy systems and practices but we hope not ple smi39in mum n nfm m rai s quot Sure nema uaai m fInmavisavtamharv m Hardware amp Software QHardware CPUs memory drives peripheral devices lO QSoftware Operating systems applications middlewarequot IAC etc 9Application Programming Interfaces APls and process communication protocols 9 Machine language and source code QSometimes the distinction is blurred ROMs used in old game machines Fromm Frost Scmolol rnrornrarron SW 2005 Fromm Frost srsocrro lrrtrodmtmrto rnrornramn rm 9 snarerrmy um pleasecne Monday Seprernber r 7 2007 Basic Computer Architecture Abstraction Layers Distributed Processing Systems Grid systems Beowolf server farms etc Middleware Java XML family Web Services NET etc Applications e mail word processing browsers Kaaza APls Patched inquot communications layer legacy Operating system Unix MacOSX Windows and hardware devrce drivers 5 a 5 Basic Booting Layer BIOS basic Input output system Saganrrnizairm rlsmngr Wm s l liam39mai39zi l Monday September 17 2007 10 Basic Computing Hardware woman an a Fromm Frost Scmolol rnrornrarron SM 2005 Fromm Frost srsocrro lrrtrodmtmrto rnrornramn ir2rr quot snarerrmy um pleasecne Monday Seprernber 17 2007 ll Problems of Standards 9 Component vs monolithic systems 9 Proprietary vs open 9 DOSWintel and Apple 9 Unix Linux and opensource 9 historical irony of the IBM PC 9 Perils of improper timing in standard setting 9 Proprietary standards and implicit monopolies 9 Conflicts in purposes 9 network machines vs standalones 9 Cost and diffusion issues 9 Divergent business models XeroxWangApple approach vs Dell Fromm Frost Scmolol rnrornrarron SW 2005 Fromm Frost srsocrro lrrtrodmtmrto rnrornramn ir2rr 2 Sharelreely um pleasecne Monday September 17 2007 12 Breaking News on Standards 9 In the third week of September 2005 the State Commonwealth of Massachusetts issued a new policy all software used by state government must read and write to an open non proprietary format 9 This means 9 Massachusetts affirms the OASIS standard set for open document format standards 9 Massachusetts will soon be no longer locked in to Microsoft s proprietary formats freeing it to use less costly software 9 Of course Microsoft is livid 9 FYI remember that there39s a difference between open standardsquot and open sourcequot RobevtL Frost Scmolol Information SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocuo lntvodwmnto lmovmamn 2 3 snaveneely 0m pleasecne Monday September 17 2007 13 Hardware I The CPU 9 Carrier waves and Hz ratings 9 Bus widths in bits bits vs Bytes 9 Registers caches and memory available to processors 9 Single vs multiprocessors 9 Pipelines and predictions RobevtL Frost Scmolol Information SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocuo lntvodwmnto lmovmamn 2 4 snaveneely 0m pleasecne Hardware active Memory 9 RAM vs ROM 9 Loading to RAM vs reading from ROM PCs vs game consoles 9 Earlier types of memory ferrite donuts 9 Memory costs 9 Memory and bus speed as a constraint 9 Virtual memory RobevtL Frost Scmolol Information SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocuo lntvodwmnto lmovmamn 2 5 snaveneely 0m pleasecne Monday September I7 2007 IA Monday September 17 2007 15 Hardware Addressing 9 Logical vs physical addresses 9 Locality annihilated to a point 9 Memory and storage mapping directories etc RobevtL Frost Scmolol Information SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocuo lntvodwmnto lmovmamn 2 9 snaveneely 0m pleasecne Monday September 17 2007 lo Hardware IV Storage 9 Types QTape floppy MO laserbased disks RAM disks 9 Speed amp purposes 9 Immediate shortterm and longterm 9 Cost constraints More on this with data preservation FronerrL Frost Scmoloi lmormatiorr SW 2005 Fronerr L Frost srsocrro lrrtrodwtmrto rnrormamrr ir2ri 7 snarerreeiy um Dieasecne Monday September r7 2007 r7 Hardware V Input Devices 9AD converters 9 Sound 9 CCDs scanners cameras 9 Perils of sampling and problems of pixellization 9 Voicerecognition and making it robust 9 Direct input devices 9 Punchcards for both data amp commands 9 Paper tape 9 Mice keyboards FronerrL Frost Scmoloi lmormatiorr SW 2005 Fronerr L Frost srsocrro lrrtrodwtmrto rnrormamrr ir2ri 8 snarerreeiy um Dieasecne How Much Easier and Faster it all is Now Did you ever wonder probably not how many punch cards would be needed to store a 3minute 128 bps mp3 music file Give up Try 36864 twenty cartons at about 10 pounds each and your cardreader would have to process 205 cards per second FronerrL Frost Scmoloi lmormatiorr SW 2005 Fronerr L Frost srsocrro lrrtrodwtmrto rnrormamrr ir2ri 9 snarerreeiy um Dieasecne Monday September 17 2007 is Monday September r7 2007 r9 Hardware VI Output Devices 9 Display papertickerl tape to monochrome to color 9 Resolution and the problem of bitmapping 9 Ripping defined 9 Printing vectors and bitmaps lineprintersLPS 9 Burners DA processors sound amp video 9 Issues of encoding encryption and compression 9 Hardware algorithms FronerrL Frost Scmoloi lmormatiorr SW 2005 Fronerr L Frost srsocrro lrrtrodwtmrto rnrormamrr ir2ri 2quot Sriareireely um pleasecne Monday September 17 2007 20 Software I Basic Architecture 9 Step 1 operating systems vs applications 9 Traditional PCera distinction current example WindowsTM s an operating system MS WordT39V39 as an application 9 It blurs 9 Mainframes 1950s80s complete systemsapps 91969present Unix services used by apps supplied by OS 9 1984 Mac Toolbox widgets used by apps supplied by OS 9 Reality is Step 2 Layers and abstractions QTypical kernel extension drivers in Unix 9 E merging 9 layers both local and through networks with coherently addressable APls 9 networked crossplatform distributed applications Grid RobeitL Frost Scmoloi invonnanon SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocim lntvodwtmito lmovmamn l2l 2 snaveneeiy um Dleasecne Monday September 17 2007 2i Software Types of Applications 9 Words texts and characters 9 Pictures frames and sounds 9 Typographical and page layout Q Databases statistics spreadsheets 9 Place based systems amp others 9 Network distance linking amp collaboration applications In a networked world means and modalities of exchange STANDARDS RobeitL Frost Scmoloi invonnanon SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocim lntvodwtmito lmovmamn Mi 2 snaveneeiy um Dleasecne Software Iquot Strategic Positions 9 Controlling the APIs or layers bottlenecking Microsoft 9 ln networked computers issues of security 9 What is an executable problems with macros 9 What s an open port an open relay 9 Proprietary vs open source 9 Bureaucracy organization and innovation 9 Irony more openness means more security 9 More on this when we cover info economics amp business RobeitL Frost Scmoloi invonnanon SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocim lntvodwtmito lmovmamn l2l 23 snaveneeiy um Dleasecne Monday September l7 2007 22 Monday September 17 2007 23 Computing Meets Communications The Internet amp Beyond 9 Comparing and contrasting POTS and packets QWhen women were switches 9A data network able to withstand nuclear war 9 DARPA Metcalfe and packetswitching 9 Wires and fibers LANS and WANS 9 Rings and Appletalk to clientserver to swarms 9 Thin clients WiFi Bluetooth and 3G phones security issues RobeitL Frost Scmoloi invonnanon SW 2005 Robert L Frost svsocim lntvodwtmito lmovmamn l2l 2 snaveneeiy um Dleasecne Monday September 17 2007 24 Announcement 2005 2006 Faculty Graduate Student Workshop on the Digital Revolution The Rackham School of Graduate Studies is sponsoring an interdisciplinary discussion and speaker series on the character of the digital revolution in information technology and its impact on society for the 20052006 academic year The faculty coordinating committee current consists of W Russell Neuman in Communication Paul Resnick and Jeff MacKieMason in SI and John Laird in EECS The University of Michigan is well known for its support of interdisciplinary initiatives In this case the primary motivation is simply a stimulating intellectual exchange among faculty grad students and a few distinguished Visitors There is signi cant student interest in expanded coursework in this area and possibly even a formal certi cation program for advanced interdisciplinary digital studies or some appropriate designation Such interdisciplinary coordination is welcome and certainly fair game but it is hoped that this enterprise will be clearly dominated by intellectual rather than administrative concerns Clearly the evolving agenda of discussion should and will be determined by the active faculty and students in the group but it was thought that a fairly detailed agenda and list of suggested speakers subject to considerable re nement and revision would be a productive way to get the discussion going The Digital Revolution Much of what we associate with the term digital revolution revolves around the interaction of social and technical processes of human communication The decline of communication costs leads to globalization and the death of distance The issue of political ethnic and cultural identity as represented in local as well as global satellite media is of great concern The web turns massaudienceoriented oneway broadcasting and publishing into interactive multicasting with smaller and more specialized and more active audiences Revolutionary developments in information technology lead to attened corporate hierarchies exiblepersonalized forms of manufacturing and a fast evolving new realm of ecommerce The currently dominant broadcast media are dependent on advertising for revenues Will advertising also sustain webbased broadcasters It is increasingly easy for digital viewers to filter out all advertising content If not advertising what will sustain an active and independent press and creative community On a more individual level of analysis interactive media and gamelike narrative structures offer special promise in the arts and in educational applications New media raise fundamental questions about attention learning and the nature of human cognitive hardwiring These are questions that attract the attention of researchers and students from a diverse collection of departments and schools at the University of Michigan Indeed it nurtures the curiosity of those from the humanities and historical traditions as well as policy and 2005 2006 Faculty Graduate Student Workshop on the Digital Revolution 2 quantitative economic and behavioral researchers and computer scientists and information system designers An incomplete but perhaps suggestive list of some key issues associated with different scholarly traditions follows Law Intellectual Property Privacy Policy Political Science Globalization and the Nation State Digital Communication and National Security Economics Online Market Dynamics Spectrum Auctions Engineering New Wireless Architectures The Scalability of TCPIP Communication Political and Cultural Impact of New Media Technology and Cultural Diversity Information Digital Libraries Information Search Technologies Education New Technologies of Pedagogy Impact of New Media on Higher Education Public Policy Regulation and Media Competition Digital Divide Business Information Technology and Productivity Online Markets Anthropology New Media and Cultural Identity Globalization Eaxmn Glahe om an m m Imp waw haxmn comaauygohezaagmatmnrcomuyjadgaxe we time I make one 2 About hall the time basto l 4 Never break down a 53511 39 m e tun lc39 cam rm SYORVHAS BEEN rowmen FOR EASVPRWHNG Country road take me to the Internet superhighway and Hrgn speed access reacnes rura Wasn vra came connecnons ty Ell smasmpoemmsmmc 12252002 EHRATA Wash 7 Orv the hghtw traf cked mam street m thws smaH rura town one store 5 H before Speed of L ght Tne connect orvs arnved due to an mnovatwe program rermrHscervt ortne pubhc power the West r r and wa extra space on berroptwc cab es owned bvpubhc power prowders Bob Lanmann a n m r n Rura e ectr cat orv was a major reason Whvwe were created ne sawd t s a rnost a pnnosopntcax thmg but tt seemed to t ngnt m WKH some or tne core reasons Bonnevme as created Washmgtorv s times nave nad H gh speed rvterrvet access forvears but ttwasn t untH rarm country about 150 rnHes east ofSeatt e tne percentage of rura Amencans now usmg tne nt rnet a rnost equa onhrve era e s tne average or 54 percent accordmg to a Commerce Department studv re eased H s nat ona veer Broadband access m rura areas can mean more tnan thanjustfast errnaH and orvhrve mowes k thew dwstance rrom tradmorva centers or earrHrvg and commerce t can he p busmesses expand and gwe schoo s Hea th care prowders and otners ruHer access to V ta techno og es Anotner Commerce Department report reguested pp 10 us senators rvc udmg mm o my PM Boston Globe Online Print it 20f3 http Wwwboston comdailyglobeZS59nationCountryiroaditake Washington Democrat Patty Murray pointed out that advanced telecommunications are becoming quotessentialquot to the development of business distance learning and telemedicine quotThe rate of deployment therefore has implications for the welfare of Americans and the economic development of our nation39s communitiesquot said the report released in 2000 quotThis is particularly true for those who live in the rural towns and countryside who can especially benefit from high speed distance defying connectionsquot In Ephrata the library now has a fast connection to the Internet In another small eastern Washington town called Chelan the local hospital is moving toward quottele radiologyquot to cut down the man hours the hospital spends driving its X rays to a larger town for analysis quotIt really is changing the way the county communicatesquot said Sarah Morford spokeswoman for the Grant County Public Utilities District which is participating in the effort Still broadband connections have been slow to reach the hinterlandsjust as electricity and later phone service were slow to reach rural America The high cost of laying the cable required to bring DSL or cable modem service to areas with widely dispersed populations had discouraged online entrepreneurs Promoters of BPA39s fiber optic cable sharing program note that the agency originally was created in the 1930s when private power companies were unwilling or unable to invest in bringing electricity to places like Ephrata In the first five years ofa fiber optic expansion program begun in 1995 EPA laid nearly 2000 miles of cable at a cost of 127 million The work is expected to continue for another 10 years A bill passed in 2000 by the state legislature allows local public power suppliers to use their extra cable space to private Internet service providers Washington has 28 public utility districts that serve a total of 17 million citizens across the state Of those 28 PUDs 16 are leasing space on the BPA39s fiber optic cable system all ofwhich plan to deliver broadband service Not everyone agrees with this approach In past years Murray has had to fight off attempts in Congress to end BPA39s program by conservatives who see government entrance into the Internet service industry as anathema to free market ideals But opposition has been abating and the White House Office of Science and Technology recently asked to meet with representatives ofthe Grant County PUD which administers Ephrata39s high speed connections The Grant County PUD runs its quotZipp Networkquot which now has about 3400 users by leasing out extra space on a fiber optic network run partly on its own cables and partly on BPA39s cables Washington has an advantage in grappling with the rural broadband issue because it has a large public power infrastructure that now can be used as the backbone for delivering high speed Internet But similar efforts are underway in other regions Rick White president of the Palo Alto Calif based lobbying group TechNet said there are about 600 other rural Internet projects going on around the country In other states he said municipalities and public utility districts use their borrowing power to construct broadband infrastructures for private companies to use 1570 409 PM RNETRSF GB 140905 9 Page 1 HANDBOOK FOR BLOGGERS AND CYBERDISSIDENTS REFQRTERS WWEEEQUT B ERg EF TB M113quot 1 1quot Emma E wwwrsforg Ppok39r I HANDBOOK FOR BLOGGERS AND GYBERDISSIDENTS 7 mm mm 9 mm H n m 4437 mom w m mum mm kazsxmn MNquot MW A m w Pmmh m W M mm nramnnmn mmm 1 CONTENTS 1 anvnsnuvmnkwumn mmwm mm 22 wmzwmsxnmnamnnzksmvp meum 2x nmmnvnw mun min uvavsum News ownmu 32 wmkwwmmumnwwp mam 7 mmwwmazmlwrmmnns m Wmmwm mmw mum u wwwmmmu m r m m we mm wwmmamwm mwmsvv m a Rm weunwnt39dvm 3m 52 anmmu mozmdmlx39wv w Raname u anvnamnmnnmn mzm m mmmm m on knwn cmnkwv WWW vs mukmnvnwEMMHsmwvwmz erW m Mamacmnkwnkmcmwmmmv emw nswmmugg Mm vquot MM BL OGGERS THE NBv HE39RALDS OF FREE EXPRESSION an WESEdptl e mind a 7 m nsvm w worry m 7m pend um musgzmnwxvvuzv Mann mm mamav 0mm 7 m 39vz ye mungm 77777 mm mums mm mm 512 mm m 5 7 mmme 777 g e mm mm mmmmx www375me Wm 77 MW n was 9677 WWW 7 sum 7 w m WNW mamwsmemdmmtmnmwmmamu m m m 7mm 7 we 7 M m 775 7 m m mnemgmmm mmwmmmgmm mm 7 m 7 77 7 am 7757 mmquot 77 7 ms Dramvin mm mm Snme mamaquotmam San Mm mmmmpmm m Wsmhmmmm z mammmmw mm mmmss wlavummmnmm may mum A 7th W was mm arm1d 3 m 7 mama 1 m gormxmg ogswusmEwas as 7 mgm 7 WWW 77 7w7mm77mmmm mums mm m mymmv mm 3 WWW Mupmsm 1th 7mm 7 mm mm m G mrdb mmsmmimv w v w hmepm e bm Man mmmssnud newsman Wnammmwuymisnwmmmmmmsmmmj 77mm wymrwrwdzmwmmm M 10 MM Wm 77 mmm mmlg m M 77 ways m 7 m7 7 m 7 a 7 sm 7 mynsmm vvpmngsmd MI mhmeawnmameadmwam nmym many Wrymmrynmzy mdmmmmsmamrmw RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 6 BLOGGERS THE NEW CHAMPION OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION Bloggers need to be anonymous when they are putting out information that risks their safety The cyberpolice are watching and have become expert at tracking down trouble makers This handbook gives advice on how to post material without revealing who you are How to blog anonymously by Ethan Zuckerman It s best of course to have the technical skills to be anonymous online but following a few simple rules can sometimes do the trick This advice is of course not for those terrorists racketeers or pedophiles who use the Internet to commit crimes The handbook is simply to hel bloggers encoun tering opposition because of what they write to maintain their freedom of expression However the main problem for a blogger even under a repressive regime isn t security It s about getting the blog known finding an audience A blog without any readers won t worry the powersthatbe but what s the point of it This handbook makes technical estions to make sure a blog gets picked up b the major searchengines the article by Olivier Andrieu and gives some more journalistic tips about this What really makes a blog shine by Mark Glaser Some bloggers face the problem of filtering Most authoritarian regimes now have the technical means to censor the Internet In Cuba or Vietnam you won t be able to access websites that criticise the government or expose corruption or talk about human ri ts abuses So called illegal and subversive content is automatically blocked by filters But all bloggers need free access to all sites and to the blogosphere or the content of their blogs will become irrelevant The second part of the handbook is about ways to get round filtering Choosing circumvention by Nart Villeneuve With a bit of commonsense erseverance and especially by pickingthe right tools any blogger should be able to overcome censorship The handbook has technical advice and tips about how to set up a good blog But a successful one is harderto ensure To stand out in the crowdyou must be original and post news or opinions neglected by the mainstream media In some countries bloggers are mainly worried about sta ing out of jail In others they try to establish their credibility as a source of reliable information Not all bloggers have the same problems but all of them in their different ways are on the frontline in the fight forfreedom of expression julien Pain is head of the Intemet Freedom desk at Reporters Mthout Borders 6 HtWHltH llH Ul WHUtH DEFINITION A BLOG By Pointblog com A BLOG OR WEBLOG IS A PERSONAL WEBSITE containing mostly news posts regularly updated in the form of a diary most recent posts at the top of the page with most of the posts also arranged in categories set up using a speciallydesigned interactive tool usually created and run by a single person sometimes anonymously A BLOG S POSTS are usually text including external links sometimes with pictures and more and more often sound and video can be commented on by visitors are archived on the blog and can been accessed there indefinitely S0 A BLOG IS MUCH LIKE A PERSONAL WEBPAGE EXCEPT THAT IT is easier to set up and maintain and so much more active and more frequently updated encourages a more open and personal style and franker viewpoints greatly encourages discussion with visitors and other bloggers sets a standard worldwide format for blogs involving similar methods two or threecolumn layout comments on posts and RSS Really Simple Syndication feed HtWHltH llH ureath 1 BEE LANGUAGE B LOGG N G WWW mm H A tag A on mm swmmmn amn mlmmwuwnmmmw mmm shmvvwzuaglwmst ma WAS Nwasttsamvaradm wniu Awmmmmmmpm AMVE mquot mm m w thmsbzmg awpmawsmmmwzhrpasmg m am and W mm Amamm MWWmtvmw anammrwmsr m u m m Wm m m a mwmdh s mm Nag A a m mw wa d Mnamn swmzt y 4 quotg m A um M h V w Wm human cmmanav mugbw nwma my m w mm m wmdby Am mm luna agarpm n zndmm mhzwdwmymmmm mmxd arp mastsm A mum mmmm m sbypmnzarad id amt mummme mm AA Ma W5 um w W m mom gives M shnqutn aml merwsa ag PERMAHNK mmnkzmnk CAMAA 039 39Ptsz hnk m Saw m mhn Ame d awng amnnsvmz Amman A mm m m Ass 51 swam AH um mammme m A max Mag A am mu 115 m m m mam h mm m m M w hwy w WNW mmm Pas m mmmmmm AmAAgm am hi As m m Mamth mum mmmn memuagsmms m5 wmammm ommms A am my mmm mg m w m Ass assmaul w ma nmmw mmmusw mmmmaam mmamwa whxhwmxd new vnnusvmn mcxucx mm Cmnmn m1hd md 39hmvwg A w ma mm m mummm Samaragammyng mgqu m mamm whmd ybyamlxmmmam mmsmm vwd gd ms mpaizdanamgmhsmwwws cnwzmvm m hkzm sozw kam ws m a van M mmmmm 5 A mmwmmw wmAmawwNmmatwns mmmmmmmw My mm m mum 7 m w a m m mum ma Am A m mm m a m Ammwmmm RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 10 USEFUL TIPS CHOOSING THE BEST TOOL By Cyril Fi vet and MarcrOlivier Peyer pointblogcom logs owe a lot to the growth of dynamic publishingtools that greatly simplify the business of updatingwebsites A tool for use with a blog must provide a userfriendly interface easily accessible through an Web navigator and dynamically manage its content with such things as archives and searches A blog has two Internet addresses that don t change after it s been set up l39its address for public access its administrative address protected by a password belonging to the person who runs it You can set up a blog by eitherjoining a blog community or using a blog tool with your own server BLOG COMMUNITIES See the chapter on How to set up and run a bog the Civiblog system Setting up a blog in an existing community usually takes just a few minutes You pick a username and password and with a few clicks the blog is up and running Some commu nities charge some don t This method is best if you want to set up just a view only blog It doesn t cost much at most a few euros a month and is straightforward and quick and you benefit from the traf fic the community generates or from it being already wellknown But snags incude often limited options for layout and sophisticated features as well as communityrun ads and the risk of the community closing HtWHitH llH Ul WHUtH 11 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 12 CHOOSING THE BEST TOOL USING BLOG TOOLS These are programmes that are installed on a sewer using scripts to run the site automatically and a database to store posted material Once installed it operates through a standard online navigator No special expertise such as using HTML is needed to setup and run a blog but installingand configuring it is sometimes tricky settingaccess criteria creating a database and arranging FTP loadin This solution is for people already familiarwith blogs and has the advantage that it entire ly belongs to you and you can therefore adapt configure and alter it whenever you want But it does requite some technical skill is also more exposed to spam comments and you have to store the contents yourself HOW TO CHOOSE A BLOG COMMUNITY It s not always easy to move from one blog community to another so it s important to make a good choice in the first place Before choosing one considerthese points OTHER BLOGS IN A COMMUNITY Some communities group Internet users accordingto interests orage Have a look at several dozen other blogs in a community to see if it has a typical group WHAT THE BLOG LOOKS LIKE Though the choice is often small communities platforms usually have a fair range of colours fonts and homepage layouts to choose from You can get a good idea of the possibilities there too by looking at some of the community s sites at random Many freeofcharge communities require all blogs to carry ads on all pages Also check options for the blog s address which could be httpmvhlna 39 l p www 39 39 IIbele or httpwwwthecommunitycommynumber FEATURES ON OFFER Check these to see if you ll be able to redesign the blog bring in other contributors post images or sound post things by phone or restrict access totally or partially to registered users Also find out if posted material can be easily 39 39 39 COIIIIIIUIIlLy and ifyoucan in ertl quot quot to ma HIDDEN COSTS Some communities are free but have to be paid for after a certain point especially according to the amount of data stored and the bandwidth used Checkthis beforehand 12 HthitH llH Ul WHUtH CHOOSING THE BEST TOOL lNTE RNATIONAL PLATFORMS Blogger httpwwwbloggercom Free Set up in 1999 bought by Google in 2003 and the biggest one of all with eight million blogs Easy to use but features rather limited LiveJournal httpwwwlivejournacom Free or paid about 2 a month One of the oldest platforms with six million blogs mostly young people MSN Spaces httpwwwmsnspacescom F ree Microsoft platform set up in late 2004 Lots of features some beyond the blog photosharing Messenger link Must be aged at least 1 3 to register a bog FRENCHLANGUAGE PLATFORMS 20six httpwww20sixfr Free or paid 37 a month Lots of features some quite sophisticated and including basic version OverBlog httpwwwoverbogcom Free Welldesigned and easy to use Skyblog httpwwwskyblogcom Free with ads The biggest platform in France very popular with young people though features sometimes limited TypePad httpwwwtypepadcomsitefr Paid 51 5 a month according to number of features Very professional with good range of features A free version can be had through blog communities set up by thirdparties such as Noos httpwwwnoosbogfr or Neuf Teecom httpwwwneufbogcom ViaBloga httpviablogacom Free for nonprofit associations or 5 a month Original and dynamic with some unusual features HthitH llH Ul WHUtH I13 mmmmm MM nu n1 n mmmomou mu Wanm M1me hwWmem Wm mmem Pm wm Mm mawmmmmmmmm g m m MW WWW WM mmzmmmma Wmmnmmm 7 mm mm a mm H n m n 4437 summmmmmswm ml HOW TO SET UP AND RUN A BLOG The 0mm swtem wwworwuog 019 News m a 7 mm m um w m Omaha d m Hag p mmlvmhusmiyn m mmmmmm m w s b hakvmneam mmmmmmmu m Wmmnd mm mums xsstkaysmkmdmmws m mm mm mssm mm mmshkammdywmdw Nagmdmmmuumzvbhgmwn meu symae mxsszm u v wwwmmmmmhmwmmmmmms 95 L gmsomlwkarmmdzmmvnmymnwwumtvmmhmwa is 757 Nogsupdzzd m 1552mm mmmmmmmm y un mnwmmnm mm m m mm m 7 Wmst mm 5mm myquot mbhgma w mg m mm Mmawstdmm shadanarmnmmm og amammmm m away m W w mil m 5 vv mm m m 4 m m M m mdmvwmwamswis mamng mmme m mmngmmnm mwmmmzhxmmmtdwwaw mm mm m wody mm m ymgm my mum wgm gm mm W lKiWiiiiiT 1 mmm MM nu n1 n 5a m mom a WWW msmm ogymnyw 5m Wm m mzcmmoc mm m 55 m m m mm WWW now New wan m hzr mm w new ummgmwm w mm mm meM Noghrmwrmos n ammmmsw w Mvgh am whip mswdsns m 7 mm m my wind 7 m may ADMNXWAHON we N 7 A Nu m mm m m umwm sz mm mm quotWWW 6mm s W m m a m m pas M yw gum yw 5w no mmsom mw m m a ammme mm M g 1mm whoxstvamszrm mmwm m m A mgmmwmgm m mmmmm MM nu rage in W W s ammgm39m ammmmavmp 2 Mm Wm hnamomme you w gymngmmmm swm mm WOOvs rww nswymaddawmmwwws Wuruia dntpmmwnmmzst w mum mmmm WWuxxsmmw w WM amwtdybngmm mum m m Danica Mama lmm Hog m Huuuwmgmngwmzmm mwn m Wthlw mwmjai w bthhze m mmmmmmm w wen ogwomav m mmWmgumgamamemmmm mmm m memcmn mumuaggnz mmmnm mmmmm MM nu n1 2 WHAT ETHICS SHOULD BLOGGERS HAVE7 Wm m 4 Means dc mmquot m da mi m mquot on da wry Ma h an Dusmsm M wi mbzm mm Mm memwa w msma wasquot wand 5 w m mg mg m n m mzdswtscmszmm rwthupa mwsshk m om m 6 mm mm m pm yam w mm was m mm 7 um m les m m wammammmnmm m m Snurv m mamame m hum wwp mm m mm Mmmwmsnmmmmzmpww 7 m mmmwww mmmwmn mm 39musts wmzm mhmm m mun w m m MW Shanna6m M shnwum h mam mm 7 mm mm 7 u m m a m m m mug Mm was hmwvr am yquot M mm m n has mmmnm Wk hamr mquot mm mm 5 a ma gumW Msme mmrwcmnmmmpm isws man Msm maid m mm wdw ahrmmy r m numm m Mama m we yungmwmummmmm tharmawmnd hd uahpdm sawmymwmwbwi hm 1 WWW mm WIgum hawmmwywma mmumkmamhwmmahmwan maymmmmgkm mmmm mum mmmm quotmm nrhmmkrwmm Velez W25 magmasquot Wm M um mmwa WWW ummmm MM 7 7777 m nsswmgmmnnmdwwsck m 7 Wm m Wmm w nam wmwmnmmnmmxg wanknquWm isquot 7 arr 7 a wwam an M 7 7 m7 7 m mam ms wmm mowswim m wsammw m 777w W aw wmmxwmx ww ma mmmm 797mm mm 7W7 um thn w m ms WWW m m 7777 m m w Kymmums Wammmmem mmmwmum mama magnmws magma mmmw Yam swabs Mg m m as mm 77 m pend 7 7 77m 77 7mm Mews mun775 77mm mm as ma m7 Mm 7 777 m wasde 7 mm W as 7 7775 7 myng moms Cnme m 7 mmsammw 77 M mm mum s a77 mum mm mm mm 7777me a we mmmuW 775W Mayan 77 WWW MMm u yw w W msmmgmay 2mm 77 77me Wssm 7 777 Mae 7 m mmmwmmammw 577m mmwmmwm 77mm hm sanmnmtyeam mam Mam m W m ranupmer Www m m mum mm W Mum 77 mm mm mmquot Musnmmpmghsvmmmmnzkm w wmmawmmmm maPWsvgwmwm a 75m may an mum mmkdngr wkmam m7 quluwunwgummu 77 mum w as 5 m arr 7m 7 7 3mm mm m 577 mm mm msmwmammm w m mam WWW mmgmam wwwmmmmm 5whiznrdeanmvuemmpm zwvm angmmm 77 mm m manna m7 Siamguan sm 77777 tumquot1m 7 7 97 7 77 7 N1 7 m m m w m du mywm ssmm 7 mg mm mm ymasfmmd mmmm m mmesmddwwassam mm W 7 man mm haw mmquot W mg m mum m M mam u m 7 Wm mum Y kmam wslwsvntmmzmw mem mmmbgmavnmg wmm 77mm ad 7 w Imman gmgmwumm w M m Rm wmswu muw ymn 7773 M May Wham 777 gm 7mm no me m a 77 may x mm H 577mm Wm M 9mmquot 45 mm WW m DN mmuluv mm 71 9377 rm Mm mmi 77 max WWmmNDIW lmv mm mm RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 26 USEFUL TIPS GETTING YOUR BLOG PICKED UP BY SEARCHENGINES By Olivier Andrieu logs are websites themselves so they re picked up by searchengines like Google Yahoo Search or MSN Search To be successful a blog has to get good 39 39 visibility on their results pages through major keywords So a site has to be designed from the start to react to the mechanical classification criteria these engines use Blogs have several builtin characteristics that get them often picked up by searchengines welllisted and placed in a prominent position on results pages 0 Because they are personal diaries at least at the beginning they usually have a lot of text which helps them get picked up Searchengines don t pick up sites with a lot of graphics or Flash animations but not much text 0 Each post usually occupies a single page accessible through a permalink and dea ling with a single subject and is much more often picked up by searchengines than long pages about many different topics such as archives or a blog homepage 0 The heading of a post is usually reproduced in the page heading or the URL address For example on the Radio Free Nepal blog at httpfreenepalblogspotcom each post is on a page of its own such as httpfreenepalblogspotcom200504statevanda lisminnepalhtml 26 I REPORTERS WlTl lOUT BORDERS GETTING YOUR BLOG PICKED UP BY SEARCH ENGINES HAILHU FIJI1E Elliquotkl nu ia unusual ijy u39 in 39l wrdivHJy H WF 1quotI quot w H The heading of the post State Vandalism in Nepal occurs notjust in the page URL but also in the heading of the document as follows So the post heading has been added after the blog s name which appears alone on the blog s homepage httpfreenepalblogspotcom The presence of descriptive keywords in the page headings the content of the ltTTLEgt tag in HTML language and in the URLs of these documents are key criteria for searchengines so it s very important to choose post headings carefully to ensure they get picked up 39HHK39H39JUS POST3 State Vandalism in Nepal Peace Bond Sign of Problems MusbRaad Stories April 20 Municipal Election For 0 Links are automatically created especially to archives and Cme1ngvpmpmm are text see examples on the right of the Radio Free Nepal Democracy PageS Alticles oflnterest April 16 Attempts to Blur Borderline This is very good for getting picked up because the text A ci smnwl39mhPM content of the links called anchors is key to the relevance Pie 5 0 mnwme of pages the links point to from the searchengines So in the Yowmgadl me New example here the presence of the words State Vandalism in Nepal in the first link or Radio Free Nepal in the 9th boosts the relevance of the page indicated by the link for these terms Also the page with these links the clickable text is detected as important by searchengines and the page indicated by them will be considered relevant HOW TO GET A BLOG PICKED UP MORE REPORTERS WlTl lOUT BORDERS I 27 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 28 GETTING YOUR BLOG PICKED UP BY SEARCH ENGINES Blogs have many inbuiltadvantages to get them picked up frequently Once a searchengine has found the blog either by it beingsubmitted manually or by searchengine spiders following links a blog will have much more chance than a standard website of being displayed prominently because of its natural advantages But you should try to increase this visibility by going a bit further Here are some tips on how to do this using major keywords drawn from the topic of your blog 1 Focus on technology that helps getting picked up If your site isn t yet online be careful what technology such as Blogger Dotclear BlogSpirit Joueb and many others you use to put it there Choose the one that includes the maximum details for getting picked up The heading of the post must be fully reproduced in the page heading the ltTTLEgt tag as well as in its URL which isn t always done since in the address some tools truncate the post heading after a certain number of characters Creation of permalinks links to a page containing a single post must be possible The technology chosen must allow you to do as much as possible in the design and personalisation of your site such as using your own graphics and personal stylesheets You must learn how to do as many technical things as possible so you can use the maxi mum number of factors to help the site get picked up To check all these points have a look at sites using the tech nology you re considering you can always find a big enough sample there and see how they re displayed You ll learn quite a lot this way 2 Choose the best headings for your posts This is very important The heading of your post will be reproduced in the heading of the single pages displayingyour posts in their URLs and in the text of links that point to them three key places forsearchengines So the post headings must contain in a few words the most important terms to allow them to be picked up Avoid headings such as Well said Welcome or Great The heading should describe or sum up in less than five words what can be found in the post that follows Think of the words you d like a search engine to pick up from it and put them in the heading Not so easy perhaps but very effective 3 Provide the text Searchengines love text so provide it for them You can post all the photos you want as long as they go with text Try to make each post at least 200 words long so it ll have a good chan ce of beingeasily spotted by searchengines Also avoid havingseveral very different topics in the same post as searchengines don t like that The golden rule is one topic one post 4 Pay attention to the rst paragraph of your posts 23 HtWHitH llH ui WHUtH GEI39TING YOUR BLOG PICKED UP BY SEARCH ENGINES The position of important words in the text is also crucial Take great care with your first paragraph If you want to be picked up with the words release hostages for example put them amongthe first 50 in the post The same goes for all the keywords you choose A page with them at the beginning always gets better searchengine results than if they re at the end all other things being equal Stress these words by putting them in bold for example This signals to the searchengine that they re important 5 Avoid duplicate content in a post All searchengines have ways to detect duplicate content and iftwo pages are oversimilar only one of them will be spotted and the other rarely displayed on a results page Google for example displays this message In order to show you the most relevant results we have omitted some entries very similar to those already displayed If you like you can repeat the search with the omitted results included This often happens with blogs as the pages containingeach post can appear very similar For example if you have an identical introduction on each page either put it at the bottom or just on the home page so as to make all your pages very different from each other 6 Don t give your blog a title that s too long The best title the content of the tag ltTTLEgt for searchengines is between 5 and 10 words long not counting stop words such as the or and The page heading of a blog usually has two parts The general title of the blog A repeat of the heading of the post So as not to exceed 10 words in the general heading of pages presenting each post you should use no more than five words for the general title of the blog and five for the hea ding of the post That s not very much but being concise as well as informative is one of the keys to getting picked up easily by searchengines If you can not all technologies allow you to do it put the heading of the post at the top and the general title of the blog afterwards rather than the other way round HtWHitH llH Ullel UEH 29 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 30 GETTING YOUR BLOG PICKED UP BY SEARCH ENGINES 7 Syndicate your blog Most blog tools allow you to create an XML thread or RSS feed with which users can pick up your posts in suitable software format You can offer this facility on your blog it only takes a few minutes to install You ll not only get more visitors but on Yahool it ll be indicated prominently as shown View as XML an 1vw ra 7 ml hsl 7 urnm a fruii h39lquot u vhm hum Nur wmt main pvi glit So make use of this 8 Keep your links updated Links are very important for searchengines because they allow them to compile a popu larity rating called PageRank by Google of webpages So build up the number of links to your blog by Inserting it in directories see below Looking for cousin sites that aren t rivals but offer material on the same topic Exchanging links between blogs in the same area of interest should be sought as quickly as possible this is quite frequently done and approved of in the blogging community which is another advantage of blogs Blogs are also wellsuited for this as the