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Intro to Buddhism

by: Mazie Kilback Sr.

Intro to Buddhism PHIL 230

Mazie Kilback Sr.
GPA 3.7

Juhn Ahn

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Juhn Ahn
Class Notes
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mazie Kilback Sr. on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 230 at University of Michigan taught by Juhn Ahn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/231660/phil-230-university-of-michigan in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
Intro to Buddhism Lecture 1 9152011 52100 AM Why do we call Buddhism Buddhism Wheel represents teachings of Buddha Dharma Nirvananot death Intro to Buddhism Lecture 2 9152011 52100 AM What s so bad about eternal cycle of rebirth o Will continue to suffer Rebirth vs Reincarnation o Rebirth is born into some other being o Reincarnation is birth of same being Ganges valley Where Buddhism began KNOW MAP o Bohd Gaya where Buddha obtained enlightenment o Sarnath where Buddha first premed o Lumbiniwhere Buddha was first born Sramanic movement people known as sramans or wandering ascetics sram to make effort or labor o Relatively new phenomenon o Many differences among movements but still commonalities Vedic Brahmanism specialized in corpus of texts known as vedas o Rituals such as sacrifice o Ritual sacrifice are the or part of making a choice 0 Symbols force us to make this decision 0 Proper sacrificeprosperity in this life and the next o Recitation of certain hymns o Karmic cyclism does not apply Sanskirt Perfect language reserved for sacred texts believed to have magic powers Secondary Brahminism Philosophical interpretations of sacrifice o Aranyakas and Upanisads o Sacrifice works because of the person performing the sacrifice o Upanisads Brahman Unchanging Universal Essence Atman unchanging self 0 Radical because it implies that the universe is within you Sramanic movement practice right actions within self o Morality as judge of right or wrong 1 Brahmins what makes sacrifice work is everybody doing it 2 Secondary Brahmins interpreted purpose of sacrifices 3 Sramans Sacrifice is dependent on who performs it quality Karma stems from action o Moral law of cause and effect Buddhistskarma means intention and action o Japanese Karma Tales o Good intentions good actions good karma o No intentions bad actions bad karma Samsara based on futility of death or rebirth o Solution asceticism 0 Giving up comfort happiness Asceticism attacking the cause of rebirth o Buddha practiced it o Denied extreme asceticism eventually o Body is a tool or bringing out change The ascetic ideal o Rhinoceres Horn sutra o It only has one horn therefore it implies solitude o Pratyekabuddhasolitary enlightened one o Solitude is good because 1 relationships violence 2 affection misery 3 friends and family distraction 4 freedom 5 the futility of sensual pleasures o Three poisons of Buddhism 1 passion 2 hatred 3 delusion Liberation moska o Purpose of all those beliefs and behaviors o Moksa is solution to samsara Impact of sramanic movement transition from ritual action to ethical action o Sramanic movement 9 liberation moska Jainaism o Tirthankara or Jinasomeone who has achieved liberation through asceticism o Mahabira founder 24thTirthankara o Siddhartha is 24th Buddha o Rejection of Vedic sacrificial ritual o Believed in jihra lifequot or life principle an eternal and immaterial life force that is obscured by karma and thus trapped in samsara o Liberation achieved at the end one s life by destroying karma through asceticism o Believed violent action create worst karma 0 Vedic sacrifice violent Buddhism 9 merchants o Merchants spread Buddhism from Tibet all around Asia Tapussa and Bhallika o The Buddha as great caravan leader Symbolism of hair o Seen as impure because it can be torn off it s not a part of the body symbolizes death o Buddha s hair becomes relic The Three Jewels o I go for refuge to the Buddha o I go for refuge to the Dharma o I go for refuge to the Sangha We can find biographical accounts of the Buddha in the sutra and vinaya o Vinaya monastic code rules and punishments o Sutra written word of Buddha 0 Not written till very late Abhidharma o Scholar monks analyzed process of perception of dharma o dharma refers to most basic constituents o there is only perception when you have 3 all three aspects of perception 0 object of perception o organ of perception o perceiver o believed reality is empty because we cannot put reality in the three aspects of perception The Buddha o Is a superhuman being with supernatural powers o Taught the DharmaDhamma for 45 years c Left his wife and child to become a wandering ascetic