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Intro Org Psych

by: Rhiannon Lindgren

Intro Org Psych PSYCH 260

Rhiannon Lindgren
GPA 3.8

Fiona Lee

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Fiona Lee
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rhiannon Lindgren on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 260 at University of Michigan taught by Fiona Lee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/231635/psych-260-university-of-michigan in Psychlogy at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Understanding Organizational Problems Lecture 4 types of analysis IndividualSome of the individuals in the team were the problem Frosty knew the problem but was not assertive and did not get the Captain to listen to him RelationshipsThe Captain and Frosty were not able to communicate and this may have been due to their type of relationship GroupThe whole group is on the same track which was the wrong one ContextMany of the pilots came from the military which is very hierarchical Chapter 1 Key trends of organizational psychology 1 The changing nature of work Jobs and organizations are rapidly changing They are being broken up into smaller subunits with an emphasis on work teams Also the growing increase in technology means that people can work in any location with team members who are very remote This will have important implications for how work is done and IO psychologists will be involved in helping workers adapt to technological and structural changes Also redesign jobs for greater ef ciency with more exible organizational structures and work teams Technological advances allow for more information to be collected which therefore requires workers to process this information and make more decisions Organizational downsizingstrategy of reducing an organization s workforce to improve organizational efficiency productivity and or competitiveness Requires organizations to do more with less This has led to decreased levels of worker loyalty and commitment to organizations 2 Expanding focus on human resources Organizations have become more and more concerned about and responsive to the needs of workers There is a small labor market for truly skilled workers so organizations have to compete to attract and keep the best workers Such as enticing benefits programslike child care and extended family leaves Older workers will have to be retrained to keep up with the continuing advancements in work technology Greater focus on personal issues such as recruiting Screening and testing potential workers and on employee training development and compensations programs which are all specialties of IO psychologists Seeing employees as more than just a worker but instead as a whole person and understanding individual development and seeing how workers cope with stress and adapt to change Also how one s home life can spill over into the workplace 3 Increasing diversity of the workforceincreasing number of women and ethnic minorities entering the workforce Women make up 23 of all entering workers in the labor market and 13 are ethnic minorities By 2010 white males will constitute less than 40 of the workforce lncreased workforce diversity represents a tremendous strength and opportunities such as different viewpoints and perspectives that lead to organizational creativity and innovation Can also help in attracting and retaining the best workers IO psychologists will have to help organizations deal with the challenges that increasing diversity will bring Such as destructive con ict inhibiting team cooperation and impeding performance 4 Increasing globalization of businessContinuing shift toward a more global economy Companies formerly concerned with domestic markets and competition must now consider the international picture Increasing need for workers to be trained for working in or with organizations located in other countries Successful manager must be globally aware knowledgeable and respectful of other cultures and capable of working with people from a wide variety of backgrounds Pfeffer and Sutton lChallenges to applying evidencedbased managementMany people do not use evidence because they would rather use their own first handexperiences and observation Information acquired firsthand often feels richer and closer to real knowledge than words and data in a journal article People usually default to information that they knowwell versus trying new things People are overly in uenced by ideology There is too much evidence from many different sources and it is simply too hard for managers to digest it all obsolete knowledge personal experience specialist skills hype dogma and mindless mimicry of top performers 2 The six proposed standards for improving business knowledge 1 Stop treating old ideas as if they were brand new Representing old information as new leads to increased profitrecycling and renaming old ideas but making it appear new is a way to get lucrative book deals and speaking engagements 2 Be suspicious of breakthrough ideas and studies big ideas rarely happen Close examination of socalled breakthroughs nearly always reveals that they re preceded by the painstaking incremental work of others 3 Collaborate and develop collective brilliance Even more important they need to recognize that implementing practices executing strategy and accomplishing organizational change all require the coordinated actions of many people whose commitment to an idea is greatest when they feel ownership 4 Emphasize drawbacks as well as virtuesManagers must identify the risks of certain strategies Too often solutions are presented as costless and universally applicable