margin is often empty and they can be posted there FEATURING IN TOPIC DIRECTORIES Featuring in generalinterest searchengines such as Google MSN Yahoo and Exalead and directories such as Yahoo Directory and Open Directory is very important but getting featured by topic is too because it generates more focused visitors increases the number of links to your blog which is good foryour popularity gets you known by other blog publishers who might want to exchange links with similar sites 30 HtWHltH llH Ul WHUtH GETTING YOUR BLOG PICKED UP BY SEARCH ENGINES Amongthe many search tools searchengines and directories that pick up blogs are Englishlanguage BlogAise httpwwwblogvisecom Daypop httpwwwdaypopcom Feedster httpwwwfeedstercom Technorati httpwwwtechnoraticom Waypath httpwwwwaypathcom Blogarama http wwwblogaramacom SyndicS httpwwwsyndic8com Frenchlanguage Blogonautes httpwwwblogonautescom Blogolist httpwwwblogolistcom Weblogues httpwwwwebloguescom Blogarea httpwwwblogareanetLinks Pointblog httpwwwpointblogcom Les Pages Joueb httppagesjouebcom A bigger list is at httpsearchenginesblogscommonweblog200505lessearchenginesdehtml Also have a look at the directories of each technology provider such as httpwwwcanalblogcomcfbrowseBlogscfm httpwwwdotcleanneVusershtm httpwwwblogspiritcomfrcommu nautesblogspirithtml CONCLUSION A blog has all the elements for getting easily picked up by searchengines With the tips given here you should get very good results and increase your blogs visibility So off you go and remember that content is king L L Olivier J39 39 39 39 39 I He also runs the website wwwabondancecom HtWHltH llH wasth I31 mmm MM nu n1 2 1 7w H 39lllll H Ii tl lli 7 PL 1 WHAT REALLY MAKES A BLOG SHINE Mm MalmeMwwhhgmdammmmmngwwpm L mzhwmmnnasmadx Wmmmdwmdwm mmmmm my szmzztan axmw mnwxwm mmmmmrmmmmuw V mnnn pm w mnngvemmmngmm mwm dw 7 dwbam msbmmb musmdamrwtrs awass muss mmmwms Mm yapm twmwbrmdmmdw mmamnwwmsmwr Mm som af mm m smawmmd ms 7 am quotmsz twmwm ma mmmmn mam mumps vummmm man I7wedawnwemmmnrmsmemmmqwmdmwsmym n w Mumvans ma mnmmbwgmneNzensum mmnmn mm m mmsvvasammaw mm m m mnsmamrhhg A mum vznxomwou how am We mm m m m mem am Mm W R mm Id 7 m walng mm mnan mama 3pm Fwd 5mm mmayammsmm z mmuw miwvgvvawmgmm wxm smtmmm my mm m m m wmry m um mum mugi pm an mm m smawnmsapnmmns w WW1 mum ma rebut M a pm W90 mm thd Mm r m m ynsmzr Mylvklpvgmcms 3mm New 7km a n W vacu n m mum v0 wwzn Mkmwmmm mamwmaammw I2me you mm new vwmw wmarwimkmsm m bhgvrtov w mna m pmh w w m uEkwomwswmzdwmwwsmam 5 v mm Banwkquot w m mwunm aw as mmmmxm mw msa hs agoumd 6 mm mammm yasmpmnmmmlngmahw mqnes magmas mum w 6 wermesz m m wm smmxuaww 1 mywusmsammm hpm m M m mg m D mmm mam7 mm mm mmdem m M W D acmmww mm m Wasch 7 m mdgm m a mum w Chm mm 3 E E 3 m PM 6 W W v kw w m 53 WW I mum mm mm m Wmmmmmmm mm mwmmma lammum MM w wow 0mm HUMAN News mm W my my N90 mm 7 m H mm m Qmwv ow wwwmmn Owe 7 mms mddwwmavmwwmmnku W6 saw at mmquot smmwssy m yamsva 7 mm H mam mmmm mm gmw swves mnasw wammmmmwmm mehis m mama m7 mmnwm um 77 mm mpg 22mm m WWW1 7 m 7 mm mm Wmmwmznnzmaempraamems mmm Warmv a mo 77 w my mm 7 mm mm 7 mm 7 mum WWW R MM m m 7 me m m 7 mm mm m Mm 77 mm m awlmymvsmnsouvgwh cg an 7 7 a Ma axn Md pdncs vmwasmyfrsmal mesmm x Mummyv smunm m7 angan mm W W Wm 7 m m an mumIV m7 wanes 77 H mm mumzmwntMKuvmg mum pmhgvm mmm 77 5m quotmamgmm mg m7 mvgmmgvvavmE mew mm mwmampmmmmzrw mm77 wt m 77mm 77 7 Wm m mmsyuiysnvlfesmywmk 77 mm mm pwpm mmay mm 77777 7 m 5 m7 m7 Maww 7775 m M7777 07777 n 7 bmwgS 7 gm mg mmm MM nu n1 n mswmmw mumm kngV avsmi pm mum m mummm manme m mwmm mm m mm m mow smww mmdoptn Amh mm m mkmmmmymammm mmw mx husvtzmmdvudwa39wnnmiymmm wwwmww m mmm mmvmkwm M x mm 5 mm mmm u msdmdnnmms w 195 n mame mm mm emme axwm m m quotWestmme m w m pmlmshwdyamommswvls hwmm mm mm mm Marmamwwnmwm quotwww1me Mam WWW mde 2 mm 4 WWW w W Hm mwwnmm mmma Mum meme Immumbztsd mnmwmwm mama mlws 81 7 WM as apmm wzr w wnym m mm muman m m mmamdewzwngw Dawzy m mvy m mbhgm1yivelthdshrm mmm w mmw mm mam Emma m mm mm m sad yummng W mung h nan mknrg H wummmm w mm a wmgmmm km w mgwmmm warty mmmmmm N WWW m Ethdwmm samvswmm hmwmm mwm quotmm m mnmsmmmdmmm am mmgzsnnvmvbmwmogmdw mnmwm may mmwmwvm e m WWquot 7 gmquot m mm mm m mwm ammast Wm Wu m m m n mamasgquot Wm ham m mummka M mmrdmr mm mquot quot5mmth ms mm 24 m mewuhmwa ummwumw aam Emm m m as W mum Jun a 7 77 ruwumavm 7 MM M77777 mm 777 77777777777 7777777 wms7m7m7mm7wg77777m7m777757 ma BAHRAIN mmmmmmmnmm mmmmrmnbhgmmwud 7 77 777777 mm 77szsz comwws 7777 MONODOLV M777 7 7777757777777777m7 7 777777777m 7777775 77577777377 um 7757777 7 7777 7 m 7677777 M 777777 77777 7mm 7777777777777777777MM7777 7977777 7mm 77 7 quotwwmmmm 7 777 mm 7 m 77 m mngmmkav bndgb n 77777777 7792 g W 77777 77 m7 m7 7 75 77 m M 77777 any 777 mm mmmmwmgmmammy km 77777775 mm 79775 7 WW 7 m 7 7 7 7777 m 77 7 7777 7 779 mu 777777277 77 7777773 77777 mm 7 7sum 7777777 7m mainly K szr m 7777 7 7777 77 77 77 7 7 777 SW 7777777 7777777777 77 mm m Cmm y Mm sm yw 77 m7 gmmm 7777777 777 77 7777777mm7m77mm777777 7 r uhxmugmmtngmm 777m mybnmwmwgmms 39 I 7777777 7 Chan ad aahmni whmamuwpmmsamsmmwusn Mytwmmnr nnnsm quotW 7777777777777777777777777777WWW a H a a 77m77777777777777777 7m mmm m 77777777777777777 77777777777777777777 7 7 Mmmzr mzmwmmmQmmmg waumtmdwmtmnwmdww J 771777577777 77mm 77 7777 77777 777 77mg mmmm gamma Mwmmwm smawmmmmn 7m 7777 7m 77 7 Wmmmwwsmauvwmm 7777 77777 W 777 7777 7mm 7 777mm Wmm 7 7 mmmm my n77quot 77777773777727777777977777 77775777 777777 7 0 777 797 mm 7777777 7 777777 777 777 m 7 7737 777 m7 77777 77mm 7777777 HA 7 777 mm 77 7m 7m 777777 mm 7mm 777mm 77 r7 7 77777 7777 mumsawmmmm m7 7 7 77777777 7 77 m7 7777 mm ummmm MM 7 777 mswucmw m um 77 7 mm W m m magmas 7 mmquot m M 7 mm 7 M7 77quot mnwmwmsw 77 n m7 7 m m 7 W7 am kwms m M777 77 m7 7 manna m am New Wm mad mm m m m was gum 7717 um m m 7 m mm gum1 7m 7 mam 7m udmzzr Nut way 7 Nagmbmn m nunde 7 mmquot 7 wmumwwgnws m am m m WE m7 My 7th 7 am m 77 m7 any mm m m mm m mm wt bmmshxmnmwxsnxmmamsm mm a WWW 7m dmsm Mm mm 7 mm MS 7537 many m7 mmwmv 0mm mm uwwld 7w 7 aw 7 mm mm 7 m mmmmmn 77m 777 m Vhs 975 m 3777 7 dasanyumzswd m mama m 7 775mm mm 7777 m7 umsmd w m m mmgm mmdmmnsw wunwmn mhzmsrwm w m1 am em7mmmmu Now cmwmwm YH NK 77777 mm 7 weak mmwm was Mmmmmmmmm stmmmm Pa mxsmzsv 7 mng 977M w m WWW 775mm M4Msngm u mnm mm m 7 Wrwmgwmwmmmyss mm WW7 mm mam dm swl7 wt m mamawuss 77quotst mm as mm 7 WWW gamma gmmmm wa 7737mm w mdammmmwmn m mm 3922 M m rmygmmam mammnkm vmmmmm 77 maIvgwasmngsm n w hid Mum 77 777m 777 WWW 7 m m1 mm m mom 7 gm mm mmquot m 777 m WW4quot mm NW mm m mmmw wnmsmmmamm mm m M7 on mmmmm 7777777 mum w Emma m m Wm mm 7mm WW Pms my 757m m7 mm mmqu 7 mamma mduwsm wmdomzr mm m 7 mmmeym 77mm m hkammxv VIEsznwm 7 mummy a mmmnmm m mmmmwg mm nhmwtm krd dalgmsndd mum mm 7377 w 7 mm 7 7 mm 7 mm R wmhgmummd mas w m m m 97 7 u quot7 mgans A W m7 7 we59w no 7 Wm 77 m M7797quot m mixihkd wmhzwd 77 mag smsngmamk mmmmm MM nu n1 mswmmw W 1 is Ewwiwdhhgaesoewzhaqmanamm mmng mva mm vvnve amywmmoumeb ogmamkbmmwumdammams mom1m mummnkdmmmwwpmk mmewvsoem V m 54 M mmmmmm a pmmrwmgm w r m mwmwgm amer Vega yumm nmn mmmsma mmquot mmwm Mumde Wotamyth m mm m epmmnkpmmmmngmsmmwk epm mm nunval VK vtvzrshdamam a mammome wmog s wur mm sammwmmmgmmm mnkwm mdam Mm quva mmmrm m Wm mum mam mnw m 7 mwmg mmmmnmwm mme my mwusw wwlwms Mmuwy damn mmmmmamn many Mawquot WWW mmnk sma hus hmzr w mg mg M Ma Wquot mwmm mmwmm m m dc m WWW om m W m mmquot a muting w mama mmmm m mm mmng mm mama h aw mmnkpnsuw as m wngm mm am W m m m Maxmsvmwgmpmmn uua prs lnmnnsmISnijhm nle Mnmdmmmm n mam mm my oewm tm mme mm mm rm mummmadmmhm mmg w kwmmrmamtpmsmm w mamav v ymu ngmhns gym Wmm m m mum V my 5m 9 My sun 7 ma my mum m man M mmnammmh Maw Mm m mwwm mumsanwa mmmsm w m WED n navy Am A mmkmsmammamm m at mammal A mmmwwmmmm magma msmm mmsnmmdummamk Mammmw um mm mwmmmssvm w mmgmnmmu m m mmanumqbwmdw Mswwhundawwmwmamk you W mm a mu km W mm M a D5 4 my me muan m was mmuwywmm m wwgam memmw mm mmmm ma mdwmmnwmmw xmdmmw m Msah gmmm mmmmm mm kammpmmwmmmwmmxmmm mwnmwx mmmmmmmmmmmwumwmnwmm Wmmmk mum mwxmukkwwmmu my mummm m nds NAAmeme RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 46 PERSONAL ACCOUNT HO NG KONG I KEPT MY PROMISE TO THOSE WHO DIED By Yam ShamyShackleton t is 1223 am in the early morning ofjune 4 Today is the 16th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square Massacre in Beijing When the event happened in 1989 I was sitting in a tunnel outside the Xinhua News Agency office in Hong Kong where hunger strikers had set up We were supporting the students in China We wanted democracy for them and for ourselves We no longer wanted to be colonial subjects of Britain and we did not want to be subjects of the Communist Party either We wanted to e free About two maybe three hours later I heard the first shots coming through the radio followed by the sound ofsinging screamingand tanks reverberatingthough the walls and we looked at each other and saw tears streaming down our faces We all know now that China will use tanks against those who seek democracy but until then we did not Ithink it was at that moment that Glutterwas born in my head when I heard the endingofthe 1989 Democratic Movement on the radio in a tunnel with bright fluorescent lights I was 15 If not at that moment it was soon afterwards I would make promises only youngwomen with no experience in the world could make with as little doubt as I did I will not forget I promise to remember forever Iwill live my life better and for all of us because I am alive and you are no longer won t let this happen again Iwill remind the world for you the students of Tiananmen Square My Heroes My Big Brothers and Sisters I made those promises in haste in fear in naivety It neveroccurred to me how something like that was to be achieved or if it was even possible I only knew that it sounded right and all the adults were yelling those things out of loudspeakers It is only tonight that I m thinkingthat all this writing all the photos and artworkl have done in the name of democracy the cyberprotest organized the interviews I agreed to and the stories I published in the name of free speech are not only because I fervently believe HtWHltH llH wasth 41 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 48 PERSONAL ACCOUNT HONGKONG in it but also because it is a way to placate my subconscious Blogging allows me to keep my promises to the dead I write this because I think people should know that s why I have anaged to create Glutter not because I followed any rules or copied anybody else Not because I wanted attention or wanted to make a name I often prefer it best when it is quiet and will let the blog die a little when I feel there is too much attention focused on it because then I can just write what I want and tell the story that needs to be told in the way I like without pressure My advice to those interested in starting a blog is don t listen to anyone except yourself Don t read anyone else s blog and try to emulate it Don t sit down with a list of musts and try to achieve it I broke so many rules because I didn t know there were any and I did just fine All you need to create a blog is the will to start All you need to keep one going is a will to record what you have to say Each of us experienced a moment of political awakening a trigger that made us unders tand a kind of injustice that needed to be fixed Otherwise you would not be an activist with an idea to create something Let that realization guide you I hope you can convey enough of your conviction to remind and inspire others to fight for change That s all the wisdom I can imparttonight It is now 233am I can hear gunshots Put put put I hearthem every year at this time I was 1 5 Probably too youngto have experienced the events the way I did But others were too youngto die Yan ShamrShaddeton wants you to know she spent six weeks writing six versions of this article where she tried to record all she knows about blogging until she realized the beauty of the medium is that you can be yourself On her blog gluttercom she talks about art as well as politics Her outspokenness and stands in favour of true democracy in Hong Kong mean that she is regularly censored inside China 48I HtWHitH llH Ul WHUtH PERSONAL ACCOUNT IRAN WE CAN WRITE FREELY IN BLOGS By Arash Sigarchi oday we understand Marshall McLuhan s observation that the world is a global village betterthan he did The invisible lines of the Internet mean that if some thing happens in Asia the Americas Europe or a remote island off Africa we will get to know about it For yearsjournalism has been faced with restrictions but these can now be removed by tec no ogy I am a journalist in a country where restrictions prevent me from doing my job In addition to interorganizational factors that exist in most media of the world outoforganization elements such as legal restrictions the influence of government and individuals one sided support of news resources pressure groups and owners of capital have greater influence than in advanced countries So I have to think about the independence of my country and its reflection in true news and my analysis of news One of my solutions for breakingthrough the hindrances was a blog We can freely write in blogs Since they do not involve printing or expressing news in audiovisual media writing in them provides news and points of views more quickly Blogs can be seen as small news or comment agencies where the writer is both a correspondent and editorinchief Some say blogs should focus less on news People like to record their daily activities there These amateur writers have fewer readers often just friends and relatives But the blogs of noted journalists and artists and political economic social and sports personalities even if they just write about their daily lives are noticed because of their news value and fame These people have a lot of subjects to write about and attract readers I believe each blog attracts its own readers dependingon their interests so no restriction is required on blog writing HtWHitH llH wasth I49 i W m a n m n mswmmw Wu WWWI WWWmmwmmmwmmm MWWWMWWWMWWM mMMWWmmmmm mm WWW Mmmmhm WWWMWW WWW Wm mm quotmm W W mmw wsmtusw mwwmmmz meiwsmma39m mm39mzrmmm mmmmwmmmmaym Mmmxm mew mm mm wwwmmemmwmmmmm mme M MmWmmmmWWW me Wmmm MW mmmmmw m quotnewmwWWWWWWM w a m quotwith mm m quotWWW m x swmsm mk mmmmwmmmm MMWWMW MmmWmmeWmWWW WMMWWWM m WWW mmmm WWW WWW m WWWMW mm Mm memmmw WWWWMWWWMWWW W W WWW th me quotWmva5WWMWMWW W RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 52 PERSONAL ACCOUNT N EPAL WE TELL THE OUTSIDE WORLD WHAT S HAPPENING Radio Free Nepal RFN httpfreenepalblogspotoom ebruary l 2005 Nepal39s King Gyanendra took over the power which was informed to general public via a television speech After the speech was concluded I wanted to know the international reactions of the move and tried to open the dialup connection But it said there is no phone line attached I understood thatthe phone line has been cut off In an attempt to quash any possible outflow of information criticizing his move the King has ordered the army not only to lock up the lSPs but also to stop telecommunication services Duringthat time people were talking about all sorts of consequences some of them praising the move At my newspaper office everybody was foreseeing a gum future with the army personnel invading into the television newsroom to censor I thought at that time it would be appropriate to note down the daily events and people39s thought as a diary I did that on my computer On February 8 basic telecommunication services and internet services resumed l was asked by many to explain what had happened in Nepal through emails At the time I thought my diary would best explain the situation here Some friends at United States of America suggested me to blog the diary in back dates Since I was a bit novice in blogging matters they set up the site and entered the entries for me It was decided that I would remain anonymous and ask other friends to write on blogs anonymously which would save us from possible harassment and prison Heavy censorship in earlier days in media and free flow of information on RFN gave the popularity to the site with Bloggercom recommending a visit My friends in USA did their best to popularize the site Within weeks it was pretty much popular The decision to start RFN was taken so that people around the world can understand how individuals are feelingabout the King39s direct rule Under heavy censorship media would be forced to write what the Kingwants and would be all but insufficient to represent people39s true voices RFN despite being an effort of an individual with entries from a few people would best represent the common voices without the censorship and fear of harassment 52 HtWHitH llH Ul WHUtH PERSONAL ACCOUNT NEPAL Earlier entries in RFN were mostly diary type daily event describers Later entries are more thoughtful and analysis of various events In the political situation of Nepal where the King has assumed direct power bypassingthe people39s choices RFN is much more relevant because it carries the thoughts of a common person What actually I thrive for is democracy in the country because I believe that39s the only way where the country will prosper and my career as journalist would carry meanings Writing under censorship is something like drinking coffee without sugar there is no taste As journalists we come to know many things that never made to the papers like one that was published in RFN the King acquiring personal properties in an inappro priate way Many journalists knew that criticized that laughed at the King but couldn39t er e The other purpose RFN served was to spread Nepal39s situation among many people around the world Nepal39s situation could have gone unheard of by many thousands of people if there hadn39t been RFN This Ithink is good for making conscience amongthe world population to think about the country Electronic advancement has given so much for our society I write freely without fear because I believe the way I am doing the blogging writing them and emailing them to a friend in US to post is not traceable without some heavy measure When democracy will return to my country giving us 39airto breathe freely I will be proud of myself as I would feel I have contributed a little for that Many questioned me through the email what is the credibility of the posts I told them a mere name can39t be a measure of credibility I didn39t want to publish name because until democracy dawns in Nepal the situation can go even further wrong and I could be forced into prison for blogging I do not fear prison but I want to continue RFN to provide information about Nepal to the world I also told them I would give them my name when the ordeal of the King39s rule will be over Until then thank you to all for your support RFN BLOGGER NEPAL wewantdemocracygmaicom Radio Free Nepal is a blog that defies King Gyanendra39s direct asumption of power and censorship of media Working for restoration of democrac RFN is a sim that carries firsthand information about Nepal to the world Its contributors post anonymously as there is a threat from the authorities RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 54 USEFUL TIPS HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY By Ethan Zuckerman T his is a quick technical guide to anonymous blogging that tries to approach the problem from the angle of a government whistleblower in a country with a less thantransparent government It39s not intended for cypherpunks but for people in developing nations who are worried about their safety and want to take practical steps to protect their privacy The Electronic Frontier Foundation39s guide How to Blog Safely httpwwwefforgPrivacyAnonymitybloganonymouslyphp also offers some very good t advice on this SOMMAIRE IntroducingSarah Step Pseudonyms Step 2 Public computers Step 3 Anonymous proxies Step 4 This time it39s personal Step 5 Onion Routingthrough Tor Step 6 MixMaster Invisiblog and GPG How much anonymity is enough How much hassle is too much INTRODUCING SARAH Sarah works in a government office as an accountant She becomes aware that her boss the deputy minister is stealing large amounts of money from the government She wants to let the world know that a crime is taking place but she39s worried about losing her job If she reports the matterto the minister if she could evergetan appointmenti she might get fired She calls a reporter at the local newspaper but he says he can39t run a story with out lots more information and documents proving her claims So Sarah decides to put up a weblog to tell the world what she knows about what39s happening in the ministry To protect herself she wants to make sure no one can find out who she is based on her blog posts She needs to blog anonymously HtWHltH llH ureath I55 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 56 HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY There are two majorways she can get caught when tryingto blog anonymously One is if she reveals her identity through the content she posts for instance if she says quotI39m the assistant chief compliance accountant to the deputy minister of mines there39s a good chance that someone reading her blog is going to figure out who she is pretty quickly The other way Sarah can get caught is if someone can determine her identity from infor mation provided by their web browsers or email programs Every computer attached to the internet has or shares an address called an IP address it39s a series of four numbers from 0255 separated by dots for instance 21 3241 2438 When Sarah uses herweb browserto make a comment on the minister39s bog the IP address she was using is included on her post With a little work the minister39s computer technicians may be able to trace Sarah39s identity from this IP address If Sarah is usinga computer at home dialing into an Internet service provider the ISP likely has records of which IP address was assigned to which telephone number at a specific time In some countries the minister might need a subpoena to obtain these records in others especially ones where the ISP is owned by the government the ISP might give out this information very easily and Sarah might find herself in hot water There are a number of ways Sarah can hide her identity when using the Internet As a general rule the more secure she wants to be the more workshe needs to do to hide her identity Sarah and anyone else hoping to blog anonymously needs to considerjust w quot39 t L L 39 quot39 chow39 quot toworktoprotectheriden tity As you will see some of the strategies for protecting identity online require a great deal of technical knowledge and work STEP ONE PSEUDONYMS One easy way Sarah can hide her identity is to use a free webmail account and free blog host outside her native country Using a paid account for either email orwebhosting is a poor idea as the payment will link the account to a credit card a checking account or Paypal account that could be easily linked to Sarah She can create a new identity a pseudonym when she signs up for these accounts and when the minister finds her bog he39ll discover that it belongs to A N Ymous with the email address anonymouswhistleblowerhotmailcom Some providers of free webmail accounts Hotmail a 00 Hushmail free webmail with support for strong cryptography Some providers of free weblog hosting Blogsome free WordPress blogs Blogger Seo Blog 56I HtWHltH UH Ul BORDER HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY Here39s the problem with this strategy When Sarah signs up for an email service or a weblog the webservershe39s accessing logs her IP address fthat IP address can be traced to her if she39s using her computer at home or her computer at work and if the email or weblog company is forced to release that information she could be found It39s not a sim ple matterto get most web service companies to reveal this information to get Hotmail for instance to reveal the IP Sarah used to sign up for her account the minister would likely need to issue a subpoena probably in cooperation with a US law enforcement agency But Sarah may not want to take the risk of beingfound if her government can per suade her email and weblog host to reveal her identity STEP TWO PUBLIC COMPUTERS One extra step Sarah could take to hide her identity is to begin using computers to make her blogposts that are used by lots of other people Rather than setting up her webmail and weblog accounts from her home orwork computer Sarah could set them up from a computer in a cybercafe library or university computer lab When the ministertraces the IP used to post a comment or item he39ll find the post was made from a cybercafe where any number of people might have been usingthe computers There are flaws in this strategy as well If the cybercafe or computer lab keeps track ofwho is using what computer at what time Sarah39s identity could be compromised She shouldn39t try to post in the middle of the night when she39s the only person in the computer lab the geek on duty is likely to remember who she is And she should change cybercafes often If the minister discovers that all the whistleblower s posts are coming from Joe39s Beer and Bits on Main Street he might stake someone out to watch the cybercafe and see who39s postingto blogs in the hope of catching Sarah STEP THREE ANONYMOUS PROXIES Sarah39s gettingsick of walkingtoJoe39s cybercafe every time she wants to post to her bog With some help from the neighborhood geek she sets up her computerto access theweb through an anonymous proxy Now when she uses her webmail and weblog services she39ll leave behind the IP address of the proxy server not the address of her home machine which will make it very hard forthe ministerto find her First she finds a list of proxy servers online by searching for proxy server on Google She picks a proxy server from the publicproxyserverscom list choosing a site marked high anonymity She writes down the IP address of the proxy and the port listed on the proxy list Some reliable lists of public proxies publicproxyserverscom anonymous and nonanonymous proxies Samairhttpwwwsamainruproxy only anonymous proxies and includes information on proxies that support SSL rosinstrument proxy database httptoosrosinstrumentcomproxy searchable database of proxy servers HtWHltH UH Ullel UEH I51 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 58 HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY Then she opens the preferences section of her web browser Under general net work or security usually she finds an option to set up a proxy to access the Internet On the Firefox browser this option is found under Preferences General Connection Settings She turns on manual proxy configuration enters the IP address of the proxy server and port Into the fields for HTTP proxy and SSL proxy and saves her settings She restarts her browser and starts surfingthe web She notices that her connection to the web seems a bit slower That39s because every page she requests from a webserver takes a detour Instead of connecting directly to hotmailcom she connects to the proxy which then connects to Hotmail When Hotmail sends a page to her It goes to the proxy first then to her She also notices she has some trouble accessingwebsites especially those that want her to log In But at least her IP isn39t being recorded by her weblog provider A fun experiment with proxies Visit noreplyorg a popular remailer website The site will greet you by tellingyou what IP address you39re coming from Hello pool151203182 212wmaeastverizonnet 151203182212 pleased to meet you Now go to anonymizercom a web service that allows you to view some webpages through an anonymous proxy In the box on the top right of the anonymizer page enter the URL for httpwwwnoreplyorg orjust click httpanonfreeanonymiz ercomhttpwwwnoreplyorg this link You39ll note that noreplyorg now thinks you39re coming from vortexanonymizercom Anonymizer is a nice way to test proxies without needing to change your browser settings but it won39t work with most sophisticated web services like webmail orweblogging servers Finally follow the instruction above to set up your web browser to use an anonymous proxy and then visit noreplyorgto see where It thinks you39re comingfrom Alas proxies aren39t perfect either If the country Sarah lives in has restrictive Internet laws many websurfers may be using proxies to access sites blocked by the government The government may respond by ordering certain popular proxies to be blocked Surfers move to new proxies the government blocks those proxies and so the circle continues All this can become very timeconsuming Sarah has another problem If she39s one of very few people in the country using a proxy If the comments on her blog can be traced to a single proxy server and If the minister can access logs from all the ISPs within a country he might be able to discover that Sarah39s computer was one of the very few that accessed a specific proxy sewer He can39t demon strate that Sarah used the proxy to post to a weblog server but he might conclude that the fact that the proxy was used to make a weblog post and that she was one of the few people in the nation to use that proxy constituted evidence that she made the post Sarah would do well to use proxies that are popular locally and to switch proxies often 58I HthitH IIH UI BORDER HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY STEP FOUR THIS TIME IT39S PERSONAL Sarah starts to wonder what happens If the proxy servers she39s using get compromised What If the minister convinces the operator of a proxy server eitherthrough legal means or bribery to keep records and see whether anyone from his country is usingthe proxy and what sites they39re using She39s relying on the proxy administrator to protect her and she doesn39t even know who the administrator is Though the proxy administrator may not even know she39s runninga proxy proxies are often left open by accident Sarah has friends in Canada a country less likely to censorthe Internet than Sarah39s own country who might be willingto help her maintain her blog while protecting her Identity Sarah phones her friend and asks him to set up Circumventor on his system Circumventor is one of dozens of proxy servers a user can set up to allow people to use his computer as a proxy Sarah39s friend Jim downloads Circumventor httpwwwpeacefireorgcircumven torsimplecircumventorInstructionshtml from Peacefireorg and installs It on his Windows system It39s not an easy install he needs to install Perl on his system then install OpenSA then Circumventor And he now needs to keep his computer connected to the Internet constantly so that Sarah can use It as a proxy without previously asking him to turn It on He gets the software setup calls Sarah39s cellphone and gives hera URL she can start using to surf the web through his proxy or post to her blog This is especially con venient because Sarah can use the proxy from home or from a cybercafe and doesn39t have to make any changes on her system While Sarah39s very grateful forJIm39s help there39s a major problem with the arrangement Jim39s computer which runs Windows reboots quite often Whenever it does his ISP assigns a new IP address to the machine Each time this happens the proxy stops work ing for SarahJim needs to contact Sarah again and tell herthe new IP that Circumventor is associated with This rapidly gets expensive and frustrating Sarah also worries that If she uses any one IP address too long her ISP may succumbto government pressure and start blocking it STEP FIVE ONION ROUTING THROUGH TOR Jim suggests that Sarah experiment with Tor a relatively new system that provides a high degree of anonymity for websurfing Onion routing takes the idea of proxy servers a computer that acts on your behalf to a new level of complexity Each request made through an onion routing network goes through two to 20 additional computers making It hard to trace what computer originated a request Each step of the Onion Routing chain is encrypted making It harder for the government of Sarah39s country to trace her posts Furthermore each computer in the chain only HthitH IIH WWIDER I59 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 60 HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY knows its nearest neighbors In otherwords router B knows that it got a request for a web page from router A and that it39s supposed to pass the request on to router C But the request itself is encrypted router B doesn39t actually know what page Sarah is requesting or what router will finally request the page from the webserver Given the complexity of the technology Sarah is pleasantly surprised to discover how easy it is to install Tor http torefforgcvs tor doctordocwin32html an onion routing system She downloads an installerwhich installs Tor on her system then downloads and installs Privoxy a proxy that works with Tor and has the pleasant side benefit of removing most of the ads from the webpages Sarah views After installing the software and restarting her machine Sarah checks norepyorg and discovers that she is in fact successfully cloaked by the Torsystem norepyorgthinks she39s logging on from Harvard University She reloads and now noreply thinks she39s in Germany From this she concludes that Tor is changing her identity from request to request hepingto protect her privacy This has some odd consequences When she uses Google through Tor it keeps switch ing language on her One search it39s in English anotherJapanese Then German Danish and Dutch all in the course of a few minutes Sarah welcomes the opportunity to learn some new languages but she39s concerned about some other consequences Sarah likes to contribute to Wikipedia but discovers that Wikipedia blocks her attempts to edit arti cles when she39s usingTor Tor also seems to have some of the same problems Sarah was havingwith other proxies Her surfing slows down quite a bit as compared to surfingthe web without a proxy she finds that she ends up using Tor only when she39s accessing sensitive content or posting to her blog And she39s once again tied to her home computer since she can39t install Tor on a public machine very easily Most worrisome though she discovers that Tor sometimes stops working Evidently her ISP is starting to block some Tor routers when Tor tries to use a blocked router she can wait for minutes at a time but doesn39t get the webpage she39s requested STEP SIX MIXMASTER INVISIBLOG AND GPG Surely there39s a solution to the blogging problem that doesn39t involve a proxy server even one as sophisticated as Tor After spendingquite a longtime with the local geek she explores a new option Invisiblog httpwwwinvisiblogcom Run by an anonymous group of Australians called vigilanttv it s a site designed for and by the truly paranoid You can39t post to Invisiblog via the web as you do with most blog servers You post to it using specially formatted email sent through the MixMaster remailer system signed cryptographically sol HtWHltH llH Ul BORDER HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY It took Sarah a few tries to understand that last sentence Eventually she set up GPG httpwwwgnupgorg the GNU implementation of Pretty Good Privacy a publickey encryption system httpenwikipediaorgwikiPublickeycryptography In two sentences Publickey encryption is a technique that allows her to send messages to a person that only she can read without her needing to share a secret key with you that would let you read messages other people send to her Public key encryption also allows people to sign documents with a digital signature that is almost impossible to forge She generates a keypair that she will use to post to the blog by signing a post with her private key the blog server will be able to use her public key to check that a post is coming from her and then put it on the blog see also the chapter on How to ensure email is truly private She then sets up MixMaster a mailingsystem designed to obscure the origins of an email message MixMaster uses a chain of anonymous remailers computer programs that strip all identifying information off an email and send it to its destination to send email messages with a high degree of anonymity By using a chain of 2 to 20 remailers the message is very difficultto trace even ifone or more of the remailers is compromised and is recording sender information She has to build MixMaster by compiling its source code a project that requires a great deal of geek assistance She sends a first MixMaster message to Invisiblog which includes her public key Invisiblog uses this to set up a new blog with the catchy name invisiblogcom ac4589d7001ac238 the longstring is the last 1 6 bytes of herGPG key Then she sends future posts to invisiblog by writing a text message signing it with her public key and sending it via MixMaster It39s not nearly as fast as her old style of blogging The misdirection of MixMaster mailers means that it takes anywhere from two hours to two days for her message to reach the servers And she has to be very careful about looking at the blog if she looks at it too often her IP address will appear in the blog s logfrequently signaling that she39s likely to be the blog author But she39s reassured by the fact that the owners of Invisiblog have no idea who she is The main problem with the Invisiblog system is the fact that it39s incredibly difficult for most people to use Most people find GPG a challenge to setup and have difficulty understanding the complexities of public and private keys More userfriendly crypto tools like Ciphire have been setup to help the less geeky of us but even they can be tricky to use As a result very few people including those who might really need it use encryption for most of their email MixMaster is a true technical challenge for most users Windows users can use an early DOS version of the program by downloading it here httpprdownloads source forgeneVmixma ermix204b46zip download I downloaded and tested it and it doesn39t HtWHltH llH Ullel UEH I61 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 62 HOW TO BLOG ANONYMOUSLY appear to work or perhaps my email is still being remaIIed back and forth between remailers Anyone wantingto use the newerversion orwanting to use the program on Linux or Mac needs to be able to compile the program themselves a task beyond many expert users It39s possible that Invisiblogwould become more useful If It accepted messages from webaccessible remailers like rioteuorg but for now I can39t see It as being particularly helpful for the people who need It most There are other problems with strong encryption in repressive countries If Sarah39s computer is seized by the government and her private key is found It would constitute strong evidence that Sarah had authored the controversial blog posts And in countries where encryption is not widely used simply sending out MIxMaster messages mail messages wrapped in strong encryption might be enough to cause Sarah39s Internet activity to be watched closely HOW MUCH ANONYMITY IS ENOUGH HOW MUCH HASSLE IS TOO MUCH Is Sarah39s solution leamingenough about cryptography and software to use MIxMaster your solution Or is some combination of steps 15 enough to let you