All Buddhas past and present must perform same miracles paradon a truth a formula o Twin miracles 0 Battle that will end in battle of superhuman powers 0 Can create both fire and watersimultaneously 0 Can also create replicas of himself o Buddha descends from heaven of 33 after preaching the abhidarma to his mother 7th year after enlightenment o Must predict next Buddha o Sumedhaour historical Buddha 24th Buddha o Dipamkaraolder Buddha o Maitreyafuture Buddha Jataka o Literally birth o A story of one of the Buddha s previous lives as a bodhisattva o Stories of virtuous deeds and the perfection giving dana Nirvana ltnir to blow out Intro to Buddhism Lecture 3 9152011 52100 AM Brahmahighest lord implores Buddha to teach o Vedic pantheon Sramanic movement 9 liberation moska Internaliztion of sacrifice Intro to BuddhismLecture 4 9152011 52100 AM Aniconism in early Buddhist art is A theory that is NOT accepted by those who think the aniconic images are representations ofevents in the life of the Buddha A theory that suggests the possibility of Greek influence in the rise of anthropomorphic images of the Buddha in early India Pictureladder of the ladder to heaven o One of the key images of the Buddha is wheels on his feet A temple was built at the site of the of the Buddha s enlightenment site several hundred years after the Buddha s death o Representation of places of worship at the site NOT just the life of the Buddha o Focus on pilgrimage practice of worship Pilgrimage o Wutai shan of peak mountain in China is where bodhisattva first appeared o Able to turn nature into a sacred spiritual site Statues of the Buddha is NOT a Buddha relic o Image is not alive until consecrated with part of Buddha then it is a relic 0 Words of Buddha something Buddha touched part of Buddha s body Before his birth o Spends time in heaven meditating until time is right to be born c The Buddha consecrates the future buddhaMaitreya and descends from Tiusita Heaven Birth o Dates566485 BCE long chronology 488368 BCE short chronology 0 At least 400 years before the birth of Christ Names 0 0 0 Queen Maya painless birth and dream of six tusked white elephant Cakravartin kingwheel turning king 0 Spiritual king The Buddha emerges from his mother s side Lumbini 0 There to tell us that Buddha was not born in an impure way 0 Bloodimpurity of the Buddha Given nameSiddhartha Clan name Gautama Gotama he who has accomplished Name of the actual clan NOT clan nameSakyamuni Name Buddha referred to himself asTathagata thus come one o Thusness Buddha is not bound by karma Last birth Takes 7 steps Must recite I am chief in the world supreme in the world eldest in the world This is my last birth there will henceforth for me no more rebirth Buddhists believe only Buddha and ahrvatcan not be reborn Every Buddha that is born must be seen by Asita the sage Buddha must either be spiritual king or leader of people The 4 signs Old age Sickness Death Renunciation o Encounters Yogi or wandering ascetic o Decides to become ascetic The Great Departure o On day of his son s birth Siddartha fetches Kanthaka his favorite horse and leaves palace o noble vs ignoble enterprises Going forth o Leaving home o Cutting of the hair impure bodily waste and exchanging clothes for roves the robes of a dead woman 0 Hair and clothes as relics Nirvana is a o A kind of death o A special kind of consciousness o Likened to a kind of heaven o Seeking the unborn unageing unailing deathless sorrowless undefiled supreme security from bondage o The peaceful and sublime o Dependent origination o The stilling of all formations the relinquishing of all attachments the destruction of all craving dispassion cessation nirvana Nirvana is not o Subject to birth ageing sickness death sorrow and defilement Two teachers Buddha encounters o Alarakalama nothingness o Idea based on perceptions lead to suffering o UdakkaRamputta neitherperceptionnornonperception 0 Instead of trying not to perceive anything just ignore the act of perception Other trances in the formless o Trance of infinite space o Trance of infinite consciousness 6 years of ascetic practice after encounter with first two teachers o No breathing no eating o The body as corpse Offering of food to Buddha marks beginning and end to enlightenment Sujata and Tapussa and Bhallika dietary frame for enlightenment narrative enough food to sustain the bodhisattva for 49 days The defeat of Mara o Temptation three daughters and nirvana c that seat is mine o the seat of awakeningthe Bodhi tree Turns to witness o The retiue is my witness o Earth is my witness o The goddess Sthavara goddess of the earth Awakening or nirvana with remainder o Buddha has cut off desires has seen the