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Physics Body&Mind

by: Lamont Barton

Physics Body&Mind PHYSICS 290

Lamont Barton
GPA 3.91


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Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lamont Barton on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYSICS 290 at University of Michigan taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/231650/physics-290-university-of-michigan in Physics 2 at University of Michigan.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Lecture 7 Radiation and Health Magnetic Field Y Out of Page 0 Types of ionizing radiation 3 Alpha particles 24He nuclei Beta particles negative electrons Radium Source Gamma partICIeS39 phOtOHS Curie Becquerellolliot 0 X ray energies lO s lOO s keV 0 y ray energies 500 keV and higher Neutrons C I lllCIGi disovered by Chadwick 1932 Alpha Particles Produced in decay of HEAVY nuclei 226Ra gt 222Rn 4H6 Conservation of CHARGE Z 88 86 2 Conservation of Nucleons A 226 222 4 Conservation of ENERGY m22 3Rac2 rnmRnc2 mquot39Hec2 A Nuclear Energy MeV 5 Other alpha decays 238U gt 234Th or t12 45X109 y 232m gt 2 ZSRa a tmz 141010 Xiphas loose energy by IONIZATION 01 mm Short Range High Speci c Ionization 4 Energy Deposited Half life Beta Decays Electrons and Positrons are Betaparticles In 913110 31laggmc2 0511MeV q ili xl lg Coulombs Neutron Rich Isotopes 3 decay Th gt mPa e v t1 2 241 d Cunservmion of CHARGE Z 90 91 1 Cunservmion of Nuclwns A 234 234 0 Conservation of ENERGY 1113439l h02 mB4Pac2mec2A Betas are PENETRATING Similar to gamma rays Longcr Range than Alpha Particles Lower Specific Energy Loss Gamma Rays Photons Produced by Brehmstralung of high energy electrons Produced in NUCLEAR TRANSITIONS 234Th gt 234Pa e39 v tl2 241 d 234Th 39 y decays P39 decays 234Pa Photon interactions Photoelectric effect ionizing inmI lotoelectmn Compton Scattering ionizing in KCiden 03mm electron Lower energy gamma Pair Production for EY gt 1022 MeV incident 39 6 conserves charge 6 Penetration and Shielding Ionizing radiation interacts with materials Alphas loose energy by ionization Range to KEO mZ ltlt 1 mm Betas loose energy by ionization range lZ Gammas photons transfer energy to electrons Attenuation e HP depends on Z EY Harmful Effects of Ionizing Radiation 0 Ionizing Radiation dislocates electronsatoms H20 radiation gt H20 e39 OH Hquot H OH H202 Early cell death 0 Inhibited cell division 39 Genetic modi cation of chromosomes 0 Units of exposure Becquerel Curie activity 1 quls 1 Cu 2 37X1011Bq GrayRad absorbed dose 1 Gr 1 Jkg 1 rad 001 Gr SVRemincludes biological effectiveness RBE RBE S lfor X rays 5 slow neutrons 39 20 for alpha particles fast neutrons protons Dose Calculations Alphas 1 nCurie of 5 MeV alpha emitter ingested biological half life t 2 1 day 5 MeV 5quot 1quot5 1610 19 J 8x1013 J l nCu 372i114 Gr 133X107hour 32x108day Whole Body 70 kg Dose 8311013 J32x108day144 HQ7O kg 53 nGr 05 mRad RBE for alphas 20 so EFFECTIVE DOSE 10 mRem DANGER energy can be deposited in more localized region Allowed Dose and General Exposure Alllowed Dose 5 mSV 500 mRem per Year General Public Natural Radioactivity Total 299 mRemY Local Gamma Rocks etc 29 14C t12 5739 y l Airborne radon 200 4UK 0117t12 13th9 y 20 bannanas etc U Th in body 19 Cosmic Rays 30 doubles each 6000 ft 36000 feet 64x about lmRkmile Manmade Radioactivity Diagnostic Xrays Radioacitive waste Fallout atmospheric testing MS Elvlmm mm A hum m M Students and Teachers mmquot 39 quot quotquot39 m wwmw m an Emungtmmmgtxmumxmm mmmmvn MIN mm guma m Calculalo Your Radlahon D055 magnum 5 7 nun wo m Equot mumme mm mn nquot E Wl39 i nmmm larvaunman w m whammymum y 2 magmamm m LIT u I V A mm m mm mm 1 m u mm mm mm mam as lung mme m m mm nu v winMM nmgm mm m mx BMWII Lupe v mm mun11mm ng Mn hymnu mm mm mm mum m mum mam w 39 avourMM 4 Wm lmr manmh k mm mm mm m n mint 4a mm mm munmm n mm A m yam mm Hmquot mime Mm mmm m M wL Fun quot L39 quot nil E g in 1 E a 2 s E f 5 3 gr 2 a 22 as 39 Bi 2 4 is 5 E f 5 39 gaff 2 as n a 3215 Em z 31 523 15 3633 0213 in a 35213 axniissi FELL Cancer Risk Cases per 1000 SV 105 Rem Male Female Leukemia 2 2 Breast 5 Lung 2 2 Thyroid 05 Bone Sarcoma 05 Other 5 Total 10 Assumes the Linear model 1000 people 1 SV 1000000 people 0001 SV httpseercancergov wmvmms a mz Pmmmam m mgumncms m Lungaammus uu Cu Unmum S 7 Ewan um ms nu wanna 323 ummavnywmm m Mm 222 ch wo ummwwmm was mm m an amthWS mums 52 mumxa a Pancreas 5 mayMaw um Unnarv mam man mamasI m KamaRenaw N ummau zu su m ummau zu su m wms rmmss luck rmuss am mz a 3 9w mgumncm m cumam w7 Cu mRENMUQQ Lungaammm ws cumusaum NUS222 CVWSampUI2NS mm ms waryme CENIxUtEnMEI WWWm Venom um MghnmmkaVDQ WaryVD Gamma7 a mm 99 ma mme MumDEMye malW u an m au zu su m mum Unnaw hddgrm u an m an m mu m Typical Dose Chest Xray 20 mR Brain Xray 250 mR Abdomen 550 mR Dental 10 mR Mammography 50 mR CT slice 1000 mR Liver tumor 6000 R


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