blog anonymously There39s no single answer Any path towards anonymity needs to consider local conditions your own technical competence and your level of paranoia If you re worried that what you39re posting could put you at risk and you39re capable of installing it posting to a blog through Tor is a very good idea And remember not to sign your blog posts with your real name I Ethan Zuckerman is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School where his research fowses on the relationship between citizen jour nalism and conventional media especially in the develop ing worl e39s a foun er and former director of Geekcorps a nonrprofitorganization that focuses on tech nology training in the developing world and was one of the founders of webhosting company Tripod 62I HtWHItH IIH UI BORDER USEFUL TIPS TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP By Nart Villeneuve CONTE NTS INTERNET CONTENT FILTERING CIRCUMVENTION TECHNOLOGIES DETERMINING NEEDS AND CAPACITY WEBBASED CIRCUMVENTORS Public Webbased circumvention services Webbased circumvention software Webbased circumvention security concerns PROXY SERVERS Proxy server software Publicly accessible proxy servers Locating open proxies Open proxies uncommon ports Proxy sewers security concerns TUNNELING ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS CONCLUSION INTERN ET CONTENT FILTERING Filteringtechnology allows controls to be placed on access to Internet content Although the initial focus of such technology was on the individual level allowing parents to restrict children s access to Inappropriate content filtering technology is now being widely deployed at institutional and national level Control over access to Internet content is becoming a priority for a number of institutional actors Including schools libraries and corporations Increasingly filteringtechnology is being deployed at national level Access to specific Internet content is being blocked for entire populations often with little accountability Content filtering technologies rely on listbased blocking often in conjunction with blocking techniques that use keyword matching to dynamically block Internet content Lists of domain names and URLs are compiled and categorized then loaded Into filtering HtWHItH IIH UIBOHUEH Isa RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 64 TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP software which can be configured to block only certain categories When users try to access a web page the filtering software checks its list database and blocks access to any web page on that list If keyword blocking is enabled the software will check each web page the domain URL path and or body content of the requested page and dynamically block access to the web page if any of the banned keywords are present Filtering systems are prone to two inherent flaws overblockingand underblocking They often block access to wrongly classified content and often do not block all access to the content they intend to block But the key issue is the secrecy surroundingthe creation of lists of websites that are blocked by filteringtechnologies Although there are some open source lists focusing mostly on pornography commercial filtering lists and lists deployed at national level are secret Commercial lists of categorized domains and URLs are the intellectual property of their manufacturers and not made public Despite the fact that some filtering software manufacturers make online URL checkers available the block lists as a whole are secret and unavailable for independent scrutiny and analysis Often countries will build on commercial filteringtechnology lists addingspecific websites pertinent to their respective countries Blocked sites most often include opposition political parties or newspapers human rights organizations international news organizations and content critical of the government Most countries focus on local language content as opposed to English sites and increasingly target interactive discussion sites such as web blogs and web forums CIRCUMVENTION TECHNOLOGIES In response to statedirected Internet filtering and monitoring regimes many forms of circumvention technologies have emerged to allow users to bypass filtering restrictions There are numerous projects to develop technologies that would enable citizens and civil society networks to secure themselves against or work around Internet censorship and surveillance These tools as are referred to as circumvention technologies In general circumvention technologies work by routing a user s request from a country that imple mented filteringthrough an intermediary machine that is not blocked by the filtering regime This computer then retrieves the requested content for the censored user and transmits the content back to the user Sometimes these technologies may be specifically designed for a particular filtering situation or customized for a specific country Other times users may simply adapt existingtechnologies for circumvention purposes even though that may not be the original purpose of the technology Some of these technologies are developed by private companies others by adhoc groups of hackers and activists They range from small simple scripts and programs to highlydeveloped peertopeer network protocols Given the range of the technologies involved it is necessary for potential users to be able to weigh the strengths and weaknesses of specific techniques and technologies so as to choose the appropriate circumvention technologies that suit their needs 64I HtWHItH IIH ui WHULH TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP There are two users of circumvention technologies the circumvention provider and the circumvention user The circumvention provider installs software on a computer in a non filtered location and makes this service available to those who access the Internet from a censored location Thus successful circumvention relies on meeting the specific needs of both users This paper aims to inform users who have made the decision to use circumvention technologies of the available options and how to assess which is best suited to the specific needs of the user This is done by determining the needs and capacity of the users involved those using as well as those runningthe circumvention technology while balancingthe appropriate level of security with the technologies usability by the enduser Effective secure and stable circumvention is achieved by matching the right technology with the right user DETERMINING NEEDS AND CAPACITY Circumvention technologies often target different types of users with varying resources and levels of expertise What may work well in one scenario may not be the best option in another When choosing a circumvention technology it is important for the potential circumvention provider and user to ask these questions What is the number of expected users and the available bandwidth for the circumvention provider and the user Where is the primary point of Internet access forthe expected userls and what will they be using it for What is the level of technical expertise forthe circumvention provider and the user What is the availability of trusted outofcountry contacts for the enduser What is the level of expected penalty ifthe user is caught usingcircumvention technology Does the enduser properly understand the potential security risks of using the specific circumvention technology NUMBER OF USERS AND AVAILABLE BANDWIDTH The circumvention provider needs to estimate the number of users the circumvention technology is intended for and balance that with the available bandwidth The enduser must also take into account their bandwidth as circumvention technology will slow their Internet use People interested in running public proxies need to consider that their circumventor may be used by persons who are not in censored locations For example circumventors may be used to download entire movies which will use a lot of bandwidth Therefore you may wish to restrict access to your circumventor or how much total bandwidth you d like to circumventor to be restricted to Different available technologies provide some or all of these options HtWHItH IIH WWIDER I65 Jun a n 7 Wu Wu 7 mg on 7v 2mm 7mm mm mm 77 77 mm mm mm 7 7 am WW mmmmw mum Wm my mgwsmm m 7 mm m 77m 7 7777 mm m mm m 7 mm m whyum m mmmm Vom wk mmammmmmwmcmnrs mm ogym hum 77mm 77 mw mnmh wkmnsjmymmw m haegmzdmwmcxd 77 07mm mm RW wmsbudswm DMKINWH m as m mwmmmmx muswwngmmlm m7 wwwmw mquot warmv m mm 7 7 m a mums mg mum mm 777 mmmmmnmu magnum m7 momma a m 7mm gnu 77 we 7717mm 7 m ynmuunw m m m 87 My mum mmm mm m7 m 7 mm m 7 hamsm WW7 mm m 7 maummmm 77 m mm wens mqu m dad mmndwmmw mmzraumshvzmclwm mpmmma 77777 Webmzrshnm mmgmmmmwm m 7 77 wmmxwwmmmmmmwwwwmm 7777 mzw ymxmummnmm m swam mm Web 787 mm Myanmar 7mg WWW 777mm mm m Mm 777 mm m m 7 m 7757 mm u 7 7 7 m wwgv m WM wwwmmmms mm ow m nuzwm W 77 mm mymhmmmmmm mmmmmmpms w Mm 7 ubbad 7 a n Hadesmmquotmemm urw msnhmtd mm m wmdymw mm nmgmwmg 9mm 1 mm 775 77 m 7 w my mmummam w mmme wwm m 7 m y 7 77 a 77 nmmmnrsmmmzosmdmbe mmwmwm WW 7 77 gm smug Mum gm mm mm m7 Amhash 77 m mmmmmmmmnmmm7 um 77 m 77mm i m m m m m 7 r 7 7 7 m m m wwwmmvwwv m mm 7 m m 17 m7 mmmm www7mmmmwumww m 787 mm WW bummmmwwmm lm anMwms amd M wkdwkmmman ummwmw mamamammwmwm wng 77th 1 WM m7 mm Hmzmwwmnsmmtlym mm M wsmzm Wsm wibdmmw mmmhysmnmmmmmdw mm m 7mm 5 mm hzmwmammwmwwummamm mdumhemmmy 96 me mmmw RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 68 TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP Advantages Webbased circumvention systems are easy to use and no software needs to be installed at the enduser level Public webbased circumvention services are available to users who do not have a thsted contact in an unfiltered location Private webbased 39 39 s stems can b t 39 quot to meet t r quot39 vention needs to users and are less likely to be found by the filtering authorities Disadvantages Webbased circumvention systems are often restricted to web traffic HTTP and may not be accessible by encrypted access SSL Web services such as webbased email that require authentication may not be fully functional Public webbased circumvention services are generally well known and may already be blocked Most of these services are already blocked by commercial filtering software Private webbased circumvention systems require that a user have a contact in an unfiltered location Ideally thetwo parties must be able to communicate in some way that isn39t easily monitored PUBLIC WEBBASED CIRCUMVENTION SERVICES There is publicly available webbased circumvention software as well as services Most provide free service while some have more options such as encrypted access available with a paid subscription Some are operated by companies others by volunteers as a public service A few examplzs httpwwwanonymizercom httpwwwguardstercom httpwwwunipeakcom httpwwwwebwarpernet httpwwwanonymousews httpwwwproximalcom httpwwwproxywebnet httpwwwthecloakcom Since the web addresses of these services are widely known most Internet filtering appli cations already have these services on their block lists as do many countries that filter at national level If the web addresses of these services are blocked they cannot be used Also many public webbased circumventors do not encrypt the traffic between the circumventor and the enduser Any information transmitted by the user can be intercepted by the operator of the circumvention service Public Webbased circumvention services are best suited for users in low security risk envi ronments who are without trusted contacts in nonfiltered locations and have temporary or adhoc circumvention needs and who do not need to transmit sensitive information eel HtWHltH llH Ul WHUtH TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP WEBBASED CIRCUMVENTION SOFTWARE Installation of webbased circumvention software can require some level of technical exper tise and appropriate resources a web sewer and bandwidth With a private circumventor the location is only made known to the intended users whereas public circumventors and anonymity services are known to both users and those implementingfiltering and are on most commercialfilteringsoftware39s blocklists The chances of private circumventors being detected are blocked and lowerthan that of public circumvention services Private circumventors can be set up with some level of customization tailored to the speci fic needs of the enduser Some common customizations are changing the port number that the web sewer runs on and implementingencryption Secure Sockets Layer SSL is a protocol for transmitting content securely over the Internet It is often used by websites to securely transmit information such as credit card numbers SSLenabled websites are accessed with HTTPS instead of the normal HTTP Another option when using SSL is creating an innocuous web page at the root of the web sewer and concealing the circumventor with a random path and file name Although an intermediary may be able to determine the sewer the user is connecting to they will not be able to determine the requested path because that part of the request is encrypted For example if a user connects to https examplecomsecretcircumventor an intermedia ry will be able to determine that the user connected to examplecom but they will not know that the user requested the circumventor If the circu mventor operator places an innocuous page at examplecom then even if any monitoring is occurringthe circumventorwill not be discovered CGIProxy A CGI script acts as an HTTP or FTP proxy httpwwwjmarshallcomtoolscgipro Peacefire39s Circumventor An automated installer program that makes it much easier for nontechnical users to install and configure CGIProxy httpwwwpeacefire 39 39 p39 i 39 t t39 html pHproxy An experimental highly configurable webbased circumventor httpicecitizenlaborgprojectsphproxy Psiphon An SSLenabled websewerwith builtin webbased circumventor httpsoon to be released Private webbased circumventors with encryption enabled are best suited for users that require stable circumvention services for web traffic and have trusted contacts in non ltered locations that have sufficient technical skills and available bandwidth to set up and maintain the webbased circumventor This is the most exible circumvention option available for simple web traf c and is least likely to be discovered and blocked HtWHltH llH ureath lee ummmm n7 7 777 Wm M77 nmnm ypmwm 77 mm mtmdugrs 67 53mm mm mm mum m 77 mquot m ugrmd m 7777 mm s n 7 2nle 7 mm m 7 a 77 a mammm ndmngmummmwsm momma K7sz W777 urnmm 7 mm 7 mem 7mmmmm 77mmquot 77mm MR m mumv 7 wmtr k vgwmm 7 777va w wows mm mm lama5M mm mumemmmxmu Mme m W mwk kd m7 7 7772mm 7777 m m MeantIan bum a umvgmm an m m use 77 mam w wmsm mxmnday s nunvng 7 7 Pranmmwmdun muwr 7 777mm gamma WWW mm A Wu 77777 mwummm mmmw 7mm 7 w 7777 cm 77577 g 77 7 mm 777777 7mm mm 75 mm samumwmmm mtan s m mmmm mmss 77 7mm 7 mm mgquot m n 7 2 m m m m 7 WWW rm NM 77 m 77 77 mnmm 7 m 7778 mm m 7 77m w7mp7ggmmm7m77ga7mm 7W w m 7 mm we7777 urnmm An 77 7mm 77 5 mm MagmaMWquot 7777ka mm m 7W7m 7 77 7 mum s Wm 7m quotmm mum pm w 77 7 7 7m 7 7a mam 77 7 wwwms mam ruin mgr1mm 7 7 7m 77 m 77 mm Vwmd w me my 777M 7w 7 mum mymmiywwowme m mwmvzlamzmc Mm MN m Mm 717 a 7577 7quot m a 7me 7 77 7 r vatd Lssu r 7 7 7 5 mwmm mm 77 7 mm 77 my 7 m 771777 m 7mm WWW m wmmmm 7 mm 77mm m7 mam pm 72 5 mm W my 7 We m m M 7 mm M nggm 77 hmdm ammsm 7 mm WW7 we 77m 77 quotamatmpsg mmsmmvwm sputum MWRWEA Am TQ WmW aw 7 wwwgtmmvwmvmmwmmmmmm mmm RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 72 TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP Advantages There are many software packages to choose from that can transparently proxy traffic in addition to web traffic HTTP and can be configured to operate on nonstandard ports There are many publicly accessible proxy servers Disadvantages Most proxy sewers are not enabled with encryption by default therefore the traffic between the user and the proxy is not secure The user must have the necessary permissions to change the browsersettings and if ISP s require that all traffic go through the ISP s proxy server it may not be possible to use an open proxy server The scanning for and use of publicly accessible proxy servers may be illegal and these proxies may become unavailable to the user at anytime PROXY S E RVE R SOFTWARE Proxy server software can be installed by thsted contacts with some degree of technical expertise located outside of the country that filters Proxy server software should be installed in locations where there is plenty of available bandwidth and should be configured to use encryption technology It is especially useful for situations in which an office or small organization is in need of a stable circumvention solution After users in the filtered locations configure their browsers to point through the proxy server they can transparently surfthe Internet While notthe most stealthy circumvention solution private proxy servers are a more robust solution than webbased proxy systems Proxy servers are better than webbased proxies at seamlessly proxying sites that require authentication and cookies such as web mail sites The proxy servers can also be customized to meet the specific needs of the enduser and adapt to the local filtering environment Squid is free proxy server software and can be secured with Stunnel server ttp wwwsquidcacheorg httpwwwstunnelorg http icecitizenlaborg projects aardvark Privoxy is a proxy with advanced filtering capabilities for protecting privacy wwwprivoxyo Secure Shell SSH has a builtin socks proxy 3 ssh D port securehostcom wwwopensshcom HTTPportHTTPhost allows you to bypass your HTTP proxy which is blocking you from the Internet 12 HtWHltH llH Ul WHUtH TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP Private proxy servers with encryption enabled are best suited for groups or users in an of ce environment that require a permanent stable circumvention solution and have trusted contacts with suf cient technical skills and available bandwidth outside the country to install and maintain the proxy server PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE PROXY SERVERS Open proxies are servers thatare intentionally orothenNise leftopen forconnections from remote computers It is not explicitly known if open proxy servers have been set up as a public service or if they have been just badly configured to inadvertently allow public access WARNING Depending on the interpretation of local law the use of open proxy servers may be viewed as 39unauthorized acoess39 and open proxy users may subject to legal penalties The use of open proxy servers is not recommended Locating open proxies Many websites maintain lists of open proxy servers but this not a guarantee that the proxy service is still available Nothing guarantees that the information on these lists especially information concerning anonymity level and geographical location of the proxy is accura te Be aware that you are usingthese services at your own risk Open proxy list websites httpwwwsamairnJproxy httpwwwantiproxycom httptoolsrosinsthmentcomproxy httpwwwmultiproxyorg httpwwwpublicproxyserverscom Software ProxyTooIsLocalProxy httpproxytoolssourceforgenet HtWHltH llH ureath I13 mmm MM My n1 7 Wm wme m mummyquot mm M m mm mm mme A w ma memusmmMwnn m y Pkpmsmsmm mcwheyw my mm y m mmmmmmymm m Maytag n waan mmummmymwumyw mnmmmmm y mmanmmumugavapmma has m titman part WWW a Wan m M uayymm hywmw mxwmm s w mymman mmw n my 2mm h mum we Wm pmxysznzr m mnnghrw Ra39pmmymkpmmsnmmmd on my m n m m mzm m yauymm m Wm any my mum Mum m n a 7 mu yumlmzm mam mm W15 waxy grxzSnSHmhwemgnnv mm mm mhsw gm h mud mmmmdnm mm m Wownwmsumngm 42 mm gamevvsl nwwmwwmmdmzms mamafwmwMNymwPwysmw mwwtym rnmsmmany 5 WWW lawnan my mmm Mm mamay 1 hawumwu Vamumma an m mm mm myav mum mmzmc Wm 15mm aspan mm mm W 7 man mm m m5 missmd MW Wm mmy yam Wm mm a w M m wn39zs m mm tradwmrymm Dvnv tumdngszmmm kwszwwmwnwsm WWWmm mugsnm waynymmy mmquot mmsmmmgm mmmmwmwm Mum m h mmtd w my quotway w m m damn ma m a m a Mm mm mmquot my m MM my mum adxzn my mm mm My an m R mm mm mm m mman Mums devgm mnswudeevwm mm Ermwwwtmswaiyhu m awn mMyWWvmywhms mm M m mum 5mgst w dc mm wmacs m m msz mmst Wm RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 76 TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP Disadvantages Commercial tunneling services are publicly known and may already be filtered Tunneling applications cannot be used by users in public access locations where users cannot install software such as Internet cafes or libraries Use of tunneling applications may require a higher level of technical expertise than other circumvention methods Tunnelingapplications are best suited fortechnically capable users that require secure but not anonymous circumvention services for more than just web traffic and do not access the Internet from public locations Commercial tunneling services are an excellent resource forusers in censored countries that do not have trusted contacts in nonfiltered locations ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS Circumvention technologies and anonymous communications systems are similar and often interrelated but operate under distinctly different criteria Anonymous communication systems focus on ensuringthe privacy of the user by shieldingthe identity of the requesting user from the content provider In addition advanced systems employ a variety of routing techniques to ensure that the user s identity is shielded from the anonymous communications system itself Circumvention systems do not necessarily focus on anonymity Instead the focus is on secure communications to bypass specific restrictions imposed on the users ability to send and receive Internet communications Bypassingcontent restrictions requires secure communications technology and often a degree of stealth but not necessarily anonymity Anonymous communications systems are often used for circumvention One advantage of them is that there are several existing networks that can be Immediately tapped Into and used to bypass content restrictions with the added benefit of being able to do so anonymously The use of anonymous communica tions systems for circumvention is restricted to computers on which the user has the appropriate permissions to install software Persons w 0 access the Internet through public terminals libraries or Internet cafes l mu inquot r r quot will most likely be unable to use such systems for circumvention They may I IHI nah nu quotm Isly y 39 also slow down connection speeds Innv up mu quot In u Ii 16 HtWHItH IIH UI WHUtH TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP Users seeking to bypass Internet filtering at national or ISP level may find the filtering authorities take steps to blockthe use of anonymous communications systems Ifthe sys tem being used operates on a static port filtering software can easily be configured to deny access The more wellknown the anonymous communications system the greater the rIskthat It will be blocked In addition to combat systems that rely on the use of peers or publicly known nodes the filtering authorities can simply deny access to these hosts The filtering authorities may operate a node of their own and attempt to monitor users who try to connect to it In some restrictive environments where traffic to these wellknown systems is monitored the use of such systems may draw attention to users 3 Advantages They provide both security and anonymi They generally have the ability to securely proxy many protocols notjust web traffic They often have a community of users and developers who can provide technical assistance Disadvantages They are not specifically designed forcircumvention They are publicly known and may be filtered easily They cannot be used by users in public access locations where users cannot install soft ware such as Internet cafes or libraries Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows people and groups to improve their privacy and security on the Internet It also enables software developers to create new communication tools with builtin privacy features Tor provides the foundation for a range of applications that allow organizations and Individuals to share information over public networks without compromisingtheir privacy httptoreffo JAP makes It possible to surfthe Internet anonymously Instead of connecting directly to a web server users take a detour connectingwith encryption through several Inter mediaries socalled mixes o httpanonInftudresdendeindexenhtml Freenet is free software which lets you publish and obtain information on the Internet without fear of censorship It is entirely decentralized and publishers and consumers of information are anon mous httpfreenetsourceforgenet For more on potential anacks on cirwmvention sysmms see Bennen Haselton39s article quotList of possible weaknesses in systems to cirwmvent Inmrnet censorship 3 M1 I 4 V i L and a reply by Paul Baranowski at wwwpeek bootyorgpbhtmIdownloads ResponseToLopwismicpdf HtWHItH IIH wasth I11 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1128 Page 78 TECHNICAL WAYS TO GET ROUND CENSORSHIP Use of such systems may require quite a high level of technical expertise Anonymous communications systems are best suited for technically capable users who require both circumvention and anonymity serw39ces for more than just web traf c and do not access the Internet from public locations CONCLUSION The decision to use circumvention technology should be taken seriously carefully analyzing the specific needs available resources and security concerns of the enduser There is a wide variety of technologies available for users who want to circumvent Internet filtering However usingthem for successful and stable circumvention service depends on a variety of factors Includingthe users level of technical skill potential security risk and contacts available outside the censored country Governments may also take countermeasures to effectively block specific circumvention technologies The keys to successful and stable circumvention capability are trust and performance Circumvention systems need to be targeted to users in specific circumstances or be readily adaptable to the needs of the enduser They need to be secure configurable and often stealthy Trust should be established between circumvention provider and the end user by understanding the specific legal and political environment in which the enduser operates and being upfront about the limitations of circumvention technologies NartVilleneuve is the director of technical researd1 at the Citizen Lab an interdisciplinary laboratory ased at th unk Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto As both a sof re developer and academic he is currently working with the OpenNet Initiative ONI documenting 39 J 39 Ira ha quot quot 4 ting and evaluating existing circumventioh technology as well as developing o39rcumvention mchnolor gy In ad ition to Internet censorshi his research interests include ac tivism cybermrrorism and Internet security NartVilleneuve is a recent graduam of the University of Toronto39s Peace and Con ict Studies program Acknowledgemean Michelle Levesque Derek Bambauer and Bennett Haselton 18I HtWHItH IIH UI WHUtH CONFIDENTIALITY ENSURING YOUR EMAIL IS TRULY PRIVATE By Ludovic Pierrat ost governments now have the means to spy on electronic messages The cyberpolice in repressive countries use It to spot and arrest political pponents and many Internet users have been thrown in prison for sending or even just forwarding an email A political dissident in the Maldives was given a 15 year jail sentence in 2002 for corresponding by emaIl with Amnesty International An Internet user in Syria has been in prison since February 2003 for forwarding an emaIl newsletter So here are some tips on how to ensure your emails remain private Using the emaIl account supplied by your Internet service provider ISP such as AOL Wanadoo or Free or by a firm doesn t guarantee any emaIl confidentiality The owners of the networks your messages pass through can very easily intercept them When the autho rities in any country want to Investigate Internet users they usually go through their ISP to read their email A webmail account such as Yahoo or Hotmail is more secure because it doesn t use the servers of a local ISP To read webmail messages you have to force your way in or intercept messages as they re beingtransmitted which is technically more difficult Unfortunately this protection is only relative since police experts or hackers can easily look at your webmail Encryption writing protected by a code is the main way to really ensure the privacy of your messages There are two kinds CLASSIC ENCRYPTION Ann and Michael want to exchange secret messages so they agree on an encryption and decryption code and a key Then they exchange messages using them The snag with this method is that If a third person intercepts the messages in which Ann and Michael exchange their key that person can see It and use it perhaps to send bogus emails to Ann and Michael So Ann and Michael have to exchange their key when nobody else can see it by meeting in person for example HtWHItH IIH uIeoHutH I19 mmmmm MM nu mm 4437 Inamama MAHEVKW mm mwm wwwva wbswmu wumsmaWc ww m Mkyszenmd Wm mth ammo mm mm msmmmmmvm w m h mm mmmmg mam mmm m tum mg m a w m mm Mnmhtwmnww Wmiwmcmb39w an Ammmmpamwmwmmwm mmmmmw m msmmn Maud My mum mm NEW 0mm wan mmdwmmsm Maud m mm mm m m msnswmcmn m m 1 mm mm m msm ammowry Mm mm my mum memsow pmmm 5m mmmmm saw mmhxnnwm bmnmgmw W 98 7 mmquot W W n m Anmm dmmhudxanmmdmm p mmmm mmquot my x V mm m We mmquot was way an Pmmngmmmw mmxmpmmm mmer pmvsk em mmmmwmcmm Mm DurhamremnantRapzravwwm ewmcwmmwm pammmmm wwzy 8261mm m h 81 m m m WW mxmmmmaro hw mm mm puma aux a WWW puma sand mm mama WWW menmlsam mmmmm mmmw m wwmmmm W V MM INTERNETCENSOR WORLD CHAMP ONSH P Evawquot mm m m 5 mum wm n m m mw m m mm M w m anln M KM mu m hm a mm L A mmmwmu Mm mm magmaquotLs m omwaw mm m an mmmmmmmm mm m m WW mmm mmmmm 5w mdhcmsbu MM MumKrawa mm amva p at cm W womchAMmN m m m m w my wm 7 M s u mam dc mu m mam 5 mm 7 a wwmmm K501 avmzmwumsmu mm mm 1 mar owlme mum mummde W m tugs u durmxavmmnx mm m away gamma mmummmmn m quotgamma mdmmng w yul mxtw mnlmgmm sbn m WW1pr Madam mm mssm sbkmk amsr madnmnmamamswmwy Wm mm m m mm mm W mm Yam m tptmzlu r 5 mm mm am M am Wm mama um wmm an mas mwamm mm mm almwtd ybwug mm mm 1wme arcmhthansuhxquotmm o m m 2 sum1 mm m 15v mmquot mmmm Onwarmsws m y mm mm mm m cwv W mam mm m mama mm m Mam mmlm m m mm wmw puma mm A aw w 3922 mm mm hasammmmve mmmm m w mm m mum w mmm may mg m an m w m a m w m 581 b vgthWsh m M Sc mum m WM mum nu avammd ymgmd m tsm u mkme mmm 7 m 77 7 77w 7 077 m 77 7 7 admmf 77 7 mm um 77 7777 97 7 w77777 77 777 mm 77 7 r 7 Us w777S m 77 05m 7777 m was 7777777S77s7w mmamymmou n 777 77777 7 777777 777 s 77 7 7777 777 7777 77 7 77 7 g 7 7 7 77 777 77775777177 777 777 mm 777 7 twy s w m 77 777 77 7 7 7 777775 mm 7 7717 e7 7 WWW 7 7 7 7777 7 w 77777 777777 7 ms 77 7777sm 77 77 7 7 N 7 77 7 7 7777 c7777 rm 7 7 7377 7 77 7 7777 7 77177wmam76777 77777 7777 7777 7 777 77777 777 777 777m u 77 7 W767 m7 mm A vm 70 w 7 7775 77 7777 5 7m 57 77 urszmamcmdmnahvimw W77 7 77777m577757 7 mum 7 v1 7 777777 77777 77 m 277 m 777 71 N7 7 75 7777 7777 77777 277777m77 777 n 777 7 7777 m ms 7 Murmur mus w 77 77 7 77777 77 73 77977 7777mq7m777777g77 077 WWW7777m77757777 7777773777 7 77 7 7777 7 777775 77 7 777777 777577 77 777 77 77 7 7777777mas7mm 7 w7 7775 mu ma 777777 7 7777 7 777 a a 77 7 m7 an 77 mam 7 15v 77 777 7 2 7 777 777 m mp5 7 7777 7 7 vex11mm 777 77 777 7 777 gm cm mmmmv 77 77 7 m 7 v7 mg 77 5 777 7w 7 7 m7777 RAPPORT INTERNET 2004 GB 150905 1129 Page 86 INTERNETCENSOR WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP SAUDI ARABIA RECORD GOALS The Saudi authorities openly admit they censor the Internet No page no found like in China When you try to go to a banned site you re tod straight out it s been blocked by the govern ment s fil ters The official Internet Service Unit ISU is proud to tell you it s barred access to nearly 400000 sites and has even posted a form online for users to suggest new websites that could be blocked The ISU says it filters sites to shield citizens from offensive material violating Islamic principles and social norm 5 It s also interestingto note that a US firm Secure Computing sold the regime its online filtering system UZBEKISTAN DUMMY PASS EXPERTS There s no way to censor the Internet in this country the Uzbek information minister said in June 2005 An odd statement when all the country s opposition web sites can t be accessed and when online journalists are regularly threatened and physically attacked Julien Pain is head of the Inmrnet Freedom desk at Repormrs Without Borders ssl HthitH IIH UI BORDER CREDITS REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERS International Secretaria 5 rue GeoffroyMarie 75009 Paris France Tel 33 1 44838484 Fax 33145231151 Website wwwrsforg Editor Sylvie Devilette devilettersforg Communication Anne MartinezSaiz communicationrsforg Graphic design and extra illustrations mNuit de Chine ndcnuitdechinecom ISBN 2915536368 Copyright Reporters Without Borders 2005 Printed August 2005 France HthitH IIH WWIDER I81 f AMERICANSggo Online Privacy A Report from the Annenberg Publi Polilcthulenter of the University of Pennsylvania I u Ame cans and Online Privacy The System is Broken By Joseph Turow June 2003 Amencans and Online Privacy The System is Broken Overview 3 Background 5 The Study and the Population 12 Enduring Concerns about Web Privacy 16 Not Understanding Data Flow 19 Not Taking Steps to Learn 25 Agreeing With Straightforward Solutions 28 Con icted About Whether Institutions Will Help 30 Concluding Remarks 33 OVERVIEW This new national survey reveals that American adults who go online at home misunderstand the very purpose of privacy policies The study is also the rst to provide evidence that the overwhelming majority of Us adults who use the intemet at home have no clue about data owsithe invisible cutting edge techniques whereby online organizations extract manipulate append pro le and share information about them Even if they have a sense that sites track them and collect individual bits of their data they simply don t fathom how those bits can be used In fact when presented with a common way that sites currently handle consumers information they say they would not accept it The findings suggest that years into attempts by governments and advocacy groups to educate people about intemet privacy the system is more broken than ever 57 of US adults who use the intemet at home believe incorrectly that when a website has a privacy policy it will not share their personal information with other websites or companies 47 of US adults who use the intemet at home say website privacy policies are easy to understand However 66 of those who are con dent about their understanding of privacy policies also believe incorrectly that sites with a privacy policy won t share data 59 of adults who use the intemet at home know that websites collect information about them even if they don t register They do not however understand that data ows behind their screens invisibly connect seemingly unrelated bits about them When presented with a common version of the way sites track extract and share information to make money from advertising 85 of adults who go online at home did not agree to accept it on even a valued site When offered a choice to get content from a valued site with such a policy or pay for the site and not have it collect information 54 of adults who go online at home said that they would rather leave the web for that content than do either Among the 85 who did not accept the policy one in two 52 had earlier said they gave or would likely give the valued site their real name and email addressithe very information a site needs to begin creating a personally identifiable dataset about them Despite strong concerns about online information privacy 64 of these online adults say they have never searched for information about how to protect their information on the web 40 say that they know almost nothing about stopping sites from collecting information about them and 26 say they know just a little Only 9 of American adults who use the intemet at home say they know a lot Overwhelmingly however they support policies that make learning what online companies know about them straightforward 86 believe that laws that forces website policies to have a standard format will be effective in helping them protect their information 0 Yet most Americans feel unsure or con icted about whether key institutions will help them with their information privacy or take it away Only 13 of American adults who use the web at home trust that the government will help them protect personal information online while not disclosing personal information about them without permission Similarly only 18 trust their banks and credit card companies and only 18 trust their intemet service providers ISPs to act that way Parents whose children go online are generally no different on these attitudes knowledge or actions than the rest of US adults who use the intemet at home Like the others most parents are concerned confused and con icted about intemet privacy These are highlights from the most recent Annenberg national survey of intemet attitudes and activities The survey raises questions about the usefulness of trying to educate American consumers in the growing range of tools needed to protect their online information at a time when technologies to extract and manipulate that information are themselves growing and becoming evermore complex Our findings instead indicate that consumers want legislation that will help them easily gain access to and control over all information collected about them online At the end of this report we therefore suggest that the federal government needs to require online organizations to unambiguously disclose informationcollection policies as well as to straightforwardly describe at the start of every online encounter what has and will happen to the specific user s data Our examination of online Americans attitudes knowledge and actions regarding their online information was carried out by ICIUIntemational Communication Research for the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennylvania1 The study was conducted by telephone from February 5 to March 21 2003 among a nationally representative sample of 1200 respondents 18 years and older who said they use the intemet at home 516 43 of the respondents were parents of a child age 17 or younger Our aim was to address two critical public policy questions that had not previously been explored in depth What level of understanding do Americans have regarding the way organizations handle information about them on the intemet And how much do they trust social institutions to help them control their information online 1 Thanks to Tara Jackson Melissa Herrmann and Jill Glather and Carol Cassel of ICR for survey and statistical help Susannah Fox Robert Homik Steve Jones Mihir Kshirsagar Deborah Linebarger Mihaela Popescu Lee Rainie and Judith Turow generously listened at various stages of