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Nutr Health & Well Being Lab

by: Ottilie Bruen

Nutr Health & Well Being Lab NUTR 400

Ottilie Bruen
GPA 3.55

Mary Lockwood

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Mary Lockwood
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This 97 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ottilie Bruen on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 400 at University of New Hampshire taught by Mary Lockwood in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/231680/nutr-400-university-of-new-hampshire in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Hampshire.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
iThe Food Supply Chapter 3 Food Availability and Access 1 in 8 people are food insecure 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies Malnutrition including too much food account for over 12 the world s diseases Nutrition transition Overnutrition in developing countries Copyright The McGrawHiili Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or dispiayr 7 7 7 7 i F Health Consequences of Food Insecurity Physical and mental activity decHnes Slow growth Muscle and fat wasting Immune system weakens Disease susceptibility I Death Copyright The McGrawHlil Companies Inc Permission required fur reproduction or display Nutrientde cient diets provoke health pa ms r r unciemuiriiion incr Inadeqwi susceptibility to disease mappropngi e Food V daii rfg gi m Disease d mses 39 people39s ability to preme demh cui va purchase mrl ous Foods Poor people may eat and absorb too li ie nutritious Food making them more diseaseprone Food Insecurity in the US 11 of households are food insecure Closely linked to poverty 12 of the population live at or below the poverty guidelines Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display I Below U average 1 Near US average I Above US average Programs to Increase Food Security in US Food stamp program Special supplemental nutrition program for women infants and children WIC National school lunch program School breakfast program Child and adult care food program Programs for seniors Food distribution programs Food Insecurity in the Developing World Undernutrition Lack of energy producing nutrients Micronutrients Vitamin A iron and iodine Rural and economical poor areas Sustenance farming 5 Organic Foods Allowed Biological pest management Composting Manure applications Crop rotations Not allowed Synthetic pesticides fertilizers and hormones Antibiotics Sewage sludge Genetic engineering Irradiation 10 Biotechnology Recombinant DNA technology Genetically modified food GM Uses Pest and weed control Disease prevention in plants Recombinant bovine growth hormone rBGH Future Increased nutrient density golden rice Increased crop yields 11 Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display mat DNA of the host plant corn f i K J Gene From bacteria Bt gene that produce a protein toxic to the European corn borer W 0W g Bt gene inserted into DNA of corn plant Now the corn piant is geneticall modified It makes the Bt toxin and so is resistant to the European corn borer 12 Regulation of GM foods FDA Safe for humans and animals to consume USDA Crops are safe to grow EPA Pesticides introduced into foods are safe for consumption and the