true o Letting little karma from past life run it s course 0 After karma has been burnt through will go to nirvana without remainder o Three knowledges o Recollection of former lives 0 Knowledge of the disappearance and reappearance of beings 0 Knowledge of the conditions of existence gtomniscience o Fourth trance dhyana o Mental impurities and the four noble truths o Brahma implores the Buddha to teach the Dharma Intro to BuddhismLecture 5 9152011 52100 AM Brahmin guatama sakyamuni sangha jataka sumedha dipamkara sarnath lumbini bodhgaya karma samsara nirvana Siddhartha Greek Influence Dhyana Applied thought and sustained thought Blissful joy and happiness Tranquility Onepointedness of mind Vitarka and Chicara o Perfect concentration o Leads to the one pointedness of mind Bodhisattva quotone who has the intention to achieve enlightenment o Gave rise toBodhicitta mind of enlightenment Buddha s path o Alarakalamanothingness o UddakaRamaputta neitherpereceptionnornonperception o Five ascetics or the group of five and asceticism for six years c Sujata s meal offeringgtBodhi tree o Temptation by Mara 0 Sent daughters craving hatred lust o Mara lord of darkness and death o Enlightment or awakening o Not a human being lost part of his humanity Awakening or nirvana with remainder o Threeknowledges see pp 120121 recollection of former lives first watch of the night knowledge of the disappearance and reappearance of beings second watch of the night and knowleges of the conditions and existence third watch of the night gt omniscience Witness o My retinue is my witness o Earth is my witness o The goddess Sthavara Hand gestures known as mudras o Bunisparsha Only in the Fourth trance dhyana can you achieve mental impurities oe desire hatred and ignorance and the four noble truths o Seven weeks under the Bodhi tree o The eight week under the Ajapala Banyan tree o Brahma implores the Buddha to teach the Dharma IfI were to teach the dhamma others would not understand me and that would be earying and troublesome for me p 111 o Brahma is highest god in vedic o First meal offering after enlightenment Tapussa and Bhallika the four heavenly kings and the Buddha s begging bowl The first sermon deer park Sarnath o Wheels on his hands on his hands and feet o Hands that touch his feet o Bump on his head o Corrects 5 aesthetics in addressing him as friend that is where his journey begins Deer park o come monk ehibhikkhu 0 Original way of converting them to monk o Conversion o Stream winnergtonce returnergtnever returnergtarhat o Stream winner return 7 times 0 Only Buddha can go through all 4 stages in one life 0 Arhat somebody worthy of offering someone who has experienced enlightenment At the end of their life they will enter nirvana Veluvana King Bimbasara in Rajaghra and Jetavana wealthy man Anathapinkdik in Sravasti Gave gardens on permanent loan to Buddhist monks Rain retreat Still practiced by modern Buddhists today 0 0 End of life o Buddha purposely eats very bad dish boar s delight o Final nirvanapari nirvana o State of cessationno consciousness body is indestructible o Stupa where you put Buddha remains Nirvana of relics o Permanent state of nirvana Intro to Buddhism Lecture 6 9152011 52100 AM Dhyana 4th state cannot gain nirvana without entering the state o Need 4th state in order to obtain Nirvana with remainder and Nirvana without remainder After death of Buddha followers disconcerted o Now we can do whatever we want o This setting which now exists is one where evil monks think This word si from a teacher who has passed away and when they get followers the true dhamma may disappear quickly Since the Blessed One said P Ananda the dhama and the vinaya that I have taught and made known to you will be your teacher after my deathWhat ifI should recite the dhamma and the vinaya so that this sansana teaching will last for a long time and be perpetual 0 First council o Rajaghra o Recitation of Dharma ie sutra and vinaya o Mahakasyapa Ananda and Uplai o Mahaksyapa oldest disciple of buddha o Ananda knows every word of Buddha spoken o Upali is asked to recite Vinaya o First day of lunar month last day of lunar month full moon o Posada o 500 arhats Buddhist cosmology o no beginning of world all cause and effect c what is the cause of suffering how do you cure it o Smaller universe within a bigger universe 0 Thinking cyclically creation abiding destruction and nothingness o Human lifespan 800000 yrs 0 Genderless almost like gods flying beginning 0 Dip fingers in frothy substance tasting earth needed to excete therefore developed sexual organs o Human lifespan changed to 100 years 0 Now transformed from genderless flying beings o Will change to 10 years get bad