this project and provided useful suggestions All responsibility for presentation and interpretation of findings rests with the author of this report BACKGROUND An important reason that policy analysts need to know the answer to these questions relates to the absence of US laws to control much of the extraction manipulation and sharing of data about people and what they do online With the exception of certain personal health information certain types of personal nancial information held by certain types of firms3 and personally identi able information from children younger than 13 years4 online companies have virtually free reign to use individuals data in the Us for business purpose without their knowledge or consent They can take utilize and share personally identifiable informationithat is information that they link to individuals names and addresses They can also create package and sell detailed profiles of people whose names they do not know but whose interests and lifestyles they feel they can infer from their websurfing activities Companies continually troll for and exploit personally identifiable and nonpersonally identifiable information on the intemet They often begin by getting the names and email addresses of people who sign up for web sites They can then associate this basic information with a small text file called a cookie that can record the various activities that the registering individual has carried out online during that session and later sessions Tracking with cookies is just the beginning however By using other technologies such as web bugs spyware chatroom analysis and transactional database software web entities can follow people s email and keyboard activities and serve ads to them even when they are offline Moreover companies can extend their knowledge of personally identifiable individuals by purchasing information about them from list firms off the web and linking the information to their own databases That added knowledge allows them to send targeted editorial matter or advertising to consumers More specificity also increases the value of the databases when they are marketed to other interested data trollers Marketers and media firms use consumer information in a broad gamut of ways and with varying concerns for how far the data travel Some websites unabashedly collect all the information they can about visitors and market them as aggressively as they can to advertisers and other marketers Though many of these emphasize personally identifiable 2 These regulations relate to Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 HIPPA They resulted in the first set of federal privacy rules to protect medical information online and elsewhere See httpwww con um ernrivac guide 39 html 3 These optout regulations relate to the Financial Modernization Act Graham LeachBliley Act For an explanation see the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse site httpwwwprivacyrightsorgfsst4aoptout htm 4 The Children s Online Privacy Protection Act which went into effect in 2000 requires online services directed at children 12 and under or which collect information regarding users age to give parents notice of their information practices and obtain their consent prior to collecting personal information from children The Act also requires sites to provide parents with the ability to review and correct information that they collect about their children See Joseph Turow Privacy Policies on Children s Websites Do They Play By the Rules Philadelphia Annenberg Public Policy Center 2001 htm www appcpenn orginternetfam ily information not all of them do Tracking people anonymously can still lead to useful targeting An important example is the Gator Corporation which places its tracking les into people s computers when they download free software such as the KaZaA music sharing program The company claims to be in 35 million computers and says that once there The Gator Corporation has the ability to ride along with consumers as they surf the Web That allows us to display targeted ads based on actual behavior and deliver incredible insights 5 A pitch to potential clients continues Here s an example Gator knows this consumer is a new parent based on their realtime and historical online behaviorilooking for information on childbirth looking for baby names shopping for baby products 6 Let s say you sell baby food We know which consumers are displaying behaviors relevant to the baby food category through their online behavior Instead of targeting primarily by demographics you can target consumers who are showing or have shown an interest in your category Gator offers several vehicles to display your ad or promotional message You decide when and how your message is displayed to consumers exhibiting a behavior in your category 7 Many individual sites aim to provide similar services to marketers though on a more limited scale Many collect names and email addresses and use an opt out approach to gather targets for email advertising by themselves or af liates on topics that ostensibly relate to the site themes Some sites link their online knowledge of individuals with data collected of ine Typically the more prestigious sites sell that information only in aggregate to advertisers So for example an online newspaper may offer to send an ad for a client to all its users who are male and own a home Because the newspaper site serves the ad the advertiser does not know the names of those who receive itiunless they click on the ad and respond with their names to an offer Some wellknown sites may also have deals with companies that serve ads on their sites and share the revenues These firms place their own cookies into the computers of those who visit the websites and then track people s activities into the many other sites that affiliate with the ad serving firms Some of them may try to coax names and email addresses from consumers that click on their ads even if the site on which their ads appeared did not The idea that consumers electronic actions are increasingly transparent has ala1med some Critics of these sorts of activities come at them with a variety of concerns from a variety of viewpoints Many emphasize the danger that some kinds of personal information may fall into the hands of companies or people who could take advantage of the consumer In the wake of the antiterror PATRIOT Act critics also worry that various government agencies will expand the tracking and generalizing about consumers on the web that had until recently seemed to be the domain of business They point out 5 httpwwwgatorcorporationcomadvertiseqtrpage72htmlmpl4 accessed on May 29 2003 6 httpwwwgatorcorporationcomadvertiseqtrpagejhtmlmpl4 accessed on May 29 2003 7 httpwwwgatorcorporationcomadvertiseqtrpage74htmlmpl4 accessed on May 29 2003 the profound damage that errors or names on suspect lists can cause individuals and families Others note that sites application of email addresses in the service of marketing has helped the proliferation of unwanted email on the web adding to a spam epidemic that has intemet users and their service providers steaming More sociologicallyinclined analysts underscore that the invisible nature of much of the tracking and sorting can lead marketers to make generalizations about consumers that the consumers don t know and don t agree with Inferences drawn from demographics and websurfing habits can encourage discrimination in the kinds of editorial and advertising materials a site shows consumers Such activities will become more intense as technologies to mine data analyze data and tailor based on the conclusions become more efficient and cost effective As they expand the activities may well lead people to feel anxious not only that they are being tracked but that they are being treated differentlyifor example given different discountsithan others because of who they are and what their clickstream says about them Law professor Jeffrey Rosen poses the humanistic critique bluntly Paraphrasing the Czech writer Milan Kundera he suggests that by requiring citizens to live in glass houses without curtains totalitarian societies deny their status as individuals He goes on to note that spying on people without their knowledge is an indignity It fails to treat its objects as fully deserving of respect and treats them instead like animals in a zoo deceiving them about the nature of their own surroundings 8 Those concerned about the secondary use and sharing of data about individuals point to the European Union s rather stringent prohibitions against using data in ways for which they were not originally gathered In the US no such broad rules apply though in the late 1990s the Federal Trade Commission advanced a set of Fair Information Practices re ective of principles that had been advanced in the early 1980s by the Office for F 39 quot and D 39 These would mandate certain levels of data 1 security on websites provide notice to potential users of sites about the way data will be collected and used give the users choice about allowing that collection and provide them with access to data that have been collected to find out what firms know and determine their accuracy They in turn had been the basis for guiding the FTC s enforcement of a Safe Harbor agreement with the European Union whereby US companies wanting to use personally identifiable data about EU citizens in the US had to recognize these practices in the EU though not in the US9 As FTC Commissioner Orson Swindle recalled in late 2002 US regulatory officials tended to encourage industry selfregulation rather than the legislative mandating of these practices Use of the Internet for marketing and attempts to address online privacy concerns were still in their infancy and the Commission believed that the private sector 8 Jeffrey Rosen The Eroded Self New York Times Magazine April 30 2000 9 See D Brown and J Blevins The safeharbor agreement between the United States and Europe a missed opportunity to balance the interests of ecommerce and privacy online Journal afBraadcaszing andElectranic Media 464 December 2002 p 565 would continue on its own toward better privacy practices than what federal regulation might require More specifically it seemed inappropriate in these formative years to prescribe regulations that would impose nontrivial costs without also achieving clear benefits 10 By 2000 however three of the ve members of the Commission believed that industry had made insufficient progress toward developing genuine pragmatic privacy protections for consumers They formally recommended that the Congress enact laws to codify the Fair Information Practice principles Congress agreed with the naysayers however and no such law was passed Instead the Federal Trade Commission has used Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act which deals with unfair and deceptive practices to prosecute websites that present fraudulent claims about information protection1 An extreme example of the computer industry s riposte to such concerns about privacy came from Sun Microsystems chief executive Scott McNealy in February 1999 when someone pointed out that a new Sun product might allow people to track its users movements quotYou have zero privacy anywayquot McNealy told a questioner quotGet over itquot12 The comment which The New York Times used as its quotation of the day not long after he made it13 raised consternation within the business community as well as outside it The more typical corporate response to concerns about online consumer privacy has been to express agreement with the goal of protecting personal information while at the same time arguing that government intervention on consumers behalf could be catastrophic to industry growth ANew York Times report in 2001 concluded that Lawmakers are bolstered in their efforts to slow the march of legislation by a ood of new studies and surveys r J by high 39 39 J J 39 J quot 39 consumer attitudes about privacy and giving multibilliondollar estimates of the costs of complying with such laws 14 So for example a study in 2001 by Robert Hahn of the American Enterprise Institute a conservative research center in Washington concluded that complying with privacy legislation proposals would cost companies 30 billion A spokesperson for the Association for Competitive Technology which paid for the Hahn study used the findings to argue that quotthe costs associated with regulation appear to be higher than the benefits achieved by regulationquot15 10 Orson Swindle Perspectives on Privacy Law and Enforcement Activity in the United States Privacy amp Information Law Report 34 December 2002 11 Critics have argued that US legislative venues for reinforcing consumer privacy rights in general are insufficient The United States does not have a federal privacy law Moreover tort law does not protect the disclosure of personal data unless the data could be construed as libel or potentially embarrassing The mere gathering of data is not actionable in courts unless the practice of gathering itself is arguably too intrusive See Jessica Litman quotInformation privacyinformation propertyquot Stanford Law Review 2000 vol 52 pp 12831313 12 Richard Morochove Sun Mcrosystems Lets Jini Out Of Bottle Toronto Star February 4 1999 13 Quotation of the Day New York Times March 3 1999 Section A Page 239 Column 6 14 John Schwartz Government is Wary of Tackling Online Privacy New York Times September 6 2002 Section C page I 15 Schwartz Government is Wary of Tackling Online Privacy page I The Times report pointedly quot J surveys r J by high 39 39 J companies questioning consumer attitudes about privacy These studies argue consistently that although much of the public had certainly become concerned about online privacy Americans are quite alert to the particulars of their information environment They typically understand their information options are aware of privacy policies and are willing to negotiate privacy demands with companies who could offer them something in return Alan Westin s Privacy and American Business consultancy has been an important promulgator of this notion that Americans make costbenefit analyses about whether to release their information online Beginning 1995 his analyses of surveys conducted with the Harris research organization have promulgated a tripartite division of the online publiciprz39vacy unconcerned privacy fundamentalists and privacy pragmatists Looking back in 2003 Westin noted a sharp drop in the percentage of his privacy unconcerned group from 22 in 1999 to 8 two years later A correspondingly higher percentage of Americans 56 in 2002 versus 34 in 1999 believed that most businesses did not handle personal information they collect in a proper and confidential way Nevertheless Westin noted that the privacy pragmatists still formed by far the largest group of intemet consumers 58 in 2002 His description of their outlook re ects his position that most Americans take an informed costbene t tack in relation to their online information They examined the benefits to them or society of the data collection and use wanted to know the privacy risks and how organizations proposed to control those and then decided whether to trust the organization or seek legal oversight 1 This description of most Americans as aware of their online privacy options supported the line by intemet industry players that an accurate privacy policy on every site is sufficient for allowing consumers to understand their information options in different sites As a result of the Children s Online Privacy Protection Act COPPA the Federal Trade Commission mandated specific privacy practices and disclosures regarding children younger than 13 years With respect to everyone else however the presence form and content of privacy policies is optional subject only to broad prescriptions for members of industry groups such as the Internet Advertising Bureau and the Direct Marketing Association The result is a world of legalistically phrased privacy policies that typically start by assuring the consumer that the site cares about his or her privacy The policies then run for many paragraphs hedge with respect to many of their assurances are ambiguous when it comes to the affiliates with whom they share information don t necessarily report whether a site purchases data of ine about its registered users generally caution that the privacy policy can change at any time sometimes telling consumers that the site will inform them when that happens and 16 On the development of this contention see Oscar Gandy Public Opinion Surveys and the Formation of Public Policy Journal afSacial Issues 592 2003 283299 1 A good summary is in Alan F Westin Social and Political Dimensions of Privacy Journal afSacial Issues 592 2003 431453 18 Westin Social and Political Dimensions of Privacy pp 445446 often note that by clicking on an ad link a consumer may be entering a world with a privacy policy totally different from the one they are reading Anecdotal conversations suggest that internet experts nd privacy policies hard to read and difficult to understand A bold technological solution that has gained industry traction during the past few years is the Platform for Privacy Preferences P3P Its goal is to provide a webwide computerreadable standard manner for websites to communicate their privacy policies automatically to people s computers In that way visitors can know immediately when they get to a site whether they feel comfortable with its information policy20 A recent report by an ATampT Labs group found that while P3P s adoption by websites is growing especially on the most popular sites fewer than 10 of websites offer it21 One reason that sites eschew P3P is that it requires them to transform their privacy policies into a number of straightforward answers to multiple choice questions P3P consequently does not allow for the ambiguities evasions and legal disclaimers that are hallmarks of such documents Note too that the P3P approach does not have a facility for ensuring that websites answer the questions accurately or truthfully In the absence of a widespread technological solution those concerned about the state of information privacy on the internet lobby for legislation22 at the same time that they try to educate people about how to understand what goes on There certainly are lots of places for people to learn what happens to their information online and how to keep it secure The popular press continually beats a refrain about the dangers of the internet for information privacy sometimes with links to online locations to learn more Websites of organizations as varied as the Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC Privacyorg a joint project of EPIC and Privacy International the Center for Democracy and Technology Internet Education Foundation AARP Consumer s Union and the Us Federal Trade Commission have exhorted consumers and citizens to take specific steps to protect their privacy online 19 For an examination of privacy policies in children s websites see Joseph Turow Privacy Policies on Children s Websites Do They Play By the Rules Philadelphia Annenberg Public Policy Center March 2002 httpwwwappcpennorginternetfamily 20 P3P user agents are built into the Internet Explorer 60 and Netscape Navigator web browsers An ingenious ATampT program called Privacy Bird is a P3P user agent that works with Internet Explorer 501 and higher It displays a bird icon on the browser that changes color and shape to indicate whether or not a web site s P3P policy matches a user s privacy preferences The betaversion software is free See httpwwwprivacybirdcom 21 Lorrie Faith Cranor Simon Byers and David Kormann An Analysis of P3P Deployment on Commercial Government and Children s Web Sites as of May 2003 Technical report prepared for the may 14 2003 Federal Trade Commission Workshop on Technologies for Protecting Personal Information httpwww researchattcomproj ectsp3p 22 For a list of privacy speech and cyberliberties bills in the 108th Congress see the Electronic Privacy Information Center s site htggwwwepicorgfprivacybill track html 10 ConsumerPrivacyorg for example provides an online guide to help readers take control of the way your information is used 23 Sections include a how to guide to privacy top things you can do to protect your privacy kids privacy frequently asked questions and a privacy glossary The Internet Education Foundation has a similarly wideranging resource called GetNetWise that is supported by various corporations AARP provides a guide called Online Shopping A Checklist for Safer Cybershopping The Federal Trade Commission issues FTC FAC TS for Consumers that deal with intemet privacy with such titles as Dialing Up to the Internet How to Stay Safe Online and Safe at Any Speed How to Stay Safe Online If You Use HighSpeed Internet Access And EPIC provides an online guide to practical privacy tools that help intemet users with such activities as sur ng anonymously eliminating cookies achieving email and le privacy and deleting les so that they can never be read A question unanswered through all the debates about information privacy and the web is whether consumers understand these approaches and how to implement them Marketers argue that privacy notices are invaluable in helping to ease concerns over sharing information They look with optimism to a study conducted in Spring 2001 for the Privacy Leadership Initiative a coalition of CEOs and organizations dedicated to improving consumer privacy online It found that consumers were increasingly paying attention to online privacy statements 82 in April 2001 vs 73 in December 200025 0 But does concern over privacy and increased attention to privacy policies mean that people really understand what is happening to their information on the web Are writers such as Alan Westin correct to suggest that Americans make knowledgeable pragmatic costbene t analyses when they disclose data about themselves online This study explores these and other key questions 23 Protect Your Privacy NowiWelcome to ConsumerPrivacyGuide Consum erPrivacyGuideorg httpwwwconsmnerprivacyguideorg accessed on May 28 2003 24 Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC Online Guide to Practical Privacy Tools httpwwwepicorgprivacytools html accessed May 28 2003 25 Beth Mack Keep It To Yourself Marketing News November 25 2002 p 21 11 THE STUDY AND THE POPULATION We decided to focus on US adults who have and use intemet connections at home Surveys indicate that they can be found in about half of US homes 6 Of course many people go online both at home and elsewhere especially work and we included them in our sample We did not include adults who use the web only outside the homeiat work or in the library for example The reason is that using the web in the home raises issues of personal control over information that may not be true elsewhere Information technology personnel at work may install firewalls and filters so that employees may feel that their information is protected from outside intruders in ways that people who go online at home do not At the same time office workers may worry primarily about their company s surveillance of their intemet activities Adults who go online exclusively from nondomestic locations may consequently hold different concerns about privacy and have different ways to deal with them than those who also go online at home This is an important topic that ought to be explored in a separate study Our survey was carried out by International Communication ResearchICR from January 30 to March 21 20003 To get a rough comparison of changes in privacy concerns we repeated questions that we had asked of a nationally representative sample of parents in 2000 We added new questions that explored people s understanding of privacy policies on the intemet whether they know how to protect their online information whether they take steps to do that what institutions they believe will help them control their information online and whether or not they agree that certain policy approaches would be effective in helping people to protect information about themselves on the web Telephone interviews which averaged 20 minutes were completed with a nationally representative sample of 1200 adults age 18 and older who said responded quotyesquot when asked quotdo you use the intemet at homequot We used a nationally representative RDD random digit dial sample to screen households for adults age 18 or older who use the intemet at home We were able to determine that 533 of households that we phoned had at least one household member who met our eligibility requirements Among those households the percentage of eligible individuals who completed an interview or the cooperation rate was a remarkable 664 The data were weighted by age education and race to the 2001 consumer population survey CPS which asked adults ages 18 or older questions similar to that used in the intemet privacy study to ascertain intemet use at home27 26 The CPS Internet and Computers survey September 2001 N143000 found adults who use the internet at home in 549 households A Centris study is more recent February 128 2003 N7342 but also a bit more conservative because it asked respondents if they personally accessed the internet at home in the past 30 days It found an incidence of 41 For this survey we asked do you use the intemet at home 27 Our unweighted data was actually remarkably similar on these categories to the CPS as well as Centris and Pew Internet and American Life surveys from 2002 We used the CPS because of its huge number of respondents 143000 and reputation as the gold standard for weighting The margin of error for reported percentages based on the entire sample of 1200 is plus or minus 286 percentage points at the 95 confidence level The margin of error is higher for smaller subgroups within this sample 12 Tables 1 and 2 provide an introductory snapshot of the population we interviewed and its internet use As Table 1 indicates men and women are about equal in number 77 designate their race as white blacks and Hispanics together make up 13 of the total about half are under age 45 and about half are parents of children under aged 18 Most have had at least some higher education and while a substantial percentage say their household brings in more than 75000 annually a rm claim about this population s income distribution is difficult because one fth of the respondents did not want to reveal it Table 2 indicates that almost half the adult population 46 who use the internet at home has been going online from home for fewer than five years Currently 62 say they use dialup phone connections to go online but 36 of these individuals report already being connected via cable or DSL broadband 97 of our sample has gone online at home during the past month 49 say they have also used it at work during that time Adults who go online from home also seem to enjoy the experience As Table 2 notes 77 agreed or agreed strongly with the statement that the more years I have the web the more interesting it becomes It is understandable then that this population also reports being quite active on the internet 53 of the adults say they go online several times a day from home or outside home for example at work or the library Fully 75 report going online from somewhere at least once a day and 47 say they do it from home for an hour or more on a typical day The table also indicates that the great majority of adults who use the web at home rank themselves in the middle intermediate or advanced rather than lowest or highest range beginner or expert of abilities when it comes to navigating the internet Only 14 consider themselves beginners and only 13 call themselves experts 42 consider themselves intermediates and 30 say they are advanced More years online using the Internet daily staying online an hour or more or going online at work all increase the likelihood a respondent will increase in expertise at navigating the web So do higher income levels and being male 28 The optim al scaling regression method was used to explore these relationships with the ordinal dependent variable The eight variables explained 32 of the variance Interestingly age shows a curvilinear relationship of age impact selfreported internet skill That is young people report high expertise it drops as people get older but then it rises again Perhaps reported expertise increases because time spent with the internet increases among less busy older adults More research is needed here 13 Table 1 Characteristics of US Adults Who Use the Internet at Home rounding error Table 2 Internet activity interest and self ranked expertise of more years a up a error These numbers don t add up to 100 because going online at and home are not mutually exclusive 15 ENDURING CONCERNS ABOUT WEB PRIVACY Comparing this study with one of parents in 2000 suggests enduring concerns about web privacy When presented with the statement I am nervous about websites having information about me 76 of the beginners 74 the intermediates and 70 of advanced users agreed The selfdesignated experts were more likely than the others to dispute the statement but even 57 of them agreed that they are nervous Overall our population con rmed what other studies have found a clear majority of Americans express worry about their personal information on the web This survey went beyond a onequestion expression of concern however to explore the attitudes and knowledge that adults who go online at home hold about what happens to their information on the intemet To begin with a rough sense of whether ideas on this topic have changed in the past few years we included thirteen statements that we had used in a study of a more limited population in the year 2000online parents see Table 3 For each of the assertions we asked our respondents how much they agreed or disagreed along a fivepoint continuum from agree strongly to disagree strongly Table 3 allows comparison of the answers given by adults who either don t have kids or whose kids are younger than age 6 with parents with youngsters at home who fall into an age bracket 6 through 18 that make them likely to use the intemet The table also allows comparison of the current sample of parents of intemet age children their counterparts in our 2000 study What is most interesting is how close the percentages are not just between parents and nonparents of intemet age kids in 2003 but also between the parents of 2000 and those of today Quite logically the two areas of greatest difference between those with and without intemetage kids relate to a somewhat greater likelihood that the parents of those who could go online worry about what teens and family members might reveal to websites Perhaps the most interesting difference between 2003 and 2000 is that a smaller percentage of people three years ago agreed that that they trust websites not to share information when they say they won t 37 vs 50 Parents at least appear to have gotten more rather than less trusting In general though the responses across groups and time were strikingly parallel to one another Beyond re ecting concerns about outsiders invading their privacy the pattern of answers are a springboard to four themes that speak to the major questions posed earlier The great majority of adults who go online at home reject the general proposition that their information is a currency for commercial barter Only 21 agree that they like to give information to websites in exchange for offers and only 16 agree that they will give out information only if paid The answers mirror responses by the parent sample in 2000 They contradict analysts who characterize most Americans as quite open Table 3 Among Adults Who Go Online at Home the Percentage N1200 Parentsquot in 2003 in in 2003 N425 2000 eenagers am nervous see a concern sensitive information about me and my am more away sensitive information online than about giving away sensitive information any other a worry m ore teenager would give away to a web site than other companies or advertisers when they say are easy worry my family give information they shouldn39t about because offers for products and services years means eighteen years indicates that the difference between the two samples of parents is significant statistically at the 05 level using the chi square statistic indicates that the difference between the 2003 sample of parents and nonparents is significantly statistically at the 05 level using the chi square statistic 17 to giving up their information if the price is right Philosophically if not always in practice 9 adults who use the web at home do not see their personal information as a commodity to be traded for online offers Most adults who go online at home know that websites track their behavior but two in ve are ignorant about the most basic aspect of information collection on the intemet 59 are aware of what cookies do they know that when they go online sites collect information on them even if they don t register The ip side of the finding is that 40 of US adults who use the intemet at home are not aware of this most basic way that companies track their actions when they go online Yet 76 of them say that they look to see if a website has a privacy policy before answering any questions In addition 69 say they always or sometimes give their real email address to a website when it asks for personal information Because privacy policies almost always mention cookies the answers suggest that even though these people say they look to see if a website has a privacy policy the great proportion of online adults who aren t aware of what cookies do either don t actually read the policies or don t understand them The attitude statements also reveal that beyond being nervous over their sense of being tracked most Americans want help to control their information 95 agree that they should have a legal right to know everything a website knows about them Moreover contrary to the US government policy that teens are adults online 92 of our respondents overwhelmingly agreed that teenagers should have to get parents consent before giving out information online Comparison with the sample of parents in 2000 suggests that these key ideas are stable and generalizable The current wider survey of all adults who use the web at home asked additional questions that aimed to deepen our understanding of them The answers allow us to marshal more data to support the themes and add to them We start with a question that relates to the second theme What do adults who use the intemet at home know and don t know about the way information about them is used on the web 29 Our 2000 study of parents found that 29 of parents with online connections at home said they would give their names addresses and preferences to a site of their favorite store in return for a great free gift worth up to 100 and a promise not to share the information with other companies 71 of the parents said they would not A Forrester report concluded in 2002 that onethird to onehalf of consumers are willing to give up such information as their TV viewing history and their online surfing in exchange for a 5 monthly discount on their cable or ISP bill Jed Kolko with James McQuivey and Jennifer Gordon Privacy for Sale Just Pennies Per Day Forrester Research Technagraphics Research Bn39ef June 11 2002 The key question the Forrester study raises involves whether the respondents understood the uses that could be made of their data The issue will be taken up in the conclusion to this paper 18 NOT UNDERSTANDING DATA FLOW Despite strong concerns about government and corporate intrusions American adults who use the internet at home don t understand the ow of their data online Our survey reveals a disconnect between their concern about information about them online and their knowledge about what websites do with it Though they possess basic knowledge about the websites acquisition and use of information about individuals adults with internet connections at home are ignorant even na39139ve about the way data about them ows between companies behind their screens First some additional privacy concerns Our current study aimed to assess opinions about government surveillance that have arisen since the 2000 survey because of the World Trade Center destruction and the consequent war on terrorism As Table 4 indicates a bit more than half of the adult population that goes online from home believes that government agencies are collecting information about them without their knowledge or consent The online adults see some utility of for government surveillance Depending on how the statement is phrased 66 or 45 believe that the government should have the wherewithal to track evildoers and even potential evildoers online Table 4 Among Adults Who Go Online at Home the Percentage Who Agreed 0r Agreed Strongly With the Following Statements Total N1200 oo Because of the war on terrorism the government needs to make it easier for law enforcement to track users online activities without their knowledge or consent 66 US government agencies are collecting information about me online without my knowledge or consent 52 In the interest of national security the federal government should have the technology to find out what anyone is doing on the Internet at all times 45 When a web site has a privacy policy I know that the site will not share my inform ation with other websites or companies 57 And yet the onlinefromhome population did not take this to mean that they were giving anyone the OK to collect information about their domains Elsewhere in the interview we asked respondents in two separate questions how concerned they would be if they found that the US government and marketers were collecting information about 19 your household members online activities without your knowledge or consen 83 said they would be concerned if the government did it 92 said they would be concerned if the snoopers were marketers3 Although large proportions of the onlineathome adults voiced concern about their loss of privacy on the intemet much smaller percentages seem to have had actually tangled with the issue personally Fully 82 of those interviewed said they had never had an incident where they worried about something a family member told a website It may be that the concerns they described in the interviews came from media or interpersonal discussions without first hand experience to make them real This seeming lack of a direct connection to personal privacy issues may explain how in a population where high proportions of adults who say they know how to register on sites 88 understand that sites can track them 59 and know how to change the privacy settings on their browser 64 57 mistakenly agree that the mere presence of a privacy policy means that a website will not share their information with other websites or companies The ignorance about privacy policies is however only the tip an iceberg of confusion about what goes with personal information behind the computer screen The reactions of most onlineathome adults to a common way websites handle visitors information indicate that they do not grasp the way their identifiable and anonymous data is collected interrelated and used We presented