environment 13 Safew Concerns of GM Foods Allergens Unintended gene flow Development of Bt resistant insects Loss of genetic diversity Insufficient regulation and oversight Cloned animals Currently not approved for consumption 14 Food Preservation and Processing Food irradiation Radiant energy to extend shelf life and control growth of pathogens Food additives Intentional versus incidental Synthetic versus natural 15 Use of Food Additives Improve freshness and safety Enhance or maintain nutritional value Enhance or maintain color and flavor Contribute to functional characteristics Examples texture acidity thickeners 16 lm 371 Funm nm ml Example gr Cumnan ma Addimu 13 as F Mam Marla Drum mmn Flushing and sun 39nlkmhiql an Mum Mum Im ml c m rmmuk Humplm r use lllhllm gmmlml mumquotMull MUN m M W lukd gmmlmujdhn 51L lewllp llmml mm Amlnxlllmn 1th lel N IIIYUIIM lHH l39l mm mll Inquot Curing Aylm Wm mum Mlmm mle klk It lml wlI mm m mall m hele nuklllml v muwmwmwl mum rm mun clr uk mulan ll mumwllllll ll m g lnm lmln l umh m lymmmum lmllmw m lwm lulu ul u but llm mm mnl m plllkmlllrnl um l w l Mlnlm ll nlll ummuml u lul mummgml l m mmll Ml A Alm NIII lIuIII Vzlwr w n quotIllnnmum mum an lzu luymm quotKmquot ulmm E luncz avurnr llm39 m aml Spit Ml Flavor Hulmm 4 huim p l lLlwn vllxxmxl mun mm Am l mill 39nmmm nluvlhl ln quotmm m 114 lmlmr u ull an lml gm pmlum mlum u m llmlu l Iml mm 0 l m Hun l quu alluumglum lmmml mum llmlll ml l mlm kmklhlr Dulurnddin39va Hm Wu H FDM lull 2 l in mum lultt mumw mt mm mm 39ltHlm mum m 2 All mm m mn39vhnlrhalr lII39 ll mum Fundlnml Ilmnmrinis n mnmll mull unw Nu ll ll aw an uml m mm mm rml ulllunlnll uhlr mm mm 39 ml 11m llmllul ullullm lllllrm nHlleerA l mlmmum m mu m ml Emu n Fwnmwlmllm mlquot ml Szhldlxwupmullllllllllwrlimmdmvrmwllhll lllumekquot llwgunlw llliukingAgmu kmmvlu39 lmmulmlr mllxlmmll l4mumlmllmug my mumnir Humzrum Nurrnhwlhlllll Ikmmmlll llmlnlmlmmlmdwllmmnmllllm ulli ml mm um samlimsxrllwkenm nmngul 49lrumlmlull l ul lullWmmummlmlmllmlmmlmm mum Ellum 31mva pnl lldx hxldrtwngnwn quotM lunmmn Emma I v LI 4 l I ll mum lnwdll mlh u alllhlmnlmrl m Mumll nullw quotmm mm m mmchm mmllmml 1h quotmu Immuing gmu 39 mluawlll luml mlmlln mung le Regulation and Safew of Food Additives Prior sanctioned substances Sodium and potassium nitrates GRAS list generally recognized as safe Vanilla salt sugar Food Additive Safety Tests NOEL no observable effect level Delaney Clause Intentional additives onlyany additive amount that is shown to be carcinogenic 18 New Food Additives Must be FDA approved Concerns with additives Sensitive individuals More studies on additives on the GRAS list Natural foods Free of food colors and synthetic substances 19 Foodborne illness Foodborne pathogens cause an estimated 76 million illnesses 325000 hospitalizations and 5000 deaths yearly in the US Atrisk individuals Weakened immune systems Pregnancy and lactation Infants and small children Elderly 20 Microbial Pathogens Contamination by feces ExampleDiaper changing and then food preparation Contamination by an infected individual ExampleOpen cut with pathogens transferred during cooking Crosscontamination ExampleCutting board used for both vegetables and raw chicken 21 Bacteria Pathogenic bacteria cause foodborne iHness Require Nutrients Water Warmth Temperature Danger