o Next Buddha will appear Maitreya then lifespan returns to 800000 o Dharma has no expiration date 0 When Dharma is almost gone next Buddha will appear Three realms o Desire realm o Humans live in desire realm o Realm of pure form o Formless realm 0 Those who dwell are just pure consciousness o According to Buddhists we should like to be reborn in desire realm o Gods don t have opportunities desires to obtain nirvana like humans do become arhat and Buddha Tusita heaven o Where Buddha is right before he is reborn on earth one final time Desire realm o Gods demigods Humans animals hungry ghosts hell beings Karma every action is meaningful Potential to be reborn in hell You have to think about what you are doing Ghosts hungry ancestors Three evil destinies animals ghosts and hells Gods devas o Four heavenly kings o Heaven of the 33 gods o Tusita heaven If you recite the Sutra of Golden Light o You gain the protection of the four divine kings o Give animate beings the most sublime happiness o You put an end to the sufferings in the destinies of hells hungry ghosts and animals Form ream First dhyaana Second dhyana Third dhyana Fourth dhayna Four noble truths the first sermon o Truth for the nobles aryans Sanskrit term that means superior high o Sanskrit word for truth way things actually are c What the world actually looks like and what we cannot see c Taught for noble one o Four noble truths as medicine diagnosis sfuffering prognosis origin of suffering and prescription Lecture 7 9152011 52100 AM Three realms o Desire realm o Humans here o Form realm o Dhyanameditative concentrationabsorption o Jahna 0 Bad to be born here still subjected to karma o Formless realm The word chariot comes into existence dependent on the pole dependent on the axle the wheels the frame the banner staff the yoke the reins the goad it is designation a description an appellation a name The Four Noble Truths first sermon 1 Suffering o Pain birth aging sickness and death o Change object impermanence 0 Essence of Buddhism o Conditioning subject five aggregates o No natural desire you are born with o If desire is conditioned by things other than yourself then that is not your desire Can we y choose to desire somethinganything What you were in past lives influences what you desire now Nothing naturally exists Self is ungraspable o Unpredictable karma potential for suffering is suffering 2 Origin samyuda craving or thirst o craving attachment 0 attachment to objects of the senses and wrong views eg the self 0 attachment to impermanent things ie ignorance suffering o wrong view 0 to regard that which is impermanent as permanent o to fall into extremes such as existence and nonexistence o someone cannot crave nirvana or enlightenment O O O O o nirvana is permanent therefore cannot desire o afflictions negative mental states and attitudes that will lead you to perform evil deeds 3 cessation nirvana 4 path marga o the three traingings body speech and mind 0 ethics sila o meditation 0 wisdom Intro to Buddhism Lecture 8 9152011 52100 AM First response paper Use the notion of compassion and the middle way from Chapter 38 of the textbook and try to explain how Seymour s Fat Lady see last four pages of Franny and Zooey helped Franny overcome her nervous breakdown hint the Fat Lady is not material treasure or spiritual treasure The Four Noble Truths 1 Suffering 2 Origin Pain birth aging sickness and death Change object impermanence Conditioning subject five aggregates o Unpredictable karma potential for suffering is suffering Attachment to the senses o 6 types of consciousness o 6 sense organs eye ear nose toungue body and mind 0 6 sense objects sight sound odor taste touch and mental objects suffering of conditioning WE are intrinsically part of an impermanent and unstable world 5 aggregates skandha 1 form the material part of our being 2 feeling ie sensing an object as pleasant unpleasant or neutral immediate kneejerk 3 discrimination or perception condition factors ie mental habits or dispositions 5 consciousness p Craving 0 Need pain Eg food water comfort etc Immediate satisfactiondissatisfaction o Desire suffering of change Eg glory fame love etc Can never be truly satisfied o Craving attachment attachment to objects of the senses and wrong views eg the self objects refer to the essence of things a what makes you you wrong view a To regard that which is impermanent as permanent a To fall into extremes such as existence and non existence Is the view everything is impermanent itself impermanent and therefore potentially a wrong view What does it mean to regard the views everything is impermanent and there is noself as permanent What does it mean to regard them as impermanent