the people interviewed with a supposed change in the information policy of a website that they had previously said they like most or visit regularly from home The goal was to gauge the acceptability of a common version of the way sites track extract and share information to make money from advertising Unfortunately it is impossible to determine an average or typical approach to information by websites One reason is that it is not clear how to determine an average or typical website More important a website s approach to its visitors information is by no means fully described in its privacy policy long and tortuously worded though it may be No law requires websites to disclose all aspects of their relationship to their visitors information The advertising trade press and conversations with people in the business for example makes clear that more than a few sites purchase of ine data about individuals to append to data gathered during registration The sites rarely divulge such transactions in their privacy policies however Coming up with the description of a rather common privacy policy involved combining the experience of reading hundreds of privacy policies with a wide reading of the trade press on privacypolicy issues The goal was to re ect the complex ways in which websites intend to explore patterns of visitors personal and clickstream data with an eye toward selling them to advertisers Most of the transactions using visitors data are offered to advertisers in aggregateithat is anonymously lumping people with one or another characteristic together for adtargeting purposes Some sites however do offer 30 50 of the respondents said they would be very concerned and 33 said they would be somewhat concerned if the government tracked them 68 said they would be very and 24 somewhat concerned if marketers tracked them 20 personally identi able information directly to advertisers and say so in their privacy policies Many sites say they share personally identi able information only with so called af liates ithough they rarely name them Many more sites make it clear that if visitors click on advertising links names given there in contest registration for example may be used in ways counter to the website s policies Websites also point out that they may change their policy at any time and not all promise to keep previously collected data under the old regime We strove to create an approach to personal information that would embody these data transactions along with their typical uncertainties and ambiguities without being too long We read the result to ve web experts from academia business government and social advocacy groups who agreed that what we would be presenting was a common version of a site s approach to information A quot 39J we 39 J the 39 r quot quot 39 scenario into the questionnaire After several questions asking them about the type of website whether or not they registered to get in whether or not they pay a subscription to use it and if so how much we posed the situation this way SUPPOSE THE WEB SITE THAT YOU LIKE MOST AND USE REGULARLY SAYS THAT IN ORDER FOR IT TO CONTINUE OPERATING IT 1IUST CHARGE USERS 6 A MONTH31 IF YOU PAY THE SITE WILL SHOW YOU ADS BUT IT WILL NOT USE PERSONAL INFORMATION ABOUT YOU TO MAKE MONEY FROM OUTSIDE ADVERTISERS OR YOU CAN GET THE SITE FOR FREE IN EXCHANGE FOR ALLOWING THE WEB SITE TO USE PERSONAL INFORMATION ABOUT YOU TO MAKE MONEY FROM ADVERTISERS IT WILL LEARN ABOUT YOU BY GETTING YOUR NAME AND MAIN EMAIL ADDRESS BY BUYING PERSONAL INFORMATION ABOUT YOU AND BY TRACKING WHAT YOU LOOK AT ON THE SITE THE SITE WILL NOT DIRECTLY TELL ADVERTISERS MOST OF THE INFORMATION IT LEARN S THOUGH IT MAY TELL ADVERTISERS YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS IT WILL SEND ADS TO YOU FOR ITS ADVERTISERS BASED ON THE INFORMATION IT LEARN S FOR EXAMPLE IF YOU CLICK ON FOOTBALL LINKS IT MAY CONCLUDE THAT YOU LIKE SPORTS BELONG TO A PARTICULAR AGE GROUP AND PROBABLY DRINK BEER THE SITE WILL SEND YOU ADS ON THE SITE THROUGH EMAIL AND MAYBE THROUGH POSTAL MAIL BASED ON THE INFORMATION IT LEARN S SO IF THE SITE YOU LIKE MOST AND USE REGULARLY SAYS IT MUST CHARGE YOU OR USE YOUR INFORMATION TO MAKE MONEY FROM ADVERTISERS WHAT WOULD YOUDO WOULD YOU 1 AGREE TO PAY TO USE THE SITE SO THAT THE SITE CANNOT USE YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION TO MAKE MONEY FROM ADVERTISERS 2 AGREE TO GET THE SITE FOR FREE IN EXCHANGE FOR ALLOWING THE SITE TO USE YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION TO MAKE MONEY FROM ADVERTISERS 31 If the respondent was already paying we changed this amount to the number heshe had previously given plus a sliding extra number of dollars based on the existing payment it typically came to 2 extra 11 of the respondents told us they were paying to use their valued site Monthly payments ranged from 2 to 100 the average monthly payment reported was 21 21 3 LOOK FOR A SUBSTITUTE WEB SITE THAT DOES NOT CHARGE OR 4 GIVE UP LOOKING FOR THAT TYPE OF CONTENT ON THE WEB IF THE RESPONDENT CHOSE 3 WE THEN EXTENDED THE SCENARIO TO FORCE A CHOICE AS FOLLOWS SUPPOSE YOU CANNOT FIND A SUBSTITUTE WEB SITE THAT DOES NOT CHARGE WHAT WOULD YOU DO THEN WOULD YOU 1 AGREE TO PAY TO USE THE SITE SO THAT THE SITE CANNOT USE YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION TO MAKE MONEY FROM ADVERTISERS 2 AGREE TO GET THE SITE FOR FREE IN EXCHANGE FOR ALLOWING THE SITE TO USE YOUR PERSONAL lNFORMATION TO MAKE MONEY FROM ADVERTISERS 3 GIVE UP LOOKING FOR THAT TYPE OF CONTENT ON THE WEB Table 5 presents the initial answers from the respondents who could think of websites that they like most or visit regularly from home 32 Note that only 10 agreed to continue getting the site for free in return for agreeing to this common version of the way sites handle personal information from advertising Oddly 21 said straight out they would give up looking for that type of content on the web when presented with such a choice Perhaps they were angry that a site would give them this sort of choice 18 said they would rather pay to use the site than agree to give up their information while almost halfi48isuggested that they would try to retain their information and money by looking for a substitute site Table 5 If the site says it must charge you 01 use information what would do When the second question blocked this way out only a small percentage of those stymied decided to use the marketing deal for free access to the valued site Table 6 presents the 32 Approximately 12 140 of the 1200 people in the same could not think of such a site so they were not asked the questions In addition an error caused another 142 people in our sample were not to get the questions The error did not systematically bias the kinds of people who received the hypothetical scenario Overall then 918 respondents answered this set of questions 22 nal decisions of all the respondentsithe people who did and those who did not rst say they would look for a substitute site The central nding is that 85 of our sample did not accept an approach to privacy that is common on today s internet Moreover while 27 said they would pay for the site a bit more than halfi54icontended that when presented with this website approach to their information they would rather give up looking for that type of content on the web than either pay or accept the information policy Table 6 Final decisions of all respondents The massive rejection of what is actually a common version of the way sites track extract and share information to make money from advertising suggests that adults who go online at home overwhelmingly do not understand the ow manipulation and exchange of their data invisibly during and after they go online Other ndings indicate that a substantial subset of the people who refused to barter their information is especially ignorant about information activities on the web Among the 85 who did not accept the marketing deal about half 53 had earlier said they gave or would be very or somewha likely to give the valued site their real name and email address Yet those bits of information are what a site needs to begin creating a stream of data about themi the very ow personally identi able or not that they refused to allow in response to the scenario Moreover 63 of the people who said they had given up these data had also agreed that the mere presence of a website privacy policy means that it won t share data with other rms Bringing these two results together suggests that least one of every three of our respondents who refused to barter their information either do not understand or do not think through basic datacollection activities on the internet33 33 As it turns out the 15 of our sample who accepted the marketing deal did understand privacy policies and data collection any better than the others 67 believed that when a web has a privacy policy if will not share knowledge not a statistically significant difference from those who rejected the deal though 58 indicated an awareness of cookies not a statistically significant difference with the others 39 both knew of cookies and misunderstood the presence of privacy policiesialso not different from the other group What makes these people stand from the 85 is not their knowledge they too seem ignorant and confused It is rather their seeming Willingness to give up data whether or not they know what is happening to that information 80 of this group compared to 53 of the other had earlier indicated they had or would likely give their real name and email address to the site 23 The converging results point to a confusion about the nature of information gathering on the web Although web users seem to be responding to public discussions of cookies as repositories of speci c data about themiand while that in itself rather than bad personal experience seems to make them concemedithey do not understand that this collection of individual bits of information relates to a larger set of activities that involve the tracking mining and sharing of data When they lea1n about itias when we read them the scenarioithey refuse to accept it as legitimate We found additional evidence that a substantial majority the onlineathome adults does not understandiand would rejectithe complex ways websites and marketers extract and interrelate data about them Those findings came as the result of a second scenario we created for the 440 people who said that they would go to a substitute site for favored content rather than pay or give up information We told them to suppose that they agreed to let the substitute site track their movements and link them to other information about them We then asked what their reaction would be if the focus of the information tracked would be their fashion preferences political interests health or medical history gender and financial information Would they agree to pay so as not to be tracked allow tracking and get the site for free or give up looking for that content on the web As other studies have found we noted variations in people s sensitivities to different topics when it comes to privacy For both financial information and health or medical history 84 of the respondents said they would give up looking for favorite content on the web than pay for the site or allow that information to be tracked and shared by marketers When it came to political preferences 75 said that if those were tracked they would give up looking for their favorite content on the web With gender and fashion preferences a smaller percentage contended they would abandon favorite content on the web Even there though substantially more than half of the respondents 63 and 67 respectively say they would leave the web rather than pay or be tracked was high When one considers that people often give out their gender fashion preferences and even political preferences to websites and pollsters these numbers appear bizarrely high That is particularly the case considering that an average of 61 of those who said they would give up looking for content earlier said that they had or would likely share their real name and email address with the site The pattern of answers suggests that their concern went beyond the nature of the information that would be released about them Rather it re ected worries aboutiperhaps even indignation overiwhat they learned regarding the website s tracking manipulation and sharing of data about them 24 NOT TAKING STEPS TO LEARN Not only do adults who use the web at home tend to be confused about datacollection activities they tend not to take steps to learn about ways to control their information online When asked how often they searched for instructions on how to protect information about yourself on the web 64 answered never while 25 said a few times 5 said only once and 6 said many times In answer to another question 40 of adults who use the intemet at home also told us that they know almost nothing about how to stop websites from collecting information about them We turned to the 60 of the population who said that they know more than almost nothing ithat is those who indicated at least some understanding about controlling their online information We asked them whether they feel they have applied what they do know in ways that are suf cient Only 5 agreed that they had carried out everything that needs to be done to stop websites from collecting personal information without their knowledge or consent The majority of people who have at least some knowledge about privacy control said they have done some but not enough to stop information collection 20 said they have carried out either very little or nothing of what needs to be done Table 7 presents specifics about what all our respondents said they have actually ever carried out in relation to controlling their information Fully 65 said that the have erased unwanted cookies at least once This finding is consistent with our earlier realization that a clear majority of the sample is aware that cookies are a key component of information retrieval The percentage applied other privacy tools drops steeply from there however 43 said that they have used filters to block unwanted email 23 said they have used software that looks for spyware and an even smaller percentage said they have used anonymizersi software that hides your computer s identity from websites that they visit To gauge how experienced individuals are with the range of these practices we gave them scores based on the number they reported performed Four points went to people who said they have carried out all of these activities three to those who have done three of them and so on We found that fully 25 had not carried out any of these informationcontrolling activities we called them highly inexperienced 31 had carried out one task inexperienced 25 were in the middle with two of the four neither experienced nor inexperienced only 11 fell into the experienced slot and an even smaller 8 claimed to be highly experiencedihaving at least some skill at carrying out four of the four informationcontrolling activities 25 Table 7 Have ever 01 some 011 your your are your track your movements on the web If respondent asked what spyware is the interviewer said Software that records every keystroke made on a computer Total percentages exceed 100 because of rounding error One might expect that the amount people say they know or do to control their information would relate to the way they rank their ability to navigate the internet And in fact a much higher proportion of those rated as highly experienced or experienced compared to everyone else 27 versus 8 said that they know a lot about stopping web sites from collecting their personal information without consent Similarly 40 of the experienced categories compared to 20 said they know some about the subject The same tendencies applied when we asked the people who said they knew more than almost nothing about how to control their information People who were ranked highly experienced or experienced were far more likely than the others to say they carry out everything that needs to be done or some but not enough as opposed to very little or nothing For those who want to encourage more citizens to control their information online an obvious path is to cultivate internet users who are experienced with privacyprotecting technologies At present only 19 of adults who go online from home fall into either the highly experienced or experienced categories The restifrom neither experienced nor inexperienced through highly inexperiencediare both much less knowledgeable and much less active about controlling their online data Unfortunately we could not nd out what characteristics or activities foretell whether or not a person will be more or less experienced in this regard We used a statistical technique called optimal scaling regression It helped us explore whether a variety of background characteristics that we expected would encourage concern with online privacy would in fact predict a higher score on privacytool experience In addition to demographic characteristics such as age income race education and gender and region of the country we were interested in whether having a child aged six to seventeen who uses the internet leads someone to learn more privacy tools We also thought that incidence of internet use and selfreported ability to navigate the web might pay important roles in leading a person to be privacytool experienced 4 34 In our model incidence afinlernel use involved three variablesiyears on the internet prior to 1997 to present72003 usenonuse of the internet at home during the past month daily vs weekly use of the 26 It turned out that among all the variables only the time spent online speci cally weekly versus daily and spending more than one hour on the internet could be seen to impact involvement with privacy tools Our statistical technique indicated however that even these variables predicted only 7 of the factors that drive experience with them Overall our model accounted for just 11 of the variance and so explains little about why certain individuals leam a number of ways to control their information online and others do not internet and spending minutes vs hours online Linear relationships were test for age and income Curvilinear relationship was also tested for age 27 AGREEING WITH STRAIGHTFORWARD SOLUTIONS Possibly because of their ignorance of what happens to their information online and how to control it adults who use the internet at home agree widely and strongly when presented with solutions that let them know straightforwardly what is going on They strongly support regulations that force more disclosure from online entities We have already seen in Table 3 that 95 of adults who use the internet at home agreed or agreed strongly that they should have the legal right to know everything websites know about them 92 agreed or agreed strongly that teens should be required to get their parent s consent before giving out information online The table does not re ect the intensity of those answers 86 percent agreed strongly with the first proposition and 76 agreed strongly with the second 80 also agreed strongly and an additional 14 simply agreed with the statement not presented in Table 2 that websites should be required to ask my permission before sending ads to me The respondents also agree that government regulations would be effective if they gave people leverage with online entities to control information about themselves That sentiment came through in a series of questions toward the end of the interview As the nexttolast questions before requesting basic demographic information we asked about three potential policies in the following way35 COMPANIES SOMETIMES COMBINE ALL OF THE PERSONAL INFORMATION THEY COLLECT ABOUT YOU FROM YOUR ONLINE ACTIVITIES AT DIFFERENT SITES INTO A PROFILE OF YOU WITHOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE OR CONSENT PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU THINK A LAW THATREQUIRES WEBSITE PRIVACYPOLICIES TO HAVE UNDERSTANDABLE RULES AND THE SAME F ORMATWOULD BE VERY EFFECTIVE SOMEWHAT EFFECTIVE NOT VERY EFFECTIVE OR NOT AT ALL EFFECTIVE WAY TO REGULATE THESE ACTIVITIES AFTER THE AN SWERI HOW ABOUT A LAW THATREQUIRES COMPANIES THAT COLLECT PERSONAL INFORMATION ONLINE TO HELP PA YF OR COURSES THAT TEACH INTERNET USERS HOW TO PROTECT THEIR PRIVACY ONLINE AFTER READING THE CHOICES AND GETTING THE AN SWERI HOW ABOUT A LAW THAT GIVES YOU THE RIGHT TO CONTROL HOW WEBSITES USE AND SHARE THE INFORMATION ABOUT YOU READ CHOICES AND GET AN SWER As Table 8 indicates broad support emerged for all three policies There is an important difference however in the response to the third policy in relation to the first two 35 The policies in italics were actually rotated so that different respondents received them in a different order The actual last question before soliciting the demographic information was when the current generation of teenagers in America reaches adult hood do you think it will be much more a little more a little less or much less concerned about protecting information collected online than adults today 28 Compared to a law that would help them learn how to control their privacy substantially more of those interviewed believed that legislation requiring easytounderstand rules and the right to control information would be very effective Although people do not dismiss the possibility that formal learning about privacy tools can help society deal with information control they seem to believe that government and corporate action that helps them learn straightforwardly what is going on is preferable Table 8 Among adults who go online at home the percentage responses to the policies probable effectiveness Effective r Ineffe ctive easy to understand rules the same format you websites use and share the they personal information to help pay for courses that teach internet users how to neither effective nor ineffective volunteered that answer Very at All 29 CON FLICTED ABOUT WHETHER INSTITUTIONS WILL HELP Yet onlineathome adults feel con icted about whether the government or key corporate institutions will help them with their information privacy or take it away We learned that by comparing two related sets of answers in our interviews Each set asked about the same siX institutionsithe respondent s internet service provider ISP banks or credit card companies major advertisers Microsoft privacy protection software and the government We asked the person interviewed to think about your ability during the next five years to control personal information online In the first question set the respondent was asked for every institution to note on a on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being most important and 1 being least important how important a role that institution will play in helping or teaching you to protect your information online In the second set for every institution the respondent was asked to note on a on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being most likely and 1 being least likely how likely will that institution be to release or share information about you by accident or on purpose without your knowledge or consen Table 9 lays out the average mean answers on the scale of 1 to 5 that each institution received for each question In the interviews numbers 1 and 2 indicated low levels of importance on the set of questions about the institution s role in protecting information The numbers also indicated low levels of likelihood on the set of questions about the institution s likelihood to disclose information 4 and 5 indicated high levels of importance or likelihood We interpreted a response of 3 to mean neither high nor low As Table 9 indicates adults who go online at home tend to consider major advertisers the least important of the siX institutions to help them protect their information and the most likely to disclose it without consent The adults also tend to see makers of privacy protection software as the most important of the siX institutions to help them protect their information and the least likely to disclose it without consent The findings about advertisers and makers of privacy protection software are not really surprising Concern about spam the popular press focus on marketers use of cookies on the web and a long history of distrust of advertisers in Us society make it logical that people would consider them least helpful in protecting information and most likely to disclose it Similarly constant injunctions in the press about the importance of virus protection software have given that part of the internet industry a favorable image that may well have rubbed off on privacy protection software makers It should be notedi and the means suggestithat these sentiments were by no means unanimous Only 45 of the respondents indicated through a 1 or 2 that advertisers would be unimportant to helping protect their privacy 32 thought they would be important a 4 or 5 while 21 believed neither And while 64 did agree that advertisers would likely share their information 17 said it was unlikely and 18 said neither Roughly the same 36 Though it is only one company Microsoft s fundamental in uence on the digital world led us to include it here even though our other examples were groups of organizations 30 numbersibut reversed for the two questionsiapply to the privacysoftware manufacturers Table 9 How important will institutions be for helping protect your information How will institutions be to release information Response Response Between Size on on Means means every are statistically significant using the pairedsamples t test Standard going down the first of means are 1471 1331 1382 1390 1247 and 1164 Standard deviations going down the second column ofmeans are 1371 1284 1411 1413 1283 and 1350 The differentN for each variable and column re ects that don t know and refused were not calculated in the means Lack of homogeneity in these answers also applies to the other institutions in Table 9 What is particularly noteworthy about Microsoft the government bankscredit card companies and intemet service providers however is that all their means in the table exceed 3 that is they fall in the importan and likely range on both the rst and second of questions Moreover the differences in these means while statistically signi cant are smalliless than 5 Their e cm size a widely accepted measure of the extent to which these differences between means really make a difference range from relatively small for Microsoft and the government to smalltomoderate bankscredit card companies and intemet service providers Taken together these findings indicate two related points First respondents tend to rank the institutions as somewhat more important for protecting their information as for having the likelihood to disclose it But two the effect sizes re ect that the proportions of respondents who believe the institutions are important for helping them protect their information are not that different from the proportions who believe that they will likely disclose their information without people s knowledge or consent An example with percentages might make the point a bit clearer While 51 of the respondents said that the government would be important to helping protect privacy 44 said that the government would likely disclose information about them An obvious question then arises What proportion of respondents believes both That is how many suspect an institution that actively helps them pursue their privacy concerns also surreptitiously discloses their information By contrast how many respondents trust 37 The effects size was calculated by dividing each mean in the pair by its standard deviation to standardize it and then subtracting the resulting two numbers 31 an institution to actively help them pursue their privacy concerns without then disclosing their information And more How many do not trust the institution to help them are caught in a con ict about the institution s information protecting and disclosing activities or for some reason have not formed a strong opinion on the relationship between the institution and their privacy To answer we created a new variable that merged the answers to the two sets of questions on each institution If a respondent answered that an institution would be important in helping to protect information online and then said it would be unlikely to disclose information we considered that the person trusts the institution to actively help with information privacy If a respondent answered that the institution were unlikely to help in protecting information but then said it would be likely to disclose information we considered that the person does not trust the institution to actively help with information privacy If the person indicated that the institution was unimportant with helping to protecting information and unlikely to release itior neither 7we considered the respondent felt neither trusting nor untrusting toward the institution when it came to information privacy Finally if the respondent indicated that the institution would be important in helping to protect online information but then also indicated that the same institution would likely disclose personal information we considered that person con icted Table 10 Trust distrust that institution will help protect information online and not release it without or consent protect and release See text Table 10 presents the results of this analysis for all siX institutions It shows that with the exception of major advertisers straight trust or distrust is not the mode when it comes to information privacy Between onethird and half of the respondents simply sit on the fence not believing that they can trust or distrust an institution when it comes to privacy Between onethird and one quarter of the rest are con icted about how these key institutions of the digital world relate to their privacy They seem to feel that while institutions will help them with control their information online those same institutions or other parts of them will also take that information privacy away 32 CONCLUDING REMARKS The ndings in this report must be dispiriting for those who believe in giving citizens the wherewithal to control their information on the internet We found that despite their strong concerns about online privacy most adults who use the internet at home misunderstand the purpose of a privacy policy Just as important our ndings indicate that despite fairly wide awareness that websites collect information about them adults who use the internet at home are fundamentally unaware of data ow how organizations glean bits of knowledge about individuals online interconnect those bits link them to other sources of information and share them with other organizations This ignorance of data ow stands at the heart of the imbalance of power that currently eXists when it comes to controlling personal information online In many ways it is the ability to mine and manipulate data about individuals that makes interactive digital media such as the internet so attractive to marketers and governments The activity is in relative infancy but it is likely to grow enormously in presence and profits during the coming decades Marketers and media firms for example see increased sophistication in real time transactional databases as critical to the success of audience targeting content tailoring and customer relationship management activities of the twentyfirst century38 When consumers are unaware of the data flows that take place behind their screens they cannot really engage in the kinds of informed costbenefit analyses that writers such as Alan Westin suggest take place when consumers pragmatically give up information about themselves What consumers can t evaluate are the costs involved when marketers or governments hitch seemingly trivial information the consumers have allowed them to track such TV viewing habits or fashion interests to other knowledge in order to create powerful profiles about them Correct or not the profiles can impact people s lives in ways they can t control for lack of knowledge Online and of ine media might change content depending on what the media firms and their advertisers know about them The consumers might receive different ads and different discounts than they had in the past Government agencies might pay more or less attention to them than to others This study found that when adults who use the internet at home are brought facetoface with a common approach to collecting interconnecting and using their online information they overwhelmingly reject it It is also important to note however that these people don t go out of their way to learn what is going on with their online information 64 say they have never searched for instructions on how to protect information about themselves on the web Large percentages of onlineathome adults have little if any experience with basic internet privacy tools Why haven t these people tried to understand what happens to their information online and what to do about it One reason may simply be that they have many other things to 38 See Joseph Turow Marketing Trust and Surveillance in the New Media World presented at The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility conference University of British Columbia May 2325 2003 33 d0756 are parents of a child under age 18 for example Our survey also suggests a more basic though related reason so far they personally haven t suffered from it Recall that 82 of those interviewed said they had never had an incident where they worried about something a family member told a website Recall too our nding that 77 of the respondents said that the more years they have the web the more interesting it becomes Add to those ndings both a misperception that all privacy policies provide at least some security and the fact that data ows take place invisibly behind the screen while a person is engaged with what is on it In this context it is not at all dif cult to understand why adults who say they are concerned about the collection of information online without their permission nevertheless know and do little about it Based on these ndings one wonders whether it is realistic to believe that most American consumers can be educated successfully about ways to protect their online information The ignorance we found comes at a time when news and entertainment media constantly din people about online dangers Moreover there are currently many places online and off for people to learn about privacy protection tools It may be that it will take a datagleaning disasteriwith publicity matching that of Enron s meltdownito energize people to learn how to control their information An alternative view is that technologies to extract and manipulate information about audiences for digital interactive media are becoming evermore complex Competitors vie with each other for the best approaches while trying to get around privacyenhancing technologies Perhaps it may be too much to expect ordinary people to keep up It seems clear that at the very least that people need active help in protecting their information From that standpoint it is particularly disconcerting that we found that such a small percentage of adults who use the intemet at home trust key intemetrelated institutions to actively aid them protect their information while not also disclosing it without their consent The largest percentage claims no strong stance on the subjectithey neither trust nor distrustiwhile the secondlargest proportion believes that institutions talk differently from different sides of their mouths one side helps protect personal information while the other accidentally or purposefully releases personal information to outsiders without permission Adults who use the intemet at home then know that they do not have the knowledge to control their information and are not sure whether major entities who have that knowledge will act in consumers best interests It therefore makes sense that when offered policy choices our respondents overwhelmingly agree with solutions that let them know straightforwardly what is going on They strongly support regulations that force more disclosure from online entities They also strongly agree on the effectiveness of government regulations that give people leverage with online entities to control information about themselves Bringing together this study s ndings suggests that three policy initiatives are needed to address citizens desire to control their information in direct straightforward ways 34 First federal legislation ought to require all websites to integrate the P3P protocols into their privacy policies That will provide a webwide computer readable standard for websites to communicate their privacy policies automatically to people s computers Visitors can know immediately when they get to a site whether they feel comfortable with its information policy An added advantage of mandating P3P is that the propositional logic that makes it work will force companies to be straightforward in presenting their positions about using data It will greatly reduce ambiguities and obfuscations about whether and where personal information is taken Second federal legislation ought to mandate data ow disclosure for any entity that represents an organization online The law would work this way When an intemet user begins an online encounter with a website or commercial email that site or email should prominently notify the person of an immediately accessible place that will straightforwardly present 1 exactly what information the organization collected about that specific individual during their last encounter if there was one 2 whether and how that information was linked to other information 3 specifically what other organizations if any received the information and 4 what the entity expects will happen to the specific individual s data during this new or first encounter Some organizations may then choose to allow the individuals to negotiate which of forthcoming dataextraction manipulation and sharing activities they will or won t allow for that visit Third the government should assign auditing organizations to verify through random tests that both forms of disclosure are correctiand to reveal the results at the start of each encounter The organizations that collect the data should bear the expense of the audits Inaccuracies should be considered deceptive practices by the Federal Trade Commission The three proposals follow the widely recognized Federal Trade Commission goals of providing users with access notice choice and security over their information Companies will undoubtedly protest that these activities might scare people from allowing them to track information and raise the cost of maintaining databases about people online One response is that people not the companies own their personal information Another response is that perhaps consumers new analyses of the situation will lead them to conclude that such sharing is not often in their benefit If that happens it might lead companies that want to retain customers to change their information trackingandsharing approaches The issues raised here about citizen understanding of privacy policies and data ow