with little acknowledgment of possible pitfalls 5 Use success and failure stories to illustrate sound practices but not in place of a valid research method Most relevant to management research is that people tend to remember much different things when they are anointed winners versus losers and what they recall has little to do with what happened 6 Adopt a neutral stance toward ideologies and theories The best way to keep such filters from obscuring good solutions is to establish clarity and consensus on the problem to be solved and on what constitutes evidence of efficacy 3 Effects on certain nonevidenced based management practices Finding Solutions Three organizational maps 1 Strategic MapFormal structure and systems ProcessesHow people are grouped and how people are linked to one another LeaderOrganizational designer architect 2 Political MapNetworks ProcessesInformal relationships LeaderBuilding alliances and coalitions networking 3 Cultural MapSymbols images artifacts layout dress code decor Processesshared beliefs and values LeaderArticulating values creating symbols artifacts embody key values Biases l Fundamental Attribution Error explains others behaviorexplain another s actions in terms of internal factors personality and underestimate the in uence of external factors situation 2 DunningKrugerLake Woebegone Effect explains our own behaviorpeople assume that self is better than average People are inaccurate at selfassessments StereotypesBeliefs that members of specific groups tend to share similar traits and behaviors Leads us to make inaccurate judgments about people Stereotype threatthe uncomfortable feeling that people have when they run the risk of ful lling a negative stereotype associated with a group to which they belong They become so fearful of performing poorly in that situation that their performance actually suffers Perceptual BiasesPredispositions that people have to misperceive others in various ways Similar to me effectThe tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several ways Halo effectThe tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated Selective perceptionThe tendency to focus on some aspects of the environment while ignoring others Pygmaliongolem effectA positive instance of the selffulfilling prophecy in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individual s performance Personality Differences at work 1 MeyersBriggs Personality Inventory Extraversion vs Introversion Judging vs Perceiving Sensing vs Intuition N E 4 V39 One of the most widely used personality tests 126 items Stylepreference NOT aptitudeintelligence Personality testing becoming more popular in the corporate world behavioral psychologists onstaff MachiavellianismA personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for one s own purposes Relations between employees superiors and subordinates Overemphasis on personality instead of skills Selffulfilling prophecy behaviors con rm our expectations Implications for hiring process jobfit evaluation Implications of diversity within organizations Personality can be assessed in many different ways but they are not perfect does not capture you as a whole may not relate to one another is not a perfect predictor of behavior We examined diversity in personality though similar principles can be said for demographic diversity e g race gender age etc Diversity is good but difficult and has to be actively managed Group diversity increases task con ict good for group performance and emotional con ict bad for group performance so if you want the good you have to manage the bad The interactionist approachPersonality often combines with situational forces to in uence behavior Person job fitThe extent to which the traits and abilities of individuals match the requirements of the jobs they must perform The degree to which a person s unique blend of characteristics is suited to the requirements for success on a particular job Ex Jonathan Iversonringmaster for the Ringling Bros Big Five dimensions of personality 1 Extraversiontendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people 2 AgreeablenessTendency to be compassionate toward others 3 ConscientiousnessA tendency to show selfdiscipline to strive for competence and achievement 4 NeuroticismA tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily 5 Openness A tendency to enjoy new experiences and new ideas Very important and are strongly related to work performance Conscientiousnessstrongest association with task performancethe higher an individual is on this dimension the higher their performance Related to team performancethe higher the average scores of team members the higher their teams perform Play an important role in determining who becomes a leader 0 gt1 Positive and Negatively Affectivity Tendencies toward feeling good or bad Affective states current feelings are based both on temporary conditions and relatively stable differences in lasting dispositions to experience positive or negative feelings Positive affectivityTendency to experience positive moods and feelings in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions Overall sense of well being seeing people and events in a positive light and usually experiencing positive emotional states people on the low in positive affectivity are generally apathetic and listless Negative affectivitytendency to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions People at the high end are generally angry nervous and anxious and those at the low end are calm and relaxed most of the time Goal Orientations Leaming goalsThe desire to perform well because it satisfies an interest in meeting a challenge