Zone 41 to 135 F 22 Copyrith I 39 Inaquot 39 1 In r 39 diapldyV Temperature range for destrdying bacteria but not their spores parasitic worms and protozoa Temperature range for holding thoroughly cooked Food prevents growth of bacteria but doesn t necessarily destroy them DANGER ZONE Bacteria grow quickly do not store within this temperature range For more than I to 2 hours 7 quotgamerterqperat39uce is ilsgme lpqct 316mgch 23 Viruses Parasites and Prions Viruses Reproduction only occurs inside body cells Parasites Live on a host organism Prions Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE Toxins Mycotoxins Natural toxins 24 Tabic 373 mum cum offoodhomc quothas Back 1 MIWIImInunmcs 59quot me mummy Evlm39irlvm ml m n7 aml mllcnlmms mm Fund Sauna Sympxon Additional Infomlinn u n ma lt r I 1V M I l39rrl39 1 mm a m mu xivllkunnmnn rxnlm vuln m r l Alc umm mm mm mpmml muuuur mm m 7 am 2 7m Nllhmmlln 1mm um mus my m Ema mum uth mlmlidmnlun m undo quotr whaamdwuh 3 x mmmm Wm WM M Ivmgdlilm39 wpulfanmll n mm m mm m din Wm mm m u 5393 minimum y m Imvmkwml dmmu m Hum panilp a x n 15 mum 1 me rm mmxwum PM m ch win1 Nuw uix mlmmc mm 13 m 14mm m lvhmd rrleK haunthm L n hcmul ur Mdmx 39 r 339 1 mm 11 577149 1 Amp IN 17 m dam Mum 39Alm39 13rd m pmum mKrL mug J 1 no 1W1gt Jll lmmmw lwgcmc r M um nm In mad m m m n mum mludml umr ygulm xnwlvl39s nlwn g A by wWm Alwnrrv mr umluphn mum wlw umhumum ndnm39hn uxwmlulmwmnnuu mnnmumxllnwuuml m lwn mmuu um um mm m uwmw M WW Table 33 am mum 1mm Imam mm ammo lumm WWW thrrmlmu Minimum mm 1mm mamamm win rm Smuus Symptom Mm quotA In mmlinn ml pm Human mum m cm h man m y rhlvrly 1 mm Luau 1 1 my Immmwda mum um mulupiw any u mmmm um w mum v mm Minmm h m u tau mm umwnuw rlmxnmu mm mum mummm 144 um furk m Mr mdquchl m m quotM mm m mule m lumrrmh hnmnmmicd quotmull quotr nnlmm n mums m mmuxm m um pmvumrr Mm xml mllbmlv mm man lump um an 1 mm mam Wu mung um um mlymtmulwuld1mm Huunlnl M mushwlrrluanrgamp m 39 ml quotWm quotrmum mnku m hmmm ln mmymrzumw m g mum mm H l39uM qu lm uullmm lg Ixnuli 1 mm m 2w urmmud llv r Munma aquot m m W V vurnwm m and Amnn m39nmn u muuulkv hml mmm m mm 4 mm u um m um124 mums Iv M m m vlwuhl nm N lm punyquot w mm m mu wmmm 0mm Maw mm W mum m Nam quot xlw uh humuch as cupMar xan mumva r mm umunwum 1M 1m um um nmvls m m Innlcmmw pork mxwmlsdlhxxlu my lbxrr h h kunml I1 A name mun ltkmlmms LubSurnum m m 4m m dchjulm InnI xmuumg ummmMmM vlhpampvm l Jnlknu wm mm Hum Inn mun mum J n L 4 x N Umunxmml u mumnwnhuul 4mm ch puniiuuvn um um quotmumm Mum 1mm mlvmm mummy mm mmw mm um um Lu 1 a widow My W Iml m 1k mm m mlur Water Safety Public water regulated by the EPA Bottled water regulated by the FDA Threats to water safety Agricultural runoff Pollution from boats Inappropriate disposal of chemical or fecal wastes 27 Table 34 Viral Causes of Foodbom Illness Typical Food Viruses Sources Nnrovirns Foods prepai i by imbued thud handlers ShClthh from contaminated v I mics an and lhuls cmn mimlcd dun ng growing lmn csring lnd proccssing Hcpatiris A virus Fonds prqurcd w infected l39nnd lumdlus cspccinlly unconde fonds 1 S sandwiches nd salads and In an Symptoms On a stomach ilnquot scvurc in winning smmnch cramping lmvygmdc fcvcn c ii must c thus lusts 1 2 day or long an nausea mm 15750 dnys Anorexia dim1m IVL 1 nniicc dark x 1 