are already reaching beyond the web to the larger digital interactive world of personal video recorders such as TiVo cell phones and personal digital assistants At a time when technologies to extract and manipulate consumer information are becoming evermore complex citizens ability to control their personal information must be both more straightforward and yet more wideranging than previously contemplated 35 SlllconValleymm hmg hp mg San Jase Mercury News MG hmxMlnmmpmmzulpuhpmh Pustzdm n 17 pm PDT Senmy Augus 19 mm av DAN GILLNDR NbxcuryNews Techmlagycalnmmsl M 51 wumng m be canvmced um mynfngenmx needs an Imemz address am 5 abvmus um wz xe hudmg mm nnennwnensn kmds afathzxdzvlcesnm cumu ycanmcmdm une Netquot such s mymnbllz phnm and myhnme Lhznnnsm ee shmdd have sne Emm mmwvm d we wn t have marlyemughlmemzt addresses m ga amnnd Tne quzsonmswhzn mm 1 we mum Tne mxtgemnmnlmem neeas nnexegenennnsn addressmg senenne us cammg Halungly s be snne but u anes nppenn m be an une way m ths yzax s annual mzemng snne acmy thch mak an use mamh m nnnn n m nnnsnm snne buzz eenened amnnd IPv6 esnsn fax martin Pmmcal Vexsmn 5 us une successann IPv4 whchxs whatwe xe Ismg many Pea z have beenmkmg shanth fax yens but M lung use ssnne mamznhlm maybe man he makz n n nesewna techmlagy Tne cummsysmm mews fanddresses meme 32b1ts ee asking af32 snes mumsquot m Tne nee n1 numb 1s ne 2 a me 32nd pawen arshghdy Jen n ne 1 xafpuss nle addresses ners wembmmn taps Thatsmmds we almbmfaxawnztyafxeasans mahdmg une relatively mmcxzmmyaddnsses have n me e 55 pmnnse campuxedm wnnrs be nunenea m medzd espeeemywnen we 51m addmg hundreds afmdhans afmabdz phnnzs and mcmmte bmmnsunenaemees m une mmxk IPv6 vmuldgwe Is tyafaddnsses m pnmnnm because 2511am ennbe 122nm lung Nthth amyfanr usz une cnmm lzng39h une change wmdd expand une number afpuss ule addresses m 2 m une 122m pawn nus 5a bug ee appmxmtzlya unee reneweabyzz zems ee um n almnst dz zs magmaonn We dbe nemepnessea m mu mu afaddresses even xfwe adnfmed une masl mammm nneunsas af acaung unenn an a 55 ykmdafmajaxswmh ans sne isn t gamg m happn muddy Mewmg m hardware andsa vmre tha undlzs M s amassm mdzmkmg mam men A nlahvelyslnw upmkz bycampunlzs has been me mdmnml emkenenndeegg pmblzm ee whyshnuldl an n szss mxyum else dues Another changeover dif culty may be in the way people and companies have con gured today39s networks Large enterprise networks exist for the most part behind rewalls designed to block entry to unauthorized parties The rest of the world in many cases sees such an enterprise as a single Internet address no matter how many computers are connected to the network behind that rewall Mobile phone services too have been con gured into what critics accurately call walled gardensquot that is all customers effectively are getting access to network content through a single connection to the public Internet because the telecom companies want to control what they ll offer customers in the way of Net content But the advantages of IPv6 should prove a powerful motivator in the long run According to Brian Carpenter one of the people who is putting it all together the fundamental value is seamless endtoend connectivity all the way to the edges of the network Universal access is what we re talking about herequot says Carpenter until recently the chairman of the Internet Architecture Board one of the key policy arms of the Internet Engineering Task Force which is responsible for setting key standards in this arena Carpenter who is director of Internet standards and technology at IBM is the current chairman of the Internet Society s board of directors The universal access he and others envision would bring a host of useful improvements to networking Carpenter notes transparency the ability of any device to nd any other device as a particularly helpful feature Today39s system he says is like owning a phone that can only call other phones made by the same manufacturer Anyone can send me email even though it has to go through our corporate rewall before it reaches me What you can t do unless you re a particularly good hacker who hasn t been discovered yet is connect directly to my desktop computer at work The idea that you might make such a direct connection is terrifying to security specialists So why would we like the idea of IPv6 which would put my machine on the Net in a more direct way Because the protocol the rules of the road was designed with security in mind IPv6 proponents explain It ll actually be easier to maintain security they say Another advantage is quality of service IPv6 will make it easier for providers of Internet services to deliver them in a more rational way If I need a twoway video conference right now for example I should pay more than ifI need to send a text email message that can be delivered anytime That s not easy to do with the current system Privacy is another matter however IPv6 could end up creating a system that could link every packet of information to a particular person Anonymity is a valuable feature of the Net and we need to nd and promote ways to preserve it The networking community is in general agreement that IPv6 is the right way to go and that it39ll eventually take over That s the easy part Getting from here to there has been glacialquot says Dave Farber a wellrespected telecommunications professor at the University of Pennsylvania who39s on leave this year as chief technologist at the Federal Communications Commission One icebreaker in the relatively near future he speculates will be the agreement among mobilephone suppliers to build IPv6 39 39 into an r 39 quot of digital phones which will communicate at high speeds AmancanScxemsl r Campmng Scum me Magnim ar Sigma ma SKienkifk Mam Sntiety 7 amquot smna 3 am 5 1 Advzmsini Feedback 5 up 1 um Computing Selence Maerune 2 2 Terabye Territory Bnan Haves Note ans documentrs avaHab e m otner formas he d mena box restooned wrm abe s sema numbers bar codes and mmperproofsea s Insrde the box rs everymrngx nave wntten over tne past 10 yearsarudes a book memos notes programs etters erma snopprng hsts And e s p enty or room eft tor everymrng x m gn nope to wnte m tne next 10 years For an author rt39s a Mme humbhng to see so mucn ora hfe s work encompassed m a UN box Just brg enougn tor a coup e dozen pencns The meta box or course rs a drsk dnve And rt39s noteven tne atestmode Tms one rs a decade o d and nas a capacth or120 megabytes rough y equwa ent to 120 mmron enaracters or unrormatted text The new drsk that W rep ace rt ooks mucn me u r r u u u 120 grgabytes or 1 2 x 1011 cnaracters or text Tnats room enougn not oer for everymrng I ve ever wntten but a so ror everythmg I ve ever read Here m the Dam or one nand rs space tor a Who s mteHecma umverseaH tne Words that enter a numan rm d r hfeume or readmg been compu t m Tne Wrm nerr m HAme r ruor sustamed exponentra growtn doubhng me numberofdewces on a cmp every 15 months But drsks nave put on a growtn spurt or merr o m t s ma semb ed prece by prece are not supposed to overtake tne sHent normowngrparts mtegrated crrcurt Apart from eneenng at tne marcn orprogress there s another reason ror takrng a doser ook at me evo uuon orme drsk dnve storage capacrty rs sure y gowg to contmue at east ror anotner decade Those Mme ra boxes Wm no d not ust mm Wva srumaxr uYElamsVWssu25CumscmZCumpsmm zr mm 1 m 3 W1 mun a 2713 AM AmncmScxennsl r Campmng Scum gtgapytes putterapytes and someday maype petapytes The very word sounds hke a Marx Brothers Joke We wm have at our ngerups an mtormatton storehouse the stze of a umverstty hprary But what th we keean those vast bttnsu39ewn comdors and how wm we ever tn answers erge from the shadows and transform the way we deat wtth tntormatton H v daHy hte Painted Platters The rst d sk drwe was bthH v 1956 by IBM as part ofa busmess machme caHed RAMAC tor Random Access Method otAccounttng and Controt The RAMAC dnve was housed m a cabm t the stze ot refngerator and powered a motor thatcoutd have run a smaH h the g te smon e tsk Each stde oteac access mformauon na on the s d had 100 ctrcutardata tracks each otwhtch coutd hotd 500 characters Thus the enttre dnve untt had a capactty of ve megapytesJoarety enough nowadays tor a coupe ofMP3 tunes MAC was destgned tn a smaH taporatory W San Jose cahtorma headed by Reynon B ayer the pamtwas mtered through a sHk stockmg and then poured onto the spmmhg dtsk from a Dtxte cup hours 1 Although the SW stockmgs and Dtxte cups are gone the pastc pnnctptes ot magneucndtsk hanged remarks e smce the 19505 ThatWaS the era of vacuum d otwhtch have been dtsptaced py gutte dtfferent techno ogtes But the atest dtsk dnves sttH work much hke the very rst ones wtth r r the surfac ead and wnte heads ttung ove e otsptnntng matters Davtd A Thompson andJohn 5 Best OHBM wnte An engmeer from the ongtnat RAMAC project Ot1956 A t F The perststenc ot the pastc mechamsm makes the quantmauve progress aH the more Sthk hg Comp re the RAMAC W th a recent d sk drwe 5 50 from IBM caHed the Desksbar 12OGgtltP The new dnve hasjust three matters mstead ofSO and they are onty mreenandn anhat nches H v dtameterwore hke coasters than ptattersJout tn aggregate they store 120 gtgapytes Thus the surface area of the dtsks has shrunk by a tacto otatmostaoo WhHe thetr ttmes denstty the number of ptts per square tnch has grown by a factor of about 19 mtthon e a nu Hwkkh LowTFlving Heads http WNW stdmaxt uYElamsctWssuesCumstZCumpsml lr mm 2 at K m mun a 2713 AM Ameiican Scientist Computing Science A disk drive records information in a pattern of magnetized regions on the disk surface The most obvious encoding would represent binary Os and ls by regions magnetized in opposite directions but that s not the way it s done in practice Instead a 1 is represented by a transition between opposite states of magnetization and a 0 is the absence of such a flux reversal Each spot where a transition might or might not be found is called a bit cell Boosting the areal density of the disk is a matter of making the bit cells smaller and packing them closer together Small bit cells require small read and write heads You can t make tiny marks with a fat crayon Equally important the heads must be brought very close to the disk surface so that the magnetic fields cannot spread out in space The heads of the RAMAC drive hovered 25 micrometers above the disk on a layer of compressed air jetting from nozzles on the flat surface of the heads The next generation of drives dispensed with the air compressor The underside of the head was shaped so that it would fly on the stream of air entrained by the spinning disk All modern heads rely on this aerodynamic principle and they fly very low indeed buzzing the terrain at a height of 10 or 15 nanometers At this scale a bacterial cell adhering to the disk would be a boulderlike obstacle For comparison the gate length of the smallest silicon transistors is about 20 nanometers Achieving such lowaltitude flight calls for special attention to the disk as well as the heads Obviously the surface must be flat and smooth As a magnetic coating material bridge paint gave way some time ago to electroplated and vacuumsputtered layers of metallic alloys made up of cobalt platinum chromium and boron The aluminum substrate has lately been replaced by glass which is stiffer and easier to polish to the required tolerances The mirrorbright recording surface is protected by a diamondlike overcoat of carbon and a film of lubricant so finely dispersed that the average thickness is less than one molecule Much of the progress in disk data density can be attributed to simple scaling making everything smaller and then adjusting related variables such as velocities and voltages to suit But there have also been a few pivotal discontinuities in the evolution of the disk drive Originally a single head was used for both writing and reading This dualfunction head was an inductive device with a coil of wire wrapped around a toroidal armature In write mode an electric current in the coil produced a magnetic field in read mode flux transitions in the recorded track induced a current in the coil Today inductive heads are still used for writing but read heads are separate and they operate on a totally different physical principle With an inductive read head the magnitude of the induced current dwindles away as the bit cell is made smaller By the late 19805 this effect was limiting data density The solution was the magnetoresistive head based on materials whose electrical resistance changes in the presence of a magnetic field IBM announced the first disk drive equipped with a magnetoresistive head in 1991 and then in 1997 introduced an even more sensitive head based on the giant magnetoresistive effect which exploits a quantum mechanical interaction between the magnetic field and an electron s spin httpwww qinmaxi 39 39 nm vino rump ri7nn 05htm 3 of 8 4132002 92713 AM AmncmScxennsl r Campmng Scum On a graph charuhg the growth otdtsk dehstty oyer urhe these two events appearas uous H v echo p s oughout the 1970 and 3950s bttdehstty thcreased a a r 7 to percent a oneryear doubhhg trhe xrth growth rate ha mstead or more e earher perststed a staterofrmerart dtsk dhye today woutd hotd Just 1 gtgabyte than 100 e hse H v dehstty has been rhtrrored by ah e uaHy drarhattc faH H v phce stohh a s r a h rhegabyte or egutyatehtty a doHar a ggabyte xtts how we betow the cost or paper Superparamagnetism EXDOHe Ua growth H v data dehstty cahhot Co tmue forever sooner or tater sorhe bar to fur er her th progress wm proye thetasuc ahd trhrhoyabte But rhagheuc dtsk techhotogy has not yet reached that ptateau Wmt ts UmL t tan p that h therrhat A th For such a t u m t mu uaut enough that the energy 1 the rhagheuc etd ts comparabte to the therrhat energy or the atoms stored throrrhauoh ts dutckty rahdorhtzed The per or superpararhagheusrh has threatened tor decades nd repe averted mea mg they are harder both to rhagheuze ah tor a bee er whte head The atest surface has two ayers or terrorhaghettc aHoy separated by a eh ruthehturh In each btt es the domaw vs above and betow the ruthehturh barher are atedty beeh rug 1 ruthehturh am Just three atorhs deep prowdes the ahurerrorhagheuc couphng betwe t ersquare H VCH w c sh or 400 ggabytes or more Perhaps further re Wth reach ay ou r totat drwe Capacmes herhehts th put the terabyte rhttepost wheh cohyehuohat dtsk techhotogy naHy tops out seyerat morerexottc atterhattyes http lWww stgmaxt uYElamsctWssuesCumstZCumpsml lr mm a at 3 W1 mun a 2713 AM ate Itts satd to hotd 24 rnthon yoturnes wh c http WNW stumaxt DYEamscwssuesCumscthCumpsctl lr htrnt 5 of 3 wt mun a 2713 AM AmeIican Scientist Computing Science take up a fifth of your disk or even more if you choose a fancier format than plain text Other kinds of information are bulkier than text A picture for example is worth much more than a thousand words for highresolution images a roundnumber allocation might be 10 megabytes each How many such pictures can a person look at in a lifetime I can only guess but 100 images a day certainly ought to be enough for a family album After 80 years that collection of snapshots would add up to 30 terabytes What about music MP3 audio files run a megabyte a minute more or less At that rate a lifetime of listening 24 hours a day 7 days a week for 80 years would consume 42 terabytes of disk space The one kind of content that might possibly overflow a 120terabyte disk is video In the format used on DVDs the data rate is about 2 gigabytes per hour Thus the 120terabyte disk will hold some 60000 hours worth of movies if you want to watch them all day and all night without a break for popcorn they will last somewhat less than seven years For a full lifetime of video you ll have to wait for the petabyte drive The fact that video consumes so much more storage volume than other media suggests that the true future of the disk drive may lie not in the computer but in the TiVo box and other appliances that plug into the TV Or maybe the destiny of the computer itself is to become such a digital hub as Steve Jobs describes it Thus all the elegant science and engineering of the disk drive the aerodynamic heads the magnetoresistive sensors the ruthenium film has its ultimate fulfillment in replaying soap operas and old Star Trek episodes David Thompson now retired from IBM offers a more personal vision of the disk drive as video appurtenance With cameras mounted on eyeglass frames he suggests we can document every moment of our lives and create a secondbysecond digital diary There won t be any reason ever to forget anything anymore he says Vannevar Bush had a similar idea 50 years ago though in that era the promising storage medium was microfilm rather than magnetic disks Information Wants to Be Free I have some further questions about life in the terabyte era Except for video it s not clear how to get all those trillions of bytes onto a disk in the first place No one is going to type it or copy it from 180000 CDROMs Suppose it comes over the Internet With a T1 connection running steadily at top speed it would take nearly 20 years to fill up 120 terabytes Of course a decade from now everyone may have a link much faster than a T1 line but such an increase in bandwidth cuts both ways With better communication there is less need to keep local copies of information For the very reason that you can download anything you don t need to The economic implications are also perplexing Suppose you have identified 120 terabytes of data that you would like to have on your laptop and you have a physical means of transferring the files How will you pay for it all At current prices buying 120 million books or 40 million songs or 30000 movies would put a strain on most family budgets Thus the real limit on practical diskdrive capacity may have nothing to do with superparamagnetism it may simply be the cost of content On the other hand it s also possible that the economic lever will act in the other httpwww qinmaxi 39 39 nm vino rump ri7nn 05htm 6 of 8 4132002 92713 AM Ameiican Scientist Computing Science direction Recent controversies over intellectual property rights suggest that restricting the flow of bits by either legal or technical means is going to be very difficult in a world of abundant digital storage and bandwidth Setting the price of information far above the cost of its physical medium is at best a metastable situation it probably cannot last indefinitely A musician may well resent the idea that the economic value of her work is determined by something so remote and arcane as the dimensions of bit cells on plated glass disks but this is hardly the first time that recording and communications technologies have altered the economics of the creative arts consider the phonograph and the radio Still another nagging question is how anyone will be able to organize and make sense of a personal archive amounting to 120 terabytes Computer file systems and the human interface to them are already creaking under the strain of managing a few gigabytes using the same tools to index the Library of Congress is unthinkable Perhaps this is the other side of the economic equation Information itself becomes free or do I mean worthless but metadata the means of organizing information is priceless The notion that we may soon have a surplus of disk capacity is profoundly counterintuitive A wellknown corollary of Parkinson s Law says that data like everything else always expands to fill the volume allotted to it Shortage of storage space has been a constant of human history I have never met anyone who had a hard time filling up closets or bookshelves or file cabinets But closets and bookshelves and file cabinets don t double in size every year Now it seems we face a curious Malthusian catastrophe of the information economy The products of human creativity grow only arithmetically whereas the capacity to store and distribute them increases geometrically The human imagination can t keep up Or maybe it s only my imagination that can t keep up Bibliography Bush Vannevar 1949 As we may think The Atlantic Monthly 1761101 108 Daniel Eric D C Denis Mee and Mark H Clark eds 1999 Magnetic Recording The First 100 Years Piscataway NJ IEEE Press Grochowski Ed 2000 IBM magnetic hard disk drive technology htts wwwalmadenibmcom sst html leadership leadershiahtm Hoagland A S 1979 Storage technology capabilities and limitations Computer 12512 18 Johnson Reynold B 1989 Transcript of talk at DataStorage 89 September 19 1989 San Jose Calif http wwwmdl acscuedu 100quot lohnscnhtm Lesk Michael 1997 How much information is there in the world httpwww le l39 cornmleskksg97ksqhtrnl Noyes T and W E Dickinson 1957 The RandomAccess Memory Accounting Machine II The magneticdisk randomaccess memory IBM Journal of Research and Development 1172 75 httpwww qinmaxi 39 39 nm vino rump ri7nn 05htm 7 of 8 4132002 92713 AM IIIIOIQ I r I 515mg ja uean 39 pg quot Printerfriendly version Previous quotInterfac39equot39cquotolurn 1 is by Steven Johnson This Year39s Skin S39of vare designers are fashioning their productsiafter car stereos and phone consoles Is this thejnext interfac eirev oluti on or algiant leap backwards The Third Wave39 Thelatest revolutionjn web community so L ware Maps and Legends Whatcan the new thinegeOgraphers teach us about the state o f the web The Sim Salesman Will the next little shop around the earner Qpen up in a video garne All Kinds ofPlac39esrar39e Good 39for Ads Apple39s new model of desktop advertising The Brain39s Missing Link How torhakelygnH computer think like you do Change the System The stem atrival of apple s nexhgeneraliun operating lyslem 051 is a tech landmark Bm Steven Jnhnmn aslu is M alto I m generation s Sgt Pepper COLUMN 103 I30 THIS WEEK39S RELEASE ofa new album from ever critic s favorite band Radiohead has prompted a series of somber essays mourning the death of the newalbumreleaseasMajorCulturalEvent Sure the kids now ood Times Square and Tower Records ever time Britney or N Sync release a new disc but the old sacred rituals performed by millions of music fans since Sgt Pepper taught the band to play more than twenty years ago seem less and less relevant cueing up the turntable or the CD player donning headphones and entering into a new musical landscape for fortyfive rapturous minutes We listen to new records still of course but the collective experience of knowing that a million other fans worldwide are being simultaneously entranced for the first time by the same suite of songs by Tommy say or London Calling has grown less and less familiar Even the appearance of Radiohead s Kid A was marred by the predictable prerelease of the entire album on Napster last month which meant the hardcore Radiohead heads had already been listening to the album on lP3 for weeks I think the critics may have a point about the music world but I suspect the type of group energy and exploration that was once directed at Exile on Main Street has found another locus one closer to the revolutions of the current age Two weeks ago Apple began shipping the beta version of its next generation operating system OS X and immediately all across the world thousands of people began the collective process of exploring tweaking troubleshooting and benchmarking the new system all the while reporting back via the Web to their fellow OS X early adopters Within days of the launch the message boards at popular Mac discussion sites like Macaddict and MacNN were subjected to an onslaught of first reactions queries hosannahs and ames Apple s transition to a UNIX base has fueled debates on Slashdot and Macaddict ever bit as intense as the debates over Dylan going electric and the new Aqua interface has been dissected with a precision that brings to mind the furious annotating that greeted the Sgt Pepper cover photomontage I confess to being one of those early adopters and I also confess to suffering from the strange lack of proportion that a software event like this induces This fixation has got me thinking about the cultural status IT I E 105100 39865 Destruk LOL heh Yes the new mac 08 X is the new big thing for apple The truth is Apple has it running Unix with a nifty GUI on top ofit And inside the new apple computer you nd pci video boards IDE hard drives and a rewire interface And to boot it uses a PowerPC processor so it has software to run Basically it turns out it39s no longer an apple computer it39s an apple GUI The hardware is equivalent to an IBM you can use IBM hard drives ibm video cards even IBM software What con ised me about the article is the concentration on the user interface I wanted to know just what makes OSX better than OS9 What didI get two screenshots it runs on a Unix kemal and when you click on a window it throws up a quarterinch border around it so you know it39s the active window Still not a good enough reason to upgrade As far as windows 95 showing a C prompt during startup some of operating systems and particularly the introduction of a genuinely new system like OS X In an industry that likes to roll out prepackaged paradigm shifts every quarter it s instructive to remember how few major operating system rollouts we ve experienced since the personal computer became a mainstream consumer device If you restrict yourself to the major desktop platforms you can count the significant breakthroughs on one hand the original Mac operating system from 198439 Windows 3031 launched six years later39 IBM s illfated OS 239 Windows 9539 the stealth emergence of Linux in the past three years And now OS X the first souptonuts overhaul of the Mac system in sixteen years So on purely technical grounds the release of the Public Beta is a big deal But what kind of cultural event is it This is the question I ve been wrestling with for the past two weeks exploring Aqua s lush tableau burrowing through the system s startling UNIX plumbing If there s anything the last ten years of the digital revolution have taught us it s that computers have become a central part of the cultural sphere and that operating systems what they look like and who controls them are essential to the world of computers They are the quotultimately determining instancequot of that world as the Marxists used to say The original Mac interface was what got me into computers in the first place pulling me first towards the world of desktop publishing and interactive design and then towards the Web itself when it finally appeared on the scene It s probably fair to say that no cultural product had a greater impact on my life than the original Macintosh system at least in terms of the professional and intellectual avenues it opened up for me But a new operating system doesn t arrive with the immersive fury of a longawaited Hollywood blockbuster or the pageantry of a newly elected political regime It s more substantive than the latest fashions from Paris and Milan but less complete and less authoritative than a new novel Like the underlying software that powers the new operating system the cultural experience is a mix of the familiar and the strange and its importance necessitates that we think seriously about the ways we describe that experience Computer interfaces have long relied on metaphors to make sense of complicated functions But what is the right metaphor for a new operating system SUSPECT THAT if you asked Steve Jobs the analogy he d make would be to June 1 1967 the release date of Sgt Pepper Jobs s natural air for Showmanship has driven him to create products that trigger quotwherewereyou when you first sawitquot conversations years later even when those products are commercial failures I remember friends eagerly reporting first sightings of the NeXT Cube in my college days Jobs has been rightly commended for the design sense evidenced in Apple s recent hardware offerings although the latest creation the G4 Cube hasn t exactly been ying off the shelves but computers don39t 0 a I ow windows 2000 doesn39t I think that Jobs also deserves some credit for another key insight which is that our software interfaces are increasingly media experiences and demand a kind of consistency and uidity that we expect from other media products Compare the startup sequence of OS X to that of Windows 98 on my Dell PC Windows runs through an alarming C prompt that might as well be a relic left over from 1981 then a jarring fullscreen Dell logo that looks nothing like the rest of Windows then a couple of ashes as the Video drivers reset the screen and only then does the familiar Windows desktop appear OS X on the other hand begins with the timeless quotHappy Macquot screen and then offers up a signin box in OS X s elegant semitransparent design whose subtle ridged effects mirror the hardware design of Apple s recent monitors After entering a user ID and password the vivid iconography of the Aqua dock rises up on the bottom of the screen and the system is ready to go Behind the scenes of course a bewildering series of BSD UNIX routines have been launched but OS X keeps those entirely hidden from view and what you re left with is a seamless Visual experience pulling you into the new environment without presenting any elements that might seem foreign to that world This is no great achievement mind you Practically every other cultural product on the market obeys the same rules We wouldn t tolerate it if Survivor began with color bars and a sync clock in the bottom lefthand comer of the screen But somehow the importance of design continuity has been lost on other software creators particularly those in Redmond It s like the Beatles beginning Sgt Pepper with the sound of George Martin getting the mic levels right and adjusting the EQs instead of the crowd murmurs and orchestral tunings of the actual record The one place where OS X suffers from continuity problems is its quotClassic Modequot an emulation layer that enables users to run older Mac software that hasn t been updated for the new system While you needn t reboot your computer to run Classic applications these programs run with the more prosaic interface conventions of OS 9 Because only a handful of apps have been rewritten for the new system users who make the transition to OS X are likely to spend a great deal of time switching back and forth between the two interfaces I think there is a larger point to be made about this limitation It showcases where the Sgt Pepper analogy falls apart New operating systems are in the last analysis a potential cultural experience not a fully realized one A new album movie or novel arrives in the world as a complete product You can interpret it any way you choose but its core components are all in place when it shows up on the shelves A new operating system on the other hand is more like a preview of coming attractions Once someone actually writes some new code for this thing you think to yourself it s really going to be cool In the meantime though the old regime persists Highway 61 Revisited and Bitches Brew may have changed the way music was made after their release but those effects were more indirect and the music itself remained frozen in place save the occasional digital remastering An encounter with a new operating system on the other hand is all about its potential for change and adaptation39 what we encounter is closer to an embryo than a fullygrown organism It s a kind of ghost of interfaces to come YOU CAN SEE all of this as an opportunity if you think about operating systems using another metaphor the OSasecosystem conceit employed by the bioeconomics crowd A significant new operating system is guaranteed to define for a decade if not more the space of possibilities that can be explored by other software makers and a radical shift can be like a sudden climate change in an otherwise stable environment killing off some species that thrived in the old world and providing new opportunity to species that quickly adapt to the new rules There s something healthy and energizing about that transformation even if it can make life difficult for endusers who prefer to remain faithful to their original applications Microsoft has yet to announce an OS Xnative version of its Office suite which is even more dominant on the Mac platform than it is on the PC This means that for the great bulk of the Mac community using a word processor will entail shifting back to the Classic mode even after the final version of OS X is released early next year That s bad news for consumers but it s great news for any enterprising software company who can put together a compelling OS Xnative word processor in the next six months For years the Mac platform has been effectively a onehorse town when it comes to word processing39 the rise of OS X may finally give the platform a bigger stable You can also think of a new OS in purely design terms as so much hightech fashion Seeing a brand new interface particularly an interface from Apple is a little like seeing the new Audi TT or the latest Alessi home appliance You know you re going to be seeing these shapes and colors emulated for years to come Here too the future weighs heavily on the present experience Think of how much of the lookandfeel of the original graphic interface escaped into the larger culture the deliberate bitmapped typefaces of the late 1980s Emigre school39 the ubiquitous pulldown menu bars tethered absurdly to the top of television ads39 the pointer icon integrated into a thousand logo designs If you ve lived through one of those visual diasporas RECENTLY IN FEED SPECIAL ISSUE Covers W DEEP READ 100400 Nothing If Not Critical Adam Kirsch on Shakespeare criticism THE INTERFACE 100300 Change the System Steven Johnson on Apple39s OS X RE 1 002 00 RE 14am Kusama Lisa Levy talks to the director of Girl ght 092700 RE Hubert Selby Jr Lauren Sandler talks to the grandson of famous designers Charles and Ray Eames ESSAY Violence to the Brain Ana Marie Cox on political posturing One Halfofa Manifesto Virtual reality pioneer Jaron Lanier poses a moral question DAILIES 100300 Jefferson S Chase on German uni cation 100200 Jack Murnighan on E CowParade lrafagic 2 Reamveg www edge org GOT GOOD IT Informer you can t help think of the migrations to come while exploring OS X Much attention has been paid to the Docks minimize effect wherein an open window is quotslurpedquot into a smaller icon at the bottom of the screen but I suspect the Visual effect that will have the most lasting impact will be the l 1 Decks magnification rollover which is arguably OS X s most perfect marriage of form and function Moving a mouse over the smaller icons contained within the Dock causes the icon directly below the point to expand in size with the icons on either side expanding to a lesser extent This gives the user an quotexpanded viewquot focal point on the Dock but it also creates a hypnotic wavelike effect as the pointer is moved back and forth across the bottom of the screen This is the one visual effect in the OS X toolbox that guarantees oohs and ahhs from firsttime viewers and watching it on the screen you can t help but think that that subtle rippling feel will be mimicked by countless designs over the next few years MORE THAN ANYTHING else though the release ofa new operating system is a community event Already the Mac devotee sites are teeming with links to apps both commercial and shareware that have been ported over to the new format and there are probably thousands of posts and pages titled quotMy first 24 hours with OS Xquot The installation log is the confessional genre of the operating system world A new OS is partly an occasion for solitary contemplation like the first listen to Sgt Pepper was thirty years before but it is also a fodder for endless conversation between total strangers united only by their obsession with this strange new text sharing links tips workarounds and other observations Two days into using OS X I noticed that the subtle shadows drawn beneath open windows one of OS X s many lovely transparency effects were actually growing or shrinking in size depending on where the window was on the screen The topmost window cast the largest shadow while the windows behind it cast smaller shadows Bringing a new window to the foreground would instantly change the width of th shadow creating a striking sense of depth and adding to the focus Lego The PostGrokster Era Begins Auk Hesse dam us 27 US 3 an pm EY Sn wche knees eueem cmpamesmakmgm huuetme men meat wgmaw emememmem gadget mservme We v akemdesmhngEgamsmeshanngmmpameso meme suwmc vmemume emememmey tmngs Wu meve e emume emee em campanesdeve amng myna News seems smeemey Wu nawhavem make surethev wm be 5426 m1 mmnhmmg avxmdvenem vencamagmg eepwem mmmeemem Mew Ega mus wm he p em maease andthew pmdud eme memeume P B s are mew get sane auerslmrv We mmemme Me We Paermkstevage mwgma mema vwaugm hvmdaVsaemeu eeesem bvthe u s Supveme Cmm We mMWse MGM mews peeme versusemksevcase mheve sa chametha hew mstamers wee msAsethemedu m e vuv me mmmees em eapwems mee bvmema mmpamesm manma uvers eme seva pmwdevst mevem shawthere makmg e eemeemeeememm samme mmmeemem emee M smuvered emem Pvevem n mem mappemme We ms meee wme 12mm 5 rep ete mm ewdence me mm the memem Gmkstev eme Streamcas began e msnhme thew mee wnvae eeem eme deav v vmcedthe abyemvemat ve memsuse Ma davm aad wpvmemee mums eme em mak saws seps e emeeewee mmngemem Jusme nvm Sums vwme m the man s ammem Samev mmee me emm wmpemes wuem e meme thew wnvwe e users We eeme Meme mus2 me smemme semee rme upmer even med em Mema Erma eesweme haWGmkstev exeumves sauem e use m vkenng eempeemsm pesmem Msservme m ww e wev wm 31mm Napsemsers emee Napsev eeeseem apevme es e mesmemme semee m ns mewmeemenem Napsev meseee maps enev sr peeme s e egmmme memarsveamng semee Lavwevsand ns n m am av lers eme meepemeem expems em the wse Famed e meme m me eempemeswu havem wyemuy memnenmem Mema eemmemwnems mem memenme messeeeseme Passh vevemhe nmes hevtake m meenmes asthwdevemp me Pmdudsand semues Wmewn ueen Sheamcas sgeneva caunse caHedthe Supreme Caun sdeusm mwmem eme eesemeee aWEvsmv News wmpemes es wme meWeuem pemee emumve sme mee benevi smem sham Wna hev Wand ea New see LBWEr are me guv We eeyeee andthe stmthe eewese evemmeeem eme amamhewake Wu be semeem muvwv hva WSWe eemem get PuHed Ma EVEN esaee a hetechna agvbusmess mhng eeems Gmkstev n e we wme eevm me see me the sandavd set w We seem wse m eeee emeuem eme mpased e m avnew egaHeststhat e dawns We havem meet m amevm nm be mmmmemmmme We eee e m mm mn eme mst e the deve apmem muses we MlmPsmszlu dwedm m strategu busness deve apmem mp stkmmm mg 39m mm m weenemgewmmxu simmm 5 mm m MW nwmespamnmnmnAemna avv sAIEMM paveuamn magnuka MEEEWEM Punching Holes in Internet Walls By EMMIFER 3 LEE F yuu 1m m Saudi Ambxa yuu Ennul get access m pumugaphy un me WurlddeeWeb Eunhen yuu mm get access m Web sites Lhanhe guvemmem cunsxders defamamy m me cuuntxy s 139qu may mu slam nur En yuu use Yam that mums my Internet studenL yuu may nulbe abletu seeWeb sues un human anammy ey have me gm m pm39 d agaan pumumphy and pulmml Lhmgs sad 2 3 1 rymrruld engneer whu hves m Dhahran Saudi Ambxa but uLhEr Lhmgs shuuldnt be blanked But last ran sums Sana readems fuunda new tank m me guvanmenlblunkade Eymaskmg me unlme ma un arms rm akl a duur me numbEr ufpagervlsws Lhruugh me SafeWeb site by