and learning new skills Strongly related to general self effrcacy Selfefficacy exerts strong effects on performance and learning orientation can be very helpful when it comes to performing goals Helpful with onthejob feedback They will want to receive feedback and will pay attention to it since it will help them learn Performance goalsThe desire to perform well to demonstrate one s competence to others Neither performance or avoidance goal orientation offer similar benefits as learning Golden 1 Use of cognitive assessments Communicators Tests administered via workshops by the individuals Participation is usually voluntary lack of followup NOT used to assess performance or potential Used to spark conversation and communication about morale and teambuilding Reduces concerns about privacy and stereotyping Evaluators Rely on testing for hiring and promotion Use assessments as atoolindicator Often defensive hesitant to comment or expose 2 Critique of cognitive assessmentspeople feel as though they should be tested on their technical skills and education vs their personality type or how they perform on these assessments Demographics CTA Thomas D Valian Yoshino 1quot 1 Actual and perceived differences between men and women in organizations Actual Differences Men and women often communicate in different ways Women are more polite apologize thank you questions qualifiers praise others and show concern Men are more direct selfpromoting straightforward commands and less personal banter Differences in leadership style Women are more interpersonal but only in gendercongruent settings nursing Women are more transformational and transactional Perceived differences Women are less likely to be seen as a leader less likely to be hired and promoted less likely to be paid as much rated as less competent and committed and are more likely to be penalized for having children Identical Resume Studyshowed systematic bias based on gender race and sexual Identical resumes except for namefemale vs male black vs white fathers vs mothers For hiringmales preferred 21 over women For promotionmales preferred 41 over women Mothers were rated as less competent and committed hired and promoted less paid less Fathers were rated as more committed given higher starting salaries than non fathers given the same number of call backs as nonfathers RaceWhite received 1 callback for every 10 black received 1 callback for every 15 the advantage of white name8 additional years of working experience Sexual orientationgay males received 62 of offers than other males gay females received 50 of offers than other females 2 Thomas D White professionals tend to enter the fast track early in their careers while minorities take off much later typically after they have reached middle management Many minorities would become discouraged when they failed to enter the fast track and became demotivated watching their white counterparts receive assignments and promotions The minorities who were able to avoid that fate and kept motivated were ones who had relationships with mentors They took assignments that allowed them to develop the three Csconfidence competence and credibility Took demotions to transfer from staff j obs into operations where they saw a better match for their skills and an opportunity for personal growth Those who plateaued in middle managementtook tasks that would Took jobs that were perceived as fasttrack career opportunities not the actual work Prone to take salary and title promotions that offered little increase in management responsibility Winners in the white tournament earned fast promotions into middle management In the minority tournament signals sent to winners were subtler taking the form of rich mentoring relationships challenging assignments and expanded responsibilities which showed the rest of the organization that these people merited future investments Benefits of crossrace mentoring Increase protege s competence credibility confidence impart career advice recruit protege to new positions and act as a sponsor protect protege from unfair criticisms Be aware of own mentor roles and also challenges minority mentees face Challenges of crossrace mentoring Identification and role modeling Need to identify with one another perceive similarities SkepticismRegarding company policiespractices concern about ulterior motives Public scrutinyCrossrace mentoring as somewhat rare and conspicuousnoticeable Peer resentmentPeers may perceive the mentee s supportresources as undeserved Protective hesitation both parties refrain from addressing touchy racebased issues this may prevent the relationship from developing socioemotionally 3Valian Empirical studies showing difficulties faced by women trying to take on leadership roles 4 Yoshino Law professor Yoshino writes about covering Making an effort to keep the stigma of some group to which you belong from looming large ex FDR stationing himself behind his desk A new mode of discrimination is taking place in which people that refuse to assimilate to dominant norms are discriminated against Immutable vs mutable traits eg being black and wearing comrows Contemporary civil rights has erred in focusing solely on traditional civil rights groups We need to transition from civil rights to human rights But this is not necessarily a legal issue but a social issue One where discussions should occur informally and intimately in the everyday places where tolerance is made and unmade Changes in the legal system that could unite rather than divide people Cou1ts must look to what draws us together as citizens rather than what divides us


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