Wrong views gt afflictions klesa o Greed o Hatred o Ignorance 3 cessation o dependent origination o thosedharmas which arise from a cause the tathagata has declared their cause and that which is their cessation thus the great renunciant words of Buddha as precious relic 0 ye dharma hetuprabhava hetumtesamthatagatohyavadat tesam cay a nirodha evamvadimahasramanah o twelvefold chain Ignorance gt formations gt consciousness gt nameand form gt six senses gt sense contract gt feeling gt cravinggt attachment gt becoming gt rebirth gt old age and death a Point of twelvefold chain cessation cut the chain a Most pratical target is ignorance How do we cut the change 4 Path o The three trainings 0 Ethics Calm the body and thus prevent in from distracting you and worse doing something regrettable o Mediation Calm the mind and thus prevent it from jumping from one object to the next feeling perceiving and craving o Wisdom In a calm and concentrated state of mind and body analyze things and see for yourself how empty they all are 0 Comes all together one will not work without another We can be attached to emptiness c We cannot be inherent to the idea of emptiness itself Heat Sutra o Form is empty emptiness is form Emptiness is not other than form form is not other than emptiness In the same way feeling discrimination conditioning factors and consciousness are empty o In emptiness there is no form no feeling no discrimination no conditioning factors no consciousness no eye no ear no 9152011 52100 AM Intro to BuddhismLecture 10 9152011 52100 AM Mahayana o According the to I began as a 0 We actually don t know but we know what it wasn t o Emphasizes importance of becoming a monk in reaching Buddhahood becoming a bodhisattva o Could not have been a lay movement o Pg 273 those who participated in Mahayana saw monastery as important did not praise virtues of the life as a household keeper the Mahayana Bodhsattva path and the six perfections 1 Giving dana 2 Morality sila 3 Forbearance ksanti 4 Striving virya 5 Meditation dhyana 6 Wisdom prajna Perfection of wisdom knowledge that all things are empty Forbearance the ability to still live the same way knowing that all things are empty Giving Moralityethics law still empty but still follow them because one foot in samsara and the other According to the Sutra of Golden Light chapter 5 the four heavenly kings protect o Dharma masters who upholds the Sutra Of Golden Light o Kings who make offerings to venerate honor and praise the Sutra of Golden Light o Kings who revere and protect monks who keep the Sutra of Golden Light 0 Dharma relics o Make offerings to sutra itself A new pantheon cult of the bodhisattva eg chapter 20 The ten great disciples of the Buddha 1 SariQutra wisdom o earliest disciple of Buddha always poked fun at 2 Maud a a ana su ernatural owers 3 Kasyapa asceticism o dathered 500 arhats after death of Buddha convened the first council first cannon recited o when cannon was first compiled transmitted orally 4 Subhuti emptiness o often appears in Buddha genre known as perfection of wisdom primary interlocutor of buddha 5 Ananda o recited the entire sutra basket referenced again and again in mayahana text Celestial bodhisattvas They are special Made very special vows that distinguish them from general bodhisatvas Avolokitesvara the lord who looks down compassion o Dalai lama seen as reincarnation of this boddhisatva o Goes through a gender transformation 0 In India bodhisattva s strictly male o Manjusri wisdom lt gtsariputra o Represented by a lion a sword and a scripture o Often pitted against sariputra 0 When engaged with sariptura always become victorious Shows that mayahana more superior than earlier forms of buddhism o Maitreya 0 Future buddha o Samantabhadra see Chapter 28 of Louts Sutra Dedication of merit o Require you to rededicate merit to other beings mother father o Performed on behalf of the death so they won t transgress into hell beings animals and hungry ghosts Hear Sutra o Thus did I hear At one time the Bhagavan was aviding at Vulture Peak in Rajagrha with a great ssembly of monks and a great assembly of bodhisattvas 0 Thus did I hear know that it is a sutra I refers to Ananda o At that time the bahgavan entered into a Samadhi on the categories of phenomena called erfecption of the profound o Samadhiconcentration or meditation o Form is empty emptiness is form 0 Self is empty 0 Cannot actually find that which makes human being unique 0 Doesn t mean that person does not exist o SkhandaS agreggregates 4 noble truths is empty text o teachings themselves are like a raft not something you can become attached to o lead you to nirvana


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