Send me had guwnlu lens quhqunds pa day mm avxnwnnnm v ms w Punching Holes in Internet Walls But in midNovember the Saudi government cut off access to SafeWeb from within the country and the number of pageviews dropped from 70000 per day to zero So Via email SafeWeb pointed Saudi users to a new technology that could let them get around the blockades and the number of Saudi users climbed again Saudi Arabia which began allowing public access to the Web only in 1999 is not alone in restricting the sites and information its residents can view Reporters Without Borders a media rights advocacy group based in France estimates that at least 20 countries significantly restrict Internet access it is not known how much they monitor email traffic on the Intemet Many of these countries are involved in the same kind of catandmouse struggle over Web access as Saudi Arabia quotThis is a battle at the level of the architecturequot said Lawrence Lessig a Stanford University law professor quotIt is the code of cyberspace that gives privacy and takes it away quot On one side are the govemments that have restricted Web access In some countries like Singapore most of the banned sites are pornographic Many of these countries also block the sites of political dissidents but the censorship may be much broader than that In the Middle East for example anti Islamic sites and gay sites are often off limits In China the prohibition includes the sites of Western publications human rights organizations and Falun Gong the banned spiritual movement And Saudi Arabia also blocks sites for httpwwwnytimescom20010426technologyZGSAFEhtmlpagewantedprint 2 of 8 4302001 92535 AM Punching Holes in Internet Walls financial reasons its ban on Internet telephony favors its own staterun telephone monopoly Countering such government restrictions are services some free that are provided by companies like SafeWeb wwwsafewebcom Anonymizer wwwanonymizercom SilentSurfcom wwwsilentsurfcom and the Cloak wwwthe cloakcom During the con ict in Kosovo in 1999 for example Anonymizer based in San Diego set up free services so that Kosovo residents could communicate with less fear quotIt s like a Berlin airliftquot said Alan Brown assistant director of the Digital Freedom Network which promotes the use of the Internet to support human rights The difference he said is that companies like SafeWeb transport bits and bytes instead of food and medicine Every day these companies get e mail notes and mail from around the world The tone of the users email notes is sometimes calm sometimes panicky quotHelp They ve blocked access to SafeWeb quot and sometimes politically charged quotI hate these wall set up by evil group between China and freeworldquot quotWe get envelopes with very exotic stamps containing 20 bucks wrapped in tinfoilquot said Lance Cottrell president and founder of Anonymizer which provides an adfree subscription service for 20 In siX months of operation SafeWeb has become one of the most popular privacyprotection services often called anonymizer services with word about it spreading mostly through email or word of mouth Its httpwwwnytimescom20010426technologyZGSAFEhtmlpagewantedprint 3 of 8 4302001 92535 AM Punching Holes in Internet Walls services have become especially popular among Falun Gong adherents in China The company was started in April 2000 by Dr Stephen Hsu a theoretical physics professor who is on leave from the University of Oregon and two of his former students Dr James Hormuzdiar a physicist and Jon Chun a veteran of several small Silicon Valley companies Dr Hsu said SafeWeb had been set up to let people around the world explore the Web freely quotOur main goalquot Dr Hsu said quotwas to open up these closed societies through the Internetquot Almost all of the censoring governments exercise control through central gateways Saudi Arabia spent two years developing the hardware and software necessary to filter almost all Web data entering the country through a central server Residents can circumvent government controls by connecting to the Web through foreignbased servers and through satellite phones or by using the file transfer protocol But those methods require either money or some computer expertise Singapore and the United Arab Emirates force all Internet traffic through a single gateway China which has decentralized Internet access requires all Internet service providers to block sites The restrictions usually work by blocking the Internet Protocol addresses of specific Web sites rather than by filtering site content CNN s site is blocked in China for example If a requested site is on the banned list access is denied and the user receives an error message httpwwwnytimescom20010426technologyZGSAFEhtmlpagewantedprint 4 of 8 4302001 92535 AM Punching Holes in Internet Walls In theory that user could also be traced Many privacyprotection Web sites work by inserting themselves as an intermediary and masking the Internet addresses of users computers If a user in a country with Web censorship goes to a privacyprotection site that site becomes a shell that can be used to explore the Web If the user types in the address of a banned site the government will see the user s destination as the privacy protection site that is the intermediary So while a user officially remains at the SafeWeb site for example the site has an embedded frame that gives unfiltered Web access But when governments are alerted they can shut off access to the privacyprotection sites In March for example the Chinese government banned a number of such sites including SafeWeb Anonymizer combats such controls by changing its IP addresses and cycling through domain names every few months Its users get e mail notices telling them the new names and addresses quotThe names are totally random and not suspiciousquot said Mr Cottrell Anonymizer s president quotOne nice thing about governments is that they are not very fast When we make a change it takes them a long time to block quot But the governments eventually catch up so privacy protection companies must develop new strategies to keep ahead of the blocking technology In some ways the struggle resembles what is sometimes called the Red Queen principle based on a passage in Lewis Carroll s quotThrough the Looking Glassquot in which the httpwwwnytimescom20010426technologyZGSAFEhtmlpagewantedprint 5 of 8 4302001 92535 AM Punching Holes in Internet Walls Red Queen tells Alice quotNow here you see it takes all the running you can do to keep in the same placequot To control Web access governments need to collect new information constantly To counter the governments privacyprotection services must keep one step ahead In March SafeWeb took a new tack by releasing Triangle Boy software The program is named for a character on an episode of quot Seinfeldquot an artist who painted triangles The design came to Dr Hsu one afternoon in fall 1999 as he was trying to figure out how to make a privacyprotection service unblockable He was inspired in part by Napster the musicsharing program that lets people set up their personal computers as servers that are available to other users With Triangle Boy Dr Hsu devised a system in which users around the world can download software that allows their computers and their LP addresses to be used as conduits for sites that would otherwise be blocked Triangle Boy presents a problem for blocking programs which have to try to stamp out moving targets because the information is no longer stored on central servers When the Saudi government put the SafeWeb site on its banned list the Saudi engineer from Dhahran sent e mail to the company and was told about Triangle Boy which was then being tested He has been using it ever since But he said his computer expertise put him in the minority in Saudi Arabia Within five weeks of Triangle Boy s official release in March the Saudi government started to block access to some of Triangle Boy s intermediary computers Saudi Arabia blocks Triangle Boy computers as soon as it can identify them httpwwwnytimescom20010426technologyZGSAFEhtmlpagewantedprint 6 of 8 4302001 92535 AM Privacy in the Age of Digits 9 Historical roots to notion of privacy The state vs the people notice the modern terminology in the British Empire 16401780 Traditionally based in security of one s goods and property negative notion of freedom need a more positive notion of constituitive public space built on private individuals as in Europe Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable search and seizure there is no prima facia right to privacy Warrants and judicial review as early protections in the US Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 1 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCt 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit lnflections to the Notion of Privacy 9 Should corporations as legal persons be protected by the same privacy rights as real persons Santa Clara County v Southern Pacific RR 1886 9Corporations have a right to privacy but on the flip side cannot be punished Again issues of accountability Q Libertarian notion the right to be left alone Judge Thomas M Cooley Ml Supreme Court 1880 Lewis D Brandeis US Supreme Court 1929 a thin foundation This leaves public space uninhabited Need a positive constituitive notion of privacy as constructive Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 2 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCf 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit A Contemporary Interpretation of Privacy 9 Fourth Amendment litigation since 1960 Griswold v Connecticut 1964 Sex information as private restriction on its diffusion as invasion of privacy Roe v Wade 1973 The privacy of reproductive choice decisions Lawrence v Texas 2003 overturned Bowers v Hardwick 1986 privacy of choices about sexual orientation 2003 MA Court on gay marriage combo of privacy and equal protection 2005 Alito SCOTUS nomination key issue is there a constitutional right to privacy Very controversial 9 1960s rise of databanks Alan Westin s work and more new notion of constructive dangers to privacy QPrivacy and Freedom 1967 and Databanks in a Free Society 1972 Simson Garfinkel Database Nation 2000 Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 3 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCf 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit Westin and Privacy 1970 and after 9 Emerging recognition of power of database linking privacy can be violated by the state constructively by recordmatching data mining and business intelligence or semantic matching techniques 9 Datadoubles as affordances for privacy invasions What data crumbs do we leave behind in everyday life Ca7n our data doubles be detached from us and used against US ldentity thefts and identity spoofing 9 Result first wave of dataintegrity and privacy legislation at Federal and State levels esp Privacy Act of 1974 QNote delicate balancing of privacy against FOIA 1966 a public right to know vs personal privacy Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 4 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCf 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit Barriers to Privacy Incursions by Business caveat journalism and public personalities excluded 9 Financial Records QFair Credit Reporting Act 1971 amp later amendments right to review context of credit reporting services revisions now in Congress thanks in part to ChoicePoint leakages 9 Medical records Danger of diffusion of private information to third parties Eagleton imbroglio 1972 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 HIPAA A rare instance of optin approach in the US as different from Europe where optin is usually the rule especially under the EU s Privacy Directives 9 Problem few protections against data sales to 3rd parties it s a free market Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCf 10 Introduction to Information 5 share but please credit Current Business Practices that Impinge on Right to Privacy 9 Data miningharvesting and records linkage Constructive invasions by assembling disparate data QEFTs automatic payments information on consumer purchases ansurance records job applications some health records Marketing surveys Data resales 9 Spam and junk mail Are these privacy invasions or mere annoyances Can we put a cost incurred by consumers on these practices then chargeback to the culprits Larger issue if attention is a major personal asset in the information society when businesses grab our attention are they stealing from us Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 6 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCt 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit Marketers Invasions Sociologists meet marketers using census data for Zip Codes and census tracts 9 The market for customer lists data resales Direct Marketing Association and friends QWhere does marketing info end and privacy invasions begin QShould we consider privacy a right that can be licensed out or if it is violated should we be able to collect fees 9 Emergence or realtime tracking and data harvesting Qloyalty cards trade privacy for discounts smart devices tracking shoppers RFIDs replacing UPCs amp bar codes powerful data integration Q Do Not Call legislation 2003 and the rise of opout as the current mode for privacy protections Robert L Frost School of Information SISOCt 10 Introduction to Information Sl39de 7 2005 Robert L Frost share but please credit The Bad Guys Solutions 9 Phishing 9 Identity theft 9 Industrial espionage 9 Spam rootkits zombie machineshijacking failure of CANSPAM Act Will governmentmandated backdoors under the PATRIOT Act be used by the bad guys 9 Overt discrimination when private info is not required 9 Solution Pamela Samuelson s proposal to treat personal data as intellectual property Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 8 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCt 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit Public Perceptions of Privacy Issues 9 UCLA Internet use study 112001 fears of privacy incursions by business as barrier to Net adoption QData sales genies out of the bottle Data integrity the danger of false positives Q ChoicePoint and other disasters 9 Anti terrorist mistakesor not Q As noted earlier vast amounts of data out there that can be reassembled 9 Invasive profiling 9 Identity theft 9 Note well however most identity theft arises from dumpster diving not IT incursions Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 9 2005 Robert L Frost SISOC1 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit Dilemmas in Locating Responsibility to Preserve Privacy Q Medical and financial records as the key 9 Who really invades more business or the state onst911 sea change government can invade privacy almost at will in search of terrorists Should business be allowed to have a similar right to snoop based on notion of preemptive presumptions about piracy Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 10 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCt 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit OptIn vs OptOut 9 Recent legislation as optout QNote your recurring Privacy Statements from banks 9A consequence of failure of earlier selfregulation via ii privacy policies optout links are often used to validate email addresses QSpotty record of business selfregulation Q failures historically in workplace safety environment etc 9 currently a widespread ignoring of NAB s Code of Conduct in broadcasting end of fairness doctrine in 19803 9 late19903 widespread recognition that companies violated their own privacy policies posted on the Web 9 Would optin be more effective A new market for volunteered information This would reflect issues of costbearing Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 11 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCf 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit Post 91 1 Issues 9 USA PATRIOT Act 2001 QNot only preventative detention but law allows officials to demand that news of incursions be suppressed QLibrary circulation info re PATRIOT Act vs ALA traditions USAG s office claims no use of this provision while ALA has counted dozens Expanded powers to subpoena almost any records in the interest of national security Q Back doors again DoJ letters etc We know that racial profiling is unacceptable what of ethnic profiling after 911 9 Recent Supreme Court caveats on expanded snooping and detention powers Robert L Frost School of Information Slide 12 2005 Robert L Frost SISOCf 10 Introduction to Information share but please credit mmmM mmm mssmwmcmsmn MS Gate www srgate cam mim tn ngiilamew The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can B ack re Annalee NewK1 SEEM in SI one mmay August so 2001 W mu When Chns Manley ahigh sehnnl Smmr in Snuth Cainlina slatted thinking ahnut applying fur enllege his tacha39s recummmded he use the sehnnl linmry cumpula tn nesmneh y a my sehnnl they have ltenng su ware ey Eys simply and l En l get tn these sites neeause they vebeen nlnekeu Luekily Manley has a cumpula With lntemet aeeess at hnme but many Ether teens anutweens like him dun l These kids Hmueu rnnthe aipneme Cnuitin Mareh znnz ACLU lawyer Ann 3 eesnn and her enlleagues Will argue the unennstitutinnality nrthe Chlld lntemet Pinteetinn Ant CHIFA a law passed by Cnngess last ymr stipulating that lilnanes anu sehnnls Will lnse theu reueal funds irthey unnt install hlneking snltwane likeNetNanny Dr CyberFaLml While hlneking pnngams are suppnseu tn serve as lters against ehilu pnmngaphy and enntent that mi the harmful tn mmurs in nmlity this snltwane tends tn hlnek sites in a way The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can Back re httpvaAAv frian ACLU representative Emily Whitfield describes as quotcapriciousquot People using the software are routinely blocked from progressive sites like the ACLU s and PlanetOut and truly random destinations like homepages of major universities and others featuring maps of Disneyland Plus these programs fail to block a lot of sites adults would consider obscene quotYou d be amazed where you can go even if you are using filteringquot Manley notes quotBefore libraries use filtering software they need to make it capable of filtering out the wrong Web sitesquot The CHIPA case is only the latest round in an ongoing public debate about how and when people under 18 should be given access to the Internet Parents educators and childcare workers wony that rampant Web surfing could expose kids to dangerous quotonline predatorsquot and they fear children will harm themselves if they gain access to socalled adult information about sex drugs and violence Sometimes adults are just concerned that the Internet like TV can lead to the kind of lonely teen alienation that inspired two high school kids in Columbine to murder a bunch of their classmates But many experts and activists say our current methods for regulating kids access to the Internet like blocking are worse than useless And a recent study suggests that Internet use could actually be beneficial for people like youths who are trying to develop social skills Perhaps most important kids are speaking out online and making it obvious that they know what s best for themselves in cyberspace Alex KoroknayPalicz is president of the National Youth Rights Association a group that fights age discrimination and whose membership is almost entirely under 18 KoroknayPalicz now 20 joined the group two years ago He considers software blocking quotjust another form of censorship it impedes freedom mlcgiJAin 4 FOL 39 a 39 ln l0830kidsDTLamptypeprintable 2 of 5 942001 105135 AM The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can Back re of speech and learningquot Interestingly the NYRA site has frequently been blocked by filtering programs PeLefire is another youth rights organization whose site is often blocked Representatives from Peacefire whose sole purpose is to fight against youth censorship online have fought back by including detailed information on their site about how to circumvent blocking software and how to encrypt email to ensure digital privacy Neither of these groups is trying to help kids get quottriple X nude piXquot or drugs As KoroknayPalicz put it quotWe stay away from seX and obscenity But we want the greatest possible freedom and responsibility for young people My ideal youth site would promote young people taking an active part in politics and would get them to read the news This would be so much better than letting a corporation or the government try to mold their vrewsquot Laurel a 14yearold member of NYRA wrote to me in an e mail quotTo block us from the Internet is to block us from a form of New Age artquot She feels that quotmost Web sites are good for people under 18 because if you have even a mild curiosity about a subject you can type it in and search through sites that people like you have made quot Like Laurel most kids view the Internet as a way to express themselves and learn about the world Adding weight to Laurel s argument are the results of a study announced in late July by Professor Robert Kraut of the Human Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University Kraut who once argued that using the Internet leads to isolation and loneliness has uncovered new findings that have convinced him and many colleagues that this isn t the case Based on surveys conducted by several universities Kraut has come to believe that depression isn t linked to Internet use and that httpvaAAv fame mlcgiJAin 4 FOL 39 a 39 m l0830kidsDTLamptypeprintable 3 of 5 942001 105135 AM The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can Back re httpvaAAv frian going online can lead to communitybuilding and healthy communication Indeed for some young people online communities can be life saving Tom Rielly cofounder of PlanetOut Partners and one of the plaintiffs in the CHIPA case estimates that possibly 10 percent of the 46 million unique Visitors to queerinformation site PlanetOut are under 18 most of them teenagers struggling with their sexuality Noting that queer teens are three times more likely to commit suicide than their straight counterparts Rielly says quotWe have gotten thousands of emails from teenagers that say things like I was going to kill myself butI met PlanetOut or Thank you so much you helped me come out They re heartbreaking quot For queer youth who often live in intolerant or isolated areas just knowing they aren t alone is enough to encourage them to survive PlanetOut s youthmoderated chat rooms and message boards can provide kids with the support they need to stay healthy sane and even happy during a tumultuous adolescence Other kinds of online youth communities help kids learn to express themselves Teen blogs journallike lists of links are very popular as are personal Web sites and chat software like 1amp Even kids under 12 can write about their favorite obsessions online with the help of kidfriendly portals like Berit s Best Site for Children librarian Berit Erickson s annotated list of sites by and for kids Because Berit s is written and updated by a human being rather than a large corporation like Disney which owns the allegedly kidcentric Go Networks it is far more likely to contain references to quality content rather than to commercial products for children One question about children s Internet use still remains mlcgiJAin 4 FOL 39 a 39 m l0830kidsDTLamptypeprintable 4 of 5 942001 105135 AM m mm em 01m c Ya Broker THESTANDARD Bazk nu wwwkfves andavdzo amd as a unsnzaungurtmr March 23 2001 Oprah can your Eroker nailed tne ease gwmg a gnmpse M a qurat endeer xaenm met Hy Sharon WaXh K e Tne news Last Week tnat twu Brunk vn rnen nag aHEQEdW gsgrpegtne WVOR rgertrtres er sgen urm nes as ouran WmfrEv Gegrge Sums ang Ted Turner m stea rmHmns er ggHars gravest at ng gne rs rrnrngnetg rgengtv theft a range er enrnestnat runs fmm steahng eregrtearg numbers m cancnmnu ungnv persgnas egrnmete wrtn eregrt rEDDrts ang egHege gegrees at wnattne New Vnrk Otv Pghce DEDartmEnt s campgter Inveshgatmns ang 9v Umt Eamed wnen rt crackedthe ease er Abraham AbdaHah ang Mu ae rnen rest eregrt rEDD s ang gtner mfnrmatmn abgut sgrne DfAm r 5 WEa thwest mdwwdua s tg aeeesstnerr brukeragE eregrt earg ang bank accuums AbdaHah s atmmEv savs meraet tnat nrs ehert nag me narnes ggesn t rnean ne s ggntv er tne enrnes ere Of ma s cau d ngt sav ngw wrgespreag me enrne was ang Whmh ne ebntwes nag been targeteg wnattnev gg krmw wastnat m n thev arresteg AbdaHah an Fgrbes annga re grt an the mg n enest pegme m Am enea Wn n sgrn e nee en n r a erten gseg as aeeggnt Dasswurds A thnuuh tne Ughce grg ngt rebase tne wmms narnes sggrees c usetu me mveshua mn sav tnev mduded reegrg rnggm Dawd Geffen Drsney ch Mmhae Ersner ang mama pgwernggse Martna Stewart 3 2 sma r n er rm sreb Svstems tg an aeeggnt m Austraha Thetransfer wumg n v2 eagseg an mba ance m Swebe aeeggnt sg me brukerage egntaeteg her Tne executwe sarg ne never rnagetne reggest MernH Lynch men fuund srrnnar reggests gn tne accuums er gtner WEHskngwn ehents ang a erted me agtngntres mp mhesandam mmamdelamc 2nmDA1531mm rug mm 1 m5 Msaum 9 35 an AM The Standardcom Oprah Call Your Broker While New York City police detectives and federal investigators continue to unravel the plot some hope the case39s notoriety will convince local law enforcement agencies across the country to take identity theft seriously Like other crimes the Internet has helped to facilitate such as securities pump and dump operations credit card fraud and investment scams ID theft is dramatically on the rise Responsibility for policing the crime on the national level is sprinkled over more than half a dozen agencies including the Social Security Administration the FBI the Secret Service the Postal Inspector39s Of ce and the Justice Department Leading the multi agency effort is the Federal Trade Commission In contrast to the television spotlights that shone on last week39s case FI39C attorney Jim Kohm and his assistants work in quiet anonymity Most of their work takes place in a small computer lab at FI39C headquarters in Washington The lab is crowded with attorneys and investigators sur ng the Web Bleary eyed staffers come and go The investigators download evidence onto Zip disks and pore over computer printouts Kohm is hunting for Web sites that offer to sell you someone else39s identity or an entirely fake identity just one of the many ways that the Internet can facilitate identity theft By themselves the objects of the crime seem innocuous enough Social Security numbers addresses birthdays and other personal data But taken together they allow a thief to use someone else39s driver39s license number birth certificate security clearance or even a college degree as if it were his or her own The tools of Kohm39s trade are simple off the shelf software including Web Detective Snagit and Sam Spade But the team39s task is overwhelming The agency expects to receive more than 100000 calls this year from people affected by identity theft quotIt39s like trying to put the toothpaste back into the tubequot says Kohm The irony of the Internet39s role in all this is that it makes so much personal data available to steal while allowing criminals to work anonymously And alter assuming a new persona the thief exploits the Net39s lightning speed to quickly use his or her new identity for profit Last week39s incident could be the biggest scam yet in an epidemic of identity theft which has been a federal crime since 1998 The FTC charged with helping consumers w ose identities have been misappropriated received 100 to 200 calls a week when it opened its toll free help lines in November 1999 Now it gets as many as 2000 calls a week During a recent surfing session Kohm stumbled across a site that would allow him to buy forms to make false driver39s licenses birth certificates student IDs permits to carry concealed weapons bartender cards and other types of identification materials Some of the site39s metatags hidden words or phrases used to help search engines identify and index a site39s content included quotillegal IDquot quotfake ID fraudquot quotforging documentsquot and quothow to create a new identityquot The ID site offered two levels of service The first allows visitors to download and print forms for free The other provided a better quality template but required membership fees ranging from 2999 to 4999 Using a fake ID template from the site and a link to a Social Security number verifier program it took FTC investigator Glen Aldridge less than 10 minutes to find a Social Security number that was issued in Utah in the birth httpthestandardcomarticlearticleprintJO11532303100htm 2 of 5 3262001 93630 AM The Standardcom Oprah Call Your Broker year she was looking for Numerous Web sites provide information on Social Security numbers for a small fee Later she was able to verify the name and address of the person with that Social Security number Other information that was readily available online included birth date previous address spouse39s name and telephone number After having her picture taken with a digital camera and downloading the forms for the licenses Aldridge became Laney McBride of Salt Lake City and Laney McBride of Tampa Fla Had Aldridge chosen to she could have opened charge accounts obtained bank loans and applied for benefits under her new name As it happens this case wasn39t too hard to crack the site39s proprietor a Tarzana Calif marketing specialist named Jeremy Martinez listed his name and address on the site In most such cases however the person selling access to new identities or ways to create a new identity is difficult to nd Martinez39s attorney Megan Gray says that her client is cooperating and notes that he shut down his site in December quotHe39s not doing anything wrongquot Gray says quotThey39re novelty identi cations One was for identification for the Russian ma a It39s obviously a joke If people want to use them for other things such as fake driver39s licenses he39s not responsible for thatquot Identity theft expert David Myers compares such cases to quotghost chasingquot Most of the time someone whose identity has been stolen isn39t aware of the theft until a credit card bill arrives or a collection agency comes calling Homes and cars have been bought Driver39s licenses secured for ineligible drivers Underage drinking facilitated Taxes evaded Fraudulent loans obtained And in the New York case it appears that brokerage accounts have been debited quotIt39s a very difficult case to workquot says Myers from his Tallahassee Fla office where he is in charge of the Fraudulent Identification Program for the Florida Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco About 30 percent of the false ID documents his of ce seized in 2000 were obtained on the Internet up from about 1 percent the previous year Myers expects that figure to rise to more than 60 percent in 2001 Until recently identity theft was considered primarily a crime against businesses the banks merchants credit card companies and others that write off the bad debts of identity thieves But the problem hits online retailers even harder than traditional stores because businesses that have the credit card number but not an imprint of the card and the signature of the buyer cannot hold the card issuer responsible That means the unlucky online retailer has to swallow the charges And while a consumer39s liability for unauthorized charges is capped at 50 that doesn39t mean identity theft is a victimless crime In a room full of carrels at FTC headquarters counselors calmly answer calls to the agency39s identity theft hotline The callers are often confused and upset An agitated Miami doctor calls to complain about unauthorized charges to her credit card for a purchase made online After she canceled the card she tried to do a little detective work calling the merchant where the items were ordered and asking where they had been delivered But the merchant refused to give her the information and the police refused to take a report httpthestandardcomarticlearticleprintJO11532303100htm 3 of 5 3262001 93630 AM The Standardcom Oprah Call Your Broker Sam Bolden a silky voiced FTC counselor advises the doctor to call back and insist that the police take a report even if they don39t investigate quotYou may need the report as proof to creditors that you didn39t make the chargesquot Bolden tells her Then he outlines the other things she needs to do Call the three major credit reporting agencies Put a fraud alert on all credit cards and bank accounts Check with the Social Security Administration before filing taxes this year to be sure that additional earnings from an impostor aren39t attributed to her Besides the time and hassle factor proving who you really are can also be part of the problem Think about the things that identify you your name your Social Security number date of birth address and information about your personal appearance Now take those all away and give them to someone else How would you prove that you are who you say you are And how would you prove that someone else bought that Jaguar not you In the most serious cases victims have been denied employment denied credit or even jailed because of inaccurate records created in their names No one is beyond the reach of identity theft Even FTC Chairman Robert Pitofsky has been a victim In the spring of 1999 Pitofsky39s government Visa card number was stolen Later a bill arrived for charges to television shopping channel QVC and other merchants Pitofsky had to send a letter to Visa disputing the charges quotYou can39t pay for the emotional costquot says Betsy Broder the Fl39C39s assistant director for planning and information quotThose who are most harmed are the very people with the best credit reputation who39ve worked hard to establish good credit and pay their bills on timequot Often that damage is irreparable Take the case of Nicole Robinson a 31 year old single mother who owns a home in Lanham Md and pays her bills on time A round faced woman with short cropped hair Robinson is normally far more careful than most with her personal information She shreds receipts and bills separating the shredded material and putting it in the trash on different days so it can39t be pasted back together Nevertheless in March 2000 the fraud department of Kay Jewelers notified Robinson that a San Antonio Texas woman was using her personal data including her Social Security number to get credit The woman purchased two watches and a 2000 ring in one day then came back the next day to get more credit The salesman was suspicious and called the fraud department which found out that the Nicole Robinson with that Social Security number lived in Maryland It turned out that the woman using Robinson39s particulars also was named Nicole Robinson but with a different middle initial She had stolen the other Robinson39s information from HMO forms processed by the company she worked for Even after the victimized Robinson called all three credit reporting agencies to put fraud alerts on her reports the Texas woman p 39 J a 2000 it Li 1 and p 39 4 two Dell computers for 8000 all using the first Robinson39s information During three months 36000 in goods was charged and 60 inquiries made on Robinson39s credit report She was denied a bank line of credit and was unable to re nance her home because of the black mark on her record Collection agencies began calling her at home httpthestandardcomarticlearticleprintJO11532303100htm 4 of 5 3262001 93630 AM mmmM mmm mssmwmcmsmn MS Gate www srgate cam mim tn ngiilamew The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can B ack re Annalee NewK1 SEEM in SI one mmay August so 2001 W mu When Chns Manley ahigh sehnnl Smmr in Snuth Cainlina slatted thinking ahnut applying fur enllege his tacha39s recummmded he use the sehnnl linmry cumpula tn nesmneh y a my sehnnl they have ltenng su ware ey Eys simply and l En l get tn these sites neeause they vebeen nlnekeu Luekily Manley has a cumpula With lntemet aeeess at hnme but many Ether teens anutweens like him dun l These kids Hmueu rnnthe aipneme Cnuitin Mareh znnz ACLU lawyer Ann 3 eesnn and her enlleagues Will argue the unennstitutinnality nrthe Chlld lntemet Pinteetinn Ant CHIFA a law passed by Cnngess last ymr stipulating that lilnanes anu sehnnls Will lnse theu reueal funds irthey unnt install hlneking snltwane likeNetNanny Dr CyberFaLml While hlneking pnngams are suppnseu tn serve as lters against ehilu pnmngaphy and enntent that mi the harmful tn mmurs in nmlity this snltwane tends tn hlnek sites in a way The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can Back re httpvaAAv frian ACLU representative Emily Whitfield describes as quotcapriciousquot People using the software are routinely blocked from progressive sites like the ACLU s and PlanetOut and truly random destinations like homepages of major universities and others featuring maps of Disneyland Plus these programs fail to block a lot of sites adults would consider obscene quotYou d be amazed where you can go even if you are using filteringquot Manley notes quotBefore libraries use filtering software they need to make it capable of filtering out the wrong Web sitesquot The CHIPA case is only the latest round in an ongoing public debate about how and when people under 18 should be given access to the Internet Parents educators and childcare workers wony that rampant Web surfing could expose kids to dangerous quotonline predatorsquot and they fear children will harm themselves if they gain access to socalled adult information about sex drugs and violence Sometimes adults are just concerned that the Internet like TV can lead to the kind of lonely teen alienation that inspired two high school kids in Columbine to murder a bunch of their classmates But many experts and activists say our current methods for regulating kids access to the Internet like blocking are worse than useless And a recent study suggests that Internet use could actually be beneficial for people like youths who are trying to develop social skills Perhaps most important kids are speaking out online and making it obvious that they know what s best for themselves in cyberspace Alex KoroknayPalicz is president of the National Youth Rights Association a group that fights age discrimination and whose membership is almost entirely under 18 KoroknayPalicz now 20 joined the group two years ago He considers software blocking quotjust another form of censorship it impedes freedom mlcgiJAin 4 FOL 39 a 39 ln l0830kidsDTLamptypeprintable 2 of 5 942001 105135 AM The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can Back re of speech and learningquot Interestingly the NYRA site has frequently been blocked by filtering programs PeLefire is another youth rights organization whose site is often blocked Representatives from Peacefire whose sole purpose is to fight against youth censorship online have fought back by including detailed information on their site about how to circumvent blocking software and how to encrypt email to ensure digital privacy Neither of these groups is trying to help kids get quottriple X nude piXquot or drugs As KoroknayPalicz put it quotWe stay away from seX and obscenity But we want the greatest possible freedom and responsibility for young people My ideal youth site would promote young people taking an active part in politics and would get them to read the news This would be so much better than letting a corporation or the government try to mold their vrewsquot Laurel a 14yearold member of NYRA wrote to me in an e mail quotTo block us from the Internet is to block us from a form of New Age artquot She feels that quotmost Web sites are good for people under 18 because if you have even a mild curiosity about a subject you can type it in and search through sites that people like you have made quot Like Laurel most kids view the Internet as a way to express themselves and learn about the world Adding weight to Laurel s argument are the results of a study announced in late July by Professor Robert Kraut of the Human Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University Kraut who once argued that using the Internet leads to isolation and loneliness has uncovered new findings that have convinced him and many colleagues that this isn t the case Based on surveys conducted by several universities Kraut has come to believe that depression isn t linked to Internet use and that httpvaAAv fame mlcgiJAin 4 FOL 39 a 39 m l0830kidsDTLamptypeprintable 3 of 5 942001 105135 AM The Kids Are Alright Regulating Minors39 Access to the Internet Can Back re httpvaAAv frian going online can lead to communitybuilding and healthy communication Indeed for some young people online communities can be life saving Tom Rielly cofounder of PlanetOut Partners and one of the plaintiffs in the CHIPA case estimates that possibly 10 percent of the 46 million unique Visitors to queerinformation site PlanetOut are under 18 most of them teenagers struggling with their sexuality Noting that queer teens are three times more likely to commit suicide than their straight counterparts Rielly says quotWe have gotten thousands of emails from teenagers that say things like I was going to kill myself butI met PlanetOut or Thank you so much you helped me come out They re heartbreaking quot For queer youth who often live in intolerant or isolated areas just knowing they aren t alone is enough to encourage them to survive PlanetOut s youthmoderated chat rooms and message boards can provide kids with the support they need to stay healthy sane and even happy during a tumultuous adolescence Other kinds of online youth communities help kids learn to express themselves Teen blogs journallike lists of links are very popular as are personal Web sites and chat software like 1amp Even kids under 12 can write about their favorite obsessions online with the help of kidfriendly portals like Berit s Best Site for Children librarian Berit Erickson s annotated list of sites by and for kids Because Berit s is written and updated by a human being rather than a large corporation like Disney which owns the allegedly kidcentric Go Networks it is far more likely to contain references to quality content rather than to commercial products for children One question about children s Internet use still remains mlcgiJAin 4 FOL 39 a 39 m l0830kidsDTLamptypeprintable 4 of 5 942001 105135 AM THE FREEDOM TO READ The freedom to read is essential to our democracy It is continuously under attack Private groups and public authorities in various parts of the country are working to remove or limit access to reading materials to censor content in schools to label controversial views to distribute lists of objectionable books or authors and to purge libraries These actions apparently rise from a view that our national tradition of free expression is no longer valid that censorship and suppression are needed to avoid the subversion of politics and the corruption of morals We as citizens devoted to reading and as librarians and publishers responsible for disseminating ideas wish to assert the public interest in the preservation of the freedom to read Most attempts at suppression rest on a denial of the fundamental premise of democracy that the ordinary citizen by exercising critical judgment will accept the good and reject the bad The censors public and private assume that they should determine what is good and what is bad for their fellow citizens We trust Americans to recognize propaganda and misinformation and to make their own decisions about what they read and believe We do not believe they need the help of censors to assist them in this task We do not believe they are prepared to sacrifice their heritage of a free press in order to be protected against what others think may be bad for them We believe they still favor free enterprise in ideas and expression These efforts at suppression are related to a larger pattern of pressures being brought against education the press art and images lms broadcast media and the Internet The problem is not only one of actual censorship The shadow of fear cast by these pressures leads we suspect to an even larger voluntary curtailment of expression by those who seek to avoid controversy Such pressure toward conformity is perhaps natural to a time of accelerated change And yet suppression is never more dangerous than in such a time of social tension Freedom has given the United States the elasticity to endure strain Freedom keeps open the path of novel and creative solutions and enables change to come by choice Every silencing of a heresy every enforcement of an orthodoxy diminishes the toughness and resilience of our society and leaves it the less able to deal with controversy and diiTerence Now as always in our history reading is among our greatest freedoms The freedom to read and write is almost the only means for making generally available ideas or manners of expression that can initially command only a small audience The written word is the natural medium for the new idea and the untried voice from which come the original contributions to social growth It is essential to the extended discussion that serious thought requires and to the accumulation of knowledge and ideas into organized collections We believe that free communication is essential to the preservation of a free society and a creative culture We believe that these pressures toward conformity present the danger of limiting the range and variety of inquiry and expression on which our democracy and our culture depend We believe that every American community must jealously guard the freedom to publish and to circulate in order to preserve its own freedom to read We believe that publishers and librarians have a profound responsibility to give validity to that freedom to read by making it possible for the readers to choose freely from a variety of offerings The freedom to read is guaranteed by the Constitution Those with faith in free people will stand firm on these constitutional guarantees of essential rights and will exercise the responsibilities that accompany these rights We therefore affirm these propositions 1 It is in the public interest for publishers and librarians to make available the widest diversity of views and expressions including those that are unorthodox or unpopular with the majority Creative thought is by definition new and what is new is diiTerent The bearer of every new thought is a rebel until that idea is refined and tested Totalitarian systems attempt to maintain themselves in power by the ruthless suppression of any concept that challenges the established orthodoxy The power of a democratic system to adapt to change is vastly strengthened by the freedom of its citizens to choose widely from among con icting opinions olTered freely to them To sti e every nonconformist idea at birth would mark the end of the democratic process Furthermore only through the constant activity of weighing and selecting can the democratic mind attain the strength demanded by times like these We need to know not only what we believe but why we believe it 2 Publishers librarians and booksellers do not need to endorse every idea or presentation they make available It would conflict with the public interest for them to establish their own political moral or aesthetic views as a standard for determining what should be published or circulated Publishers and librarians serve the educational process by helping to make available knowledge and ideas required for the growth of the mind and the increase of learning They do not foster education by imposing as mentors the patterns of their own thought The people should have the freedom to read and consider a broader range of ideas than those that may be held by any single librarian or publisher or government or church It is wrong that what one can read should be con ned to what another thinks proper 3 It is contrary to the public interest for publishers or librarians to bar access to writings on the basis of the personal history or political affiliations of the author No art or literature can ourish if it is to be measured by the political views or private lives of its creators No society of free people can ourish that draws up lists of writers to whom it will not listen whatever they may have to say 4 There is no place in our society for e orts to coerce the taste of others to confine adults to the reading matter deemed suitable for adolescents or to inhibit the e orts of writers to achieve artistic expression To some much of modern expression is shocking But is not much of life itself shocking We cut off literature at the source if we prevent writers from dealing with the stuff of life Parents and teachers have a responsibility to prepare the young to meet the diversity of experiences in life to which they will be exposed as they have a responsibility to help them learn to think critically for themselves These are affirmative responsibilities not to be discharged simply by preventing them from reading works for which they are not yet prepared In these matters values diiTer and values cannot be legislated nor can machinery be devised that will suit the demands of one group without limiting the freedom of others 5 It is not in the public interest to force a reader to accept with any expression the prejudgment of a label characterizing it or its author as subversive or dangerous The ideal of labeling presupposes the existence of individuals or groups with wisdom to determine by authority what is good or bad for the citizen It presupposes that individuals must be directed in making up their minds about the ideas they examine But Americans do not need others to do their thinking for them 6 It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians as guardians of the people s freedom to read to contest encroachments upon that freedom by individuals or groups seeking to impose their own standards or tastes upon the community at large It is inevitable in the give and take of the democratic process that the political the moral or the aesthetic concepts of an individual or group will occasionally collide with those of another individual or group In a free society individuals are free to determine for themselves what they wish to read and each group is free to determine what it will recommend to its freely associated members But no group has the right to take the law into its own hands and to impose its own concept of politics or morality upon other members of a democratic society Freedom is no freedom if it is accorded only to the accepted and the inoffensive gt1 It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians to give full meaning to the freedom to read by providing books that enrich the quality and diversity of thought and expression By the exercise of this affirmative responsibility they can demonstrate that the answer to a bad book is a good one the answer to a bad idea is a good one The freedom to read is of little consequence when the reader cannot obtain matter t for that reader s purpose What is needed is not only the absence of restraint but the positive provision of opportunity for the people to read the best that has been thought and said Books are the major channel by which the intellectual inheritance is handed down and the principal means of its testing and growth The defense of the freedom to read requires of all publishers and librarians the utmost of their faculties and deserves of all citizens the lllest of their support We state these propositions neither lightly nor as easy generalizations We here stake out a lo y claim for the value of the written word We do so because we believe that it is possessed of enormous variety and use llness worthy of cherishing and keeping free We realize that the application of these propositions may mean the dissemination of ideas and manners of expression that are repugnant to many persons We do not state these propositions in the comfortable belief that what people read is unimportant We believe rather that what people read is deeply important that ideas can be dangerous but that the suppression of ideas is fatal to a democratic society Freedom itselfis a dangerous way of life but it is ours Information Across Time and Space Information Handling Computation amp Communication The Mobility of Knowledge Historical Sites of Knowledge To Frame This Module 9 Another definition of knowledge amp information while smudging the distinction information as process must be in motion to create value Hintz think of potential vs kinetic energy etc 9 informationinmotion accretes and has synergies over time so knowledge growsquot much as species evolve through greater diversity 9 all information is subject to a costfree network effectquot the more people in the loopquot ie as actors in knowledgemaking communitiesquot the more robust the growth of knowledge 9 such growth requires several tools in order they are language writing growing literacy media and pipes or diffusion repositories for retention conceptual ameworks to organize information 9 The growth and diffusion of information and knowledge can reach a tipping pointquot to yield an informed public upon which stable democracies can be built 9 This module will therefore offer a historical overview of the growth and diffusion of knowledge indicating how those processes gave us two of our greatest human assets science and democracy keeping in mind the many downsides and reversals mm mm mm lrmmiatmn 9 mummy Universnvmmlnhgan mm m m but Dim one Mal Wednesday September 12 2007 Ways of Keeping Using and Moving Information Today FY for reference 9 Info Handling 9 Databases 9 Libraries and archives 9 Banking insurance amp inventory systems 9 Government amp datamining Computation 9 Calculation analytics 9 Rulebased info handling 9 Communication 9 lnternetWeb etc 9 Conferencing Combinations 9 Distributed computing amp intelligent communities 9 Instant data lookups and calculations at a distance 0 lt0 RahanL p751 Semalm immaan Pirataslairebssly UniinsWaiMnhEalimD7 hutvlmcmmal 3 Types of Information Practices 9 In the world of information all 3 are relevant With little real historical succe33ion among em 9 Info handling as language grammar syntax literacy even more systems of classification 9 Computation from abaci to Pascal amp Babbage to computers amp calculators 9 Communication texts coinssignsinsignia communications venues p2p and f2f 9 In this module we39ll focus largely on information handling and communication as calculation was historically less significant until about 1950 mm mm mm immiai 9 mummy Universnvmminhgan mm mmuw iii Dim ME mat Wednesday September 12 2007 Now let s do some history Historical Development of Information and Sites of Knowledge 9 Sumerian ie Babylonian Iraqi writing as origin ca 3500 BCE 9 Probably roughly simultaneous to Incan literacy using quipu or knotted rope 9 Bureaucratic purposes 9 Restricted realm of knowledge and literacy officials and priests indeed history of information is in its democratization cf Paolo Friere Pedagogy of the Oppressed 9 Alphabets amp hieroglyphs Egyptian Hebrew Hittite Code of Hammarabi Phoenecian 9 Early counting and accounting methods Robert L Frost School of Information Pirate shamelessly University of Michigan 2007 saw RIGHTS RESEED but please cite me lncan quipu I It I m le 3 quotquot v sfgg i it 16796 HI V 171213 we AI C WWO mete 47quot39l39 Iv Ia I a quot7 W v x 3 2 if I O I Is mm In ow 9 a I w 511iu Mug mn X Iilum ol Crclan hicmghphics Sumerian clay tablet Linear A Wednesday September 12 2007 Texts as Modes of Control and Difference 9 The politics of limited literacy amp info access 9 Flhetoricalpoliticalreligious highground 9 Knowledge as power 9 Monopoly of knowledge by elites or their operatives national security post911 9 Language and literacy as abstractions 9 Key notion here from data to info to fact but each is more abstracted than the previous and those who control the methods of abstraction control the flows 0 knowledge and information estate tax as death tax 9 Whither truth RahanL Fms t Semalm immaan Pirateslarrebssly Univers vatmnhganm 7 hutvlmcmmgl The Rules Rites Politics and Processes of Abstraction 9 Question of who controls the means and parameters of abstractions this is more than an Issue about the veraCIty of labels 9 The emergence of codes standards and means of inclusion and exclusion 9 Mechanisms of abstraction as ways to build power 9 Privileging of abstractableobjective over the tacit and felt a gender issue here 9 Problem of Ways of seeing and ways of knowing is an engineer s knowledge more certain than that of the craftsperson 9 If men are adept at abstraction doesthe traditional sensory knowledge of women and primitives get disparaged mm mm mm mmm 9 mummy Universnvmmnhgan mm mmum but Dim m met Wednesday September 12 2007 Sites of Knowing in the West 9 Classical era libraries 9 Ephesus 9 Aescleppius amp medicine 9 Pergamon 9 Alexandria destroyed by Christians 391 CE in 392 CE Christianity became official religion of Roman Empire Robert L nest School oi imormation University oi Michigan 2007 Pirateshameiessm but please cite nil Wednesday September 12 2007 Ephesus Robert L nest Scmolollmormatlon unlvelslcy ol Michigan 2007 sum ml mu Plate shameleslv but please one mel The Politics of Classical amp Medieval Knowledge 9 Alexandria patronage scholars amp the popular library 9 Romans and texts contract law as scalable language an early peertopeerquot system 9 Catholicism amp the politics of missionary knowledge 9 anecdote christianizing Scandinavia 9 Islam amp Knowledge Cordoba ca 1000 CE 9 Circulation of classical ideas 9 Jews and Muslims whither Catholicism answer in the monasteries 9 Jews as cultural repositories of knowledge Kasimierz and Salonika 9 Caveat Muslim closing off of East from West Mongolian opening 12001350 0 Marco Polo and the discovery of the East 3 Robert L Frost Scmolollmormatlon unlvelslcy ol Michigan 2007 Plate shamelessly but please one mel VVednesdaySepten1ber122007 Modernizing Knowledge and Information 9 Rise of the university 1250 1350 9 Gutenberg amp printing 1450 1500 9 Protestant Reformation 1517 1575 9 Scientific Revolution Copernicus Galileo Bacon Newton 9 Enlightenment and the rise of democratic literacy 1700s 9 Popular literacy from political broadsides to pornography 9 Emergence of social reading Key Reminders 9 In all of this we39re implicitly looking at information as a flow information in movement as the basis for the development of new knowledge 9 ln Annie Hall Woody Allen said that love is like a shark it has to keep moving or it drowns We might say the same for information 9 Note how alack of information in motion can explain the Intellectual stagnation of the Dark Agesquot in Europe Perhaps the same can be said of ancient China where info rarely moved outside of the mandarin circles RahartL Fms39t Semalm immaan Univers vmllllnhgan mm mg starrebssl it Dim mg mg Wednesday September 12 2007 Not All Knowledge is Equal Try Knowledge Without Traction 9Two kinds of forgotten knowledge erroneous and unleverageable 9 Erroneous knowledge erroneous either factually or socially Q Phlogiston the etherial elusive substance in all combustibles 9 Humors the vapors and gases that cause disease but note the impact this wrong concept had on early public health practice 9 Geocentrism Ptolemy Copernicus amp Galileo but OK for most naVIgation 9 Unleverageable knowledge lacks either the societal knowledge base to be sustaine 9 Edward Jenner s smallpox vaccine 9 Countless formulas for glass wine local seed stocks 9 Abstinence education Rearchitecting Knowledge in the 17003 9 Scientific Revolution and secularization of philosophy offered powerful tools to find truth and a belief in linear progress the essence of modernism Note Shapiro article 9 Major breakthrough Knowledge and information become increasmgly opensource 9 Key tools for knowledge verification publication and peer review Texts replace symbols relics stamps seals etc as carriers of knowledge and information 9 Key notion of transparency based in reproducibility of results in the scienti c method 9 Concept of transparency gets transferred to the realm of politics leading to demands for intelligibility and accountability Q Emergence of compendia of propositional and procedural knowledge Diderot amp d Alembert s Encyclopedia Ben Franklin s work 9 A rage for classification Wednesday September 12 2007 The Tree of Diderot and d AlemberI Detanlcd System of Human nowlcdgc Undermndmg MM m Ma a WWW mum mm mom x mmmmm mm Naurunumqu m man 1 mmmmummm v 4 mmqu mfgm mumLquot W luauInmnn quot1 me 5 mm 3 umquotmmquot mu Wquot mxza39r n m n mum WW 5 3 39 IMlMM 5 nuommu quotmm mmch 3939 quot quot39 quot wwnmwlhwm wmm W quot INWIL MINIM nu mm M mnru muwuum m KNuvuumunmwml munlmlunmm P mum muer mwumamnm E u mun yulmmnr Knowum urrnnrmmnm uunw wommu quotWWW quot UITWN Nunavm unusuuu tun quot ANAIrm mm wavknmnunmwwxm mm rum WW m w u nomunmm Au D MM mm um Inux um My u a n mquot Homuouswmu m WWquot mum 33 N Mm 1 m n wumunxmluuxmrIx n m I WWW IrnIMrNy WW WW mum quotWM u m mumquot MIMI quot mmlm MMMM IIMth M w wumm Wmquot Im mun WM um u r m mum mmmuu a um um u mm wlm mm mmmm runnnu v 1m mm 1 urn mam mm mm mm m nosan mun Mum n umrmumN mwm mum DYAMONIHlmII ummmu LMMMAI VNMX m DWI 5 mm H mv mam mm 04 mm um mm 5 MW WM quotmm mm Weme g mowmuJ Immym quotmu m k mm a we Ammmm mmm mumquotwumvmmm mum m M mm mm MANum nuu MM xrmwunm H mm m M rNuuu mrmw m A m H quotmm mNltuuwalnmnlumnw K M quoth mm uncuus 55 mm mu mem39 a mum Wynnquotmm quot A Jouss OWK ALMANUMCIUIII s quot1quot Mi m r x mm mm rllucvun g MWH39 rrosomr Imwmmumwvum W t mmrm a hIAMHuxu mm Wm unmaquer H mm mmquot 1 mm up muvuw on mm M M mpmur From Robert Darnton The Great Cat Massacre NewYork BaSIc 1985 210 1 7 mumsnu 10an nuns mqu r mm 9336 rucnnL ml11mm Imrmmullm wt rm w vmn m 3mg um umsruumu mum man plum urnMU mmm m mm mmmm 1 an NHMYE N h4an uTMLTIoV m W W mumNI mm gargzmxmu 1 mnmvmmrsmm m m a m quotuan m ka mm mm 39 comm FMHVL S m Ecumlu wnnxmc mm m M Human and m Honan mums NW N H mm mm mm m Wman wm MAW mde I mum utoqmn mm Mummu w wxlnmmv mmxw lt Vnmnwrs 7 mm M mm nlovruus quotmmquot uranium M39ru an vxzuunu rmmu umuum m on mm run r anm 0mm lounmvmvr MNMTK n mm mmmmmm MW 153IVAQIArgggg r newme mummy Auuwu roman mm K m Hummus mum mum mum WWW mhlmam vamx L r umng 937333 looux mu THE u MMFMY 7 390 l39IIuMALy vuumuv quotgammaquot mm mm Runway mmquot m momma MM munm mmm m m mum mm M M 9 mm m n mm 1quot w M my Mum From Robert Darnton The Great Cat Massacre ewYork Basic 1985 210 18 Wednesday September 12 2007 Two Basic Kinds of Knowledge i quot r 39 39i Jr Ira1w m m xxxx w quot w 39 1 quotn quot5zhx39 39 1 Procedural How to Propositional What is DownsidesCaveats of the Rearchitecting 9 Literacy still highly restrained yet once one became literate increasingly open access to texts 9 For proceduraltechnical knowledge end of legitimacy for trade secrets held by guilds and organizations of skilled workers Q Importance of new organizations and institutions Ben Franklin s American Philosophical Society 1743 and the Franklin Institute 1824 9 Importance of new useful texts made the 19th century the golden age of the autodidact popular knowledge of technical information became a new path to upward mobility Q Distinction between propositional and procedural knowledge led to restrictions on the latter 9 Patents and the birth of a new notion of intellectual property 9 New restrictions to access of ideas with ownership Wednesday September 12 2007 19 20 Broadening amp Racializing Access to Information 9 Newspapers Zenger and Poor Richard 1730317703 9 Postal services USPS as info amp communication system 9 Public school movement amp public literacy 1830s 9 Landgrant universities amp extension services 1862 9 Public library movement ampYankee noblesse oblige post1880 QThe pulppaper revolution post1880 9 Reading alone 9 Making the new racial and literacy divide after 1877 assuring AfroAmerican illiteracy amp powerlessness 9 A recent posting on slave illiteracy um Stands n Mewo To be All 1 Wklwui doing Wrong is he birthright or nnn m nity mom i An S 9 Shall impraccmi rltbm Yet if m inslrncc than 3 m open your moutli Beware M the penalty 1mm in lie Mun 7C that he of God l 11lle for x Fnrln39ds you to leach n prior Net From an 1864 publication The Gospel ofSIaIery electronically accesstoned at New York Public Library May 2005 Wednesday September 12 2007 Librarians in the Comics 1 Quiet 2 Mean or Stern 3 SingleUnmarried Unmarriageable 4 Stuffy 5 In Glasses iii Kirkendaii 1986 40742 From Erica 052m Beehives and Sensihie Shoes The Horribie mm about Librarians m Popuiar Cuiiurej Fbweerim piesemamm 20m 23 Librarians in Film Donna Reed in It s a Wonderful Life new Ema om 322mm mm am The Hommem atom Librarians in may cm Warm minim 20m 24 Wednesday September 12 2007 Rachel Weisz in The Mummy 1 999 25 Parker Posey in Party Girl 1995 26 Wednesday September 12 2007 The 2003 Librarian Action figure from Archie McPhee Inc 27 28 Wednesday September 12 2007 So what is the central and vital role librarians and now information professionalsquot play They fashion fuel for the collective brain of a society They build social capital 29 About Social Capital Q What is it 9 A richness of community and communication that empowers people socially and ultimately politically and culturally to develop their own abilities an reach allowing upward mobility and political traction 9 Arguably it s what makes democracy work on the ground level 3 Perhaps its opposite is a society composed of automatons windowless monads or consenting robots example commuters in steel boxes traveling from gated communities to cubicles 9 See Molz amp Dain 9 Built by and in civic amp public spaces public schools libraries concert halls town halls speakers corners Q Popularized by Robert Putnam Bowling Alone 30 Wednesday September 12 2007 To serve a literate citizenry even more ChineseAmerican Children at the Yorkville Branch of YPL ca 1900 33 Libraries and Emerging Urban Culture 9 Story hour 6 Libraries as secular fellowship spaces Joeckel and the branch system lLL 9 Recreational vs edifying reading 9 Librarians as public servants 9 Meltingpot dreams and realities of upward mobility the politics of library acquisitions 9 stereotypes 34 Wednesday September 12 2007 Triumph and Crisis 194580 9 Libraries and the dream of self education were libraries to stand in for adult education Comparisons to Germany and France 9 Federal funding rises and falls 1967 1969 9 Halcyon days for library schools then the ironic crisis of women39s expanded access to other professions 9 Branch libraries and the hollowing of urban centers OPACs and the rise of Information Science did libraries miss the boat 35 1900 The Information Society Emerges First In Busmess Q Immigrants libraries and assimilation 9 RFD and the rise of advertising 9 Family bibles Gideon bibles and circulating texts 9 Records and the rise of the modern bureaucratic state and enterprise 9 The twentieth century dilemma too much information Information overload 36 Wednesday September 12 2007 The Crisis of Information Overload I 9 Birth of the modern corporation 9 From the Prussian Army to US railroads 9 The organizational chart 9 Information flows and power flows keeping subordinates in line and selectively out of the loop 9 Max Weber and the birth of modern bureaucracy records as virtual lives and the reinvention of data doubles the first were 18th century police files 37 The Crisis of Information Overload II 9 Calligraphy typewriting and the shift from clerks to secretaries re gendering business information information professionals in business as baubles and prizes 9 Records private and public limits on the right to know 9 ProgressiveMovement 19001917 concepts of open clean government of transparency 9 Note the Anglocentrism 9 Slow codification of records standards late emergence of National Archives 1936 9 Immigrants workers and libraries 38 Wednesday September 12 2007 Your Basic Hierarchy name the organizationvenue I I I I re re Ha we I I I I I I I 41 I I IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII The Catholic Church the Army any corporation knowledge species cataloguing systems 39 Classifications and Cultural Hierarchies 9 Classification schemes reveal cultural presuppositions and prejudice 9 higher and lower ideasknowledge species races jobs and cultures 9 feudal roots in the three orders clergy aristocracy everyone else 9 Diderot s Tree of Knowledge 9 obvious Euro and AngloCentrism 9 Implicit in any hierarchical system of classification 9 Linnean species taxonomies 9 Dewey Decimal amp Library of Congress cataloguing 9 Post colonial classification CIDOC 4O Wednesday September 12 2007 Information Science A New Discipline 9 Hollerith IBM and tabulation handling data 9 1937 American Documentation Institute 1968 ASIS 919403 ShannonWeaver signalnoise ratios Vannevar Bush statue of Shannon outside of EECS bldg 9 A science of classification hierarchies to relations 9 From labels to meanings computation in information retrieval does labeling yield new knowledge 41 Information as Control A German Precursor to the Ministry of Homeland Security 42 Wednesday September 12 2007 THE BUSINESS OF INFORMATION AND INFORMATION IN BUSINESS 11308 VOTE Agenda D Information as a commodity a Valuing and pricing information a Supply side concerns r Scorcin D Demand side concerns a Elosiiciiy Today s Key Concepts 0 Commodity Marginal costs lil Supply 0 Demand 0 Scarcity ll Elasticity ll Pricing strategies 11308 Two types of Information Two types of information product or commodity Information that is content such as text music movies etc Information that does usually software sometimes necessarily lied to knowledge skill and services for deployment ll Both follow the same general economic characteristics and both require specific technological infrastructures How information differs from other commodities I Supply side minimal marginal costs Cost of production for any copy after i is next to zero Severe issues f Once deployed modifications are often inexpensive enabling adaptation to small markets or niches 39 Demand side nonsrival demand satisfaction se by one party does not preclude use by another otten atter adoption users are lockedinquot as the cost of change often requires new infrastructure Sharing an info commodity costs the donor next to nothing 11308 Example Hollywood Movie Hollywood39s Most Expensive Movies Eternal Creae Alerts null speed I s 2 Superman Returns a m 2 3 m o a a E a still oonsidered a dlSBPDOl l enL udiu Warner Bros Release Date June 28 2006 Budget 2685 million Of ce39 199 million Foreign Box Of ce 190 million All gures 69 In 2006 dollars From Forbes wwwfarbescam2005l 208cx7lr7big budgetslid e72htm Example Articles m dEU mama mm an m quotWEka tr Duslness Miugat tg Rearrmremng he imK n q um um remrn Camuames musquot uirdry by cum by Robert L Frost Abstract w gt 1 consumer choices beyond Hm use uf simple sales gms SupplySide Dilemmas The Perils of Falling Marginal Costs 1 Marginal costs versus average costs high frontend costs amp Iumpiness Massproduction parallels Should earlyadoptersquot get penalized 0 Public goods and the freerider problem paying for information infrastructures When are taxpayer subsidies or crosssubsidies desirable recall out discussion of wired phones amp electricity Getting beyond moralismsz maybe the rich should pay a Problems in decliningrevenue products Saturated markets sell once amp then Featuritis amp forced upgrades Where does value come from Ci Content creators Distributors amp other intermediaries u chokepointquot occupants 0 Consumers mindshare is crucial in See Carr reading How information commodity providers make money Ci Advertising supported TV Google search Valueadded commission models Orbiiz w Subscription and payperuse ProQuesi HBO Showtime 11308 11308 More about pricing strategies cl Adsupported Problems in oocurote counting NBC vs Hulu Crass markeling is easy referral payments w Subscription models Problems in leakage and piracy Difficult lo delermine correct price Scarcity of attention ll Attention is a scarce resource when information is abundant ll Information goods proliferate as cost of production goes does l l Pool of attention remains relatively constant Nonrival demand Cl Can39t use it up 3 My use doesn39t take anything away from you Not like space Demand Elasticity El Pricing according to consumer need not demand or COSTS Pharmaceuticals buyers need Textbooks buyers don t originate demand El Easin done in naturalmonopoly infrastructural settings Broadband service Windows 11308 Example Bar bands vs Katy Perry Example AADL vs Borders A Tus CATALOG EVENTS SERVICES RESEARCH CONTACTUS MvAccouN r 20am Lends wun nnmlenn Fa mum inralinn ha a fume are v y check em Infrastructural goods 11308 D Goods that others build on 2 Windows 3 Facebook E iPhone D Lower demand elasticity THE BUSINESS OF INFORMATION AND INFORMATION IN BUSINESS Agenda D Examples to illustrate concepts from Tuesday a The Long Tailquot or Niche Markets D The quotNewquot Economy 9 lnformating the Economy Keys from Tuesday Commodity 2 Marginal costs 1 Supply x Demand Scarcity 2 Elasticity 3 Pricing strategies 11308 Revisiting Demand Slate s Tap 500 Articles July 13 2006 PajeViews 1 32 23 94 125155 IE7 213mm 31 342 37314435455427 Article um Examples Niche Market Goods r Music Walmart vs iTunes 1 Movie rentals Blockbuster vs Netflix Example Netflix vs Blockbuster Net lx 11308 Q Q Q implWwwnu ixtnmanlfnvumes lllflfllll Hume Genresv NewReleases Previews NeiilleanDD cm Ann Arbor Michigan nun Hemmllv i Vnuvmmmr cm at r l Euli e eemrglquot l He m in Diuran ms Man 5 was Nemix members 2 a A I IEEEEEEEiEEEEEIE Dunc Mrs Mum Fume 517502517 The Final Act Water Park an Army a Darkness m Meralvani m Veme Mania and Manse y Wal sarz m39 a m Di m n Mer Mmsomer Murders VlXelVlS m Clerks HnuizlquotEt 772 Closer Seam 3 Say Anvlnmt Tne Me Seam a Adina 1 MMW A39urw a Awmalmn Em m Chilch amp Fam lv Classics Comm g oummm Example Netflix vs Blockbuster Top United States DVD Rentals Elli for the week ending 26 October 7 2008 Rank 21k Title Days 133 gang 1 New WM 5 10000 Lug Indiana lanes and he 2 1 Kingdom ofthe Cn39stal 12 77 74 m Skull 2008 3 New The Strangers 2008 5 so 21 BM 4 3 Iron Man 2008 26 49 67 m 5 2 The Haggenjng 2008 19 44 95 BA 6 4 mm the 19 40 35 L 7 5 W 26 32 53 My 8 7 Sex and he 2130008 33 28 93 m 9 8 Leatherheads 2008 33 23 44 Bu 10 9 Made of Honor 2008 40 20 41 g 11 10 Babv Mama 2008 47 19 34 m 12 New Linewatchaoos 5 18 52 M 13 6 WarInc2008 12 17 51 Bul 14 11 88 Minutes 2007 40 17 22 m What enables niche good providers to succeed a Not playing the zerosum shelf space game III Recommender systems III Easier to identify and capture consumer preferences at a finer grain III See Frost Anderson readings Information and the New Economy Information speed depth availability and qua 39t d 9 an F rrad an capabiIiiies compare n mbiguous think at to39aI taster and returnaninveoment modeIs keeping Wall Street shuffling it Corporate info fows can now mo e closely matc organizational structures effectiveness hink work n that are designed for better groupsquot SllgM increase in meriiocraiic intratirm poIi39icsihanks ta bettersurveillance and evaIuaiion methodhbm ttte buddy Kvs39em survives atsaursel Rise of information profession what are the limits How new is the economy ll Commercial Revolution 14921780 Slaves rum sugar and the triangular trade tt Industrial Revolution 1780518505 Role of globalism world markets Slavery as early us centerpiece it Second Industrial Revolution 187051914 Knowledgebased industry Productivity revolution Rather more plunder tltan commerce tne sottwaredriyen backoffice revolution 7 rue end of middle manage a Disintermediution is possible but more ttian IT is required er real estate sales New Busmess Models T aior di fal r Manutaauring ozor y e 39 DMCA a new bustn 55 made Re all maybe canside tne n W ad rers part of tnis is east and risk diversian made p ssible by 395 manapsanist pasitian sintermediation 2 terme es es witn cav ats etc is all abaurra refusal ta in arm el of direct supplying by 11308 Comparing models I The old model Hierarchies amp bureaucracies Disempowered and uninformed minionsworkers Onetomany Institutional mediation Passive consumers CI The new model flat organizations Knowledgeempowered actors Manytomany and peertopeer Disintermediation rendering old models irrelevant Consumers actively creating mindshare and value 11308 Example Auctions El Ebay Buy from individuals Reputation system B Swoopo Buy from firm Pay for bids Example eBay m j muiiwwnabavumvumwmmigazmmnnismmgsnapumgjnjazv 1 mums Cums lo rim Bidding and buying strategies WW Biddlr g am cum sualegies clay a key in 2 in m m m mum mii Day and how suaz vou ii qel me m T12 um strategies 339s Us s aw 39I New Em my m Us m Use Bic Assrsizm 15MB 1 use EBav Exovess ruais tar buyers in a glance Eam armse Strateoias have ammaues and asauvaniaqes tn LDI Sl El m 3 mm mm a 11 Example Swoopo Aueuan l cheap 9 v g yuprrwwwawaaaammrmramr ll magi qr ass Home MySwoupn I Help r Buybids le Us Emminmem showing lanai m m 57 ear 5 I Daclnlo MI W K 09500950 Losam Gettan the most from Swoopo On hese pages yau ll ma answers la some onhe most lrequenlly asked uuesuans la us directly Help Topics jwnar does 100 all mean Haw do I loprup my bra acaaunn wrua happens anee Ly Ha me lerL Qulck Links Want to change your aerwery address7 Or maybe your passwords slipped your mrrm m m Email Swaope our inanle Customer service team Circk ar the amarr rm to me nghl and we39ll are our very nest in answer yuur quaauons a r Volga l snags 7 quotmy uua luau Mm Oswmpolszsnmcnm nm quotmama rm Usnalompnndmg Ii Fatahnnk eaquot 3 optnNnubuuk Z SUPPLEMENTAL SLIDES 11308 More about pricing strategies El How do consumers reveal preferences Markets are poor informationgenerating systems Consumer preferences can only be signaled through the market I Shortcomings of usual marketing models time lags and income differences I Market research often poses problems I Fixation on the ideal demographic precludes considering other markets Assumptions about Pareto distribution the 8020 rule often precludes marketing to the tails where amazoncom and Netflix profit see C Anderson The Long Tail 2006 l Sellers and database firms invasions of privacy 12


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.