weeks up 106 months Additional Information Virnsc hund in stool and nil m inl ccmd can contaminmc foods wk n mu can cad to infection workers with norovirus syn me should not w rk until 2 or 3 d39s ma may r Ini39ccrcd food handlers Dnmmilmk bod and transmit the dams m doz 15 ii pcrsons children and young xdnlrs are inan si ni u a vaccine Is available dccrcasing nu number ni inlccnnns l mmnlicall 39 ixnnInnoglnbnlin giicn wi hin l vcck 10 11mm cxpmcd m licpmili A virus can lISn d 39rcasc infection Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required ior reproduction or display rib i39 i r l i J I39 73quot N 39v i Pf l L v Hi iwi w quotA 1quot t q t a v m 1 n t l 41 H i h l I 7 a i y i 1 I 0 I o M again m t i a iquot M o t If n jlllu inn 3quot quot National Pork Producers Councii CDC 8 49 Preventing Food and Waterborne Illness Select and Purchase Foods Carefully Avoid Unsafe Food and Water Practice Good Personal Hygiene Keep a Clean Kitchen Handle Food Safely Keep Foods Out of the Danger Zone and Cook Foods Appropriately 30 Table as PAmink Camus orrwnam Xllnm Panvilc Imbiwlhr Ipimu 139 m1 Fwd 50 r d NM pm n ur wulcnuuknl Hm 1w m1 mm m m m m quotmummm smnm hm1 mum quotmm 39 nmpmm n hvm numh39 mum lluid mcumm u m furnlluhkn mum mu 1 Immanxxu39 m Mum mm quotmmquot mg Muimlmu nlmuml39nn Imrllvn 0m 20 1bmmrpmplr m Aminm Inrmmviun mum hymn m Ixnm l39 mummmmlw iul nuxm mm mummy m m nay ix quotmum smmnnnl lumiu WW mmmmu mm Jnimak 4 h mcmbln mm umumimwd I39ml um l39nvcr hu hlvzwmr um mum4 uquot 1quot mm mm mm mm mmm u unmanaan muxlurhe wquot m Lurukathu lurch myme mm A mm m mmnum V max m m 2 mm m mme mm pnwm Ant Juana Mm Km m 1 mm umulmgumlu mmmm nuull39ul umumilmnMI rmquot Yundlmgml um MW nlmmm m lmp39xm qu whrrnplul mm m mm rwnmm kucu mummnmum awn pumln lun mama vc vmlllmada mum1hr w wxmmr Mm mHK mm Hum mm ml kswuu ummmmmu u munlnspmh E Copyrlghl The McGzawHIII Cumpanies Inc Fermissinn required In reproduclion or display MEA T THE RMOME TE R resh round beef veal lamb 1san71c Bee mbvoastste OPP F u mre g 915 M J g ssm 160quotF71 C 5 Melamine 170 F77 C E Fm ork mast steaks chops E E Medlum 160 F71 C 16w Wsudone 170 F77 G i C A a a 160 F 71 C E R an ek mfuuycooked 14o Feo C E 145PEun E quot 6 un lphickenJurkey 165 F74quotC g gt E Cwyungl hu McGrawHIH Compamss m Perm l allle 35 1min Ta 13 mu Scum rumu Alhm39xm mm Aprwllulemumml AiquMmumlmitm smpxm u mama luvx pmduwan mmsmav Aduhimm Inlamn nn to mm or dung Eryn mmquot luvmpx mm mmd 5mm mum npnm rrn mgquot msquot imam min mpsmmx 4mm A mmemmm m H mm H urliln um n v Him I Iu mv lmnluuxm am Ildl sh patching a mm m anml n m mm n ul m1 mum Alluumunun WWW mm m umnmnml mm Inn 10 m mm uu w vpngk mum m Immu m mmr Hunk Mlnhmg and uwmuwm mm a mnmwuwd mm MW WWW mm mm mmquot m mld m m wrunnmuwunun N am uunmurymn wu L ud unm Mm mm m Mu Wyn Ihnnyumklln mm mm lwlmivn n4li mlulhcsdwl r mmm n wmh nub 39lhmmmlwnl my K quotwkM11 5 L mmmmm u ltrxrknlmrl mummnn m mmm mpru 7 quotWm mum mm mmx Nrmum My mm mum mg Nmmmurunxn 30va m g Wm mm m vul mm mm m Ammunmxl m was 1mm immualnlnummlu mm m awn H1munMuumllalnmmnhd idv Ir n mumon m ml m l au nml Iume my mukmm mu miml Aim H mm aw wmmManny a hnaduugnymymnu mum 1 gum nm 21 munm hmvmmmnlv quotmm mum mm dunwL mmmwmxm hmzmmrymdmwmMmhmmo mm 1W mm mm m mm WWW N um mm m m an a T Iblc 36 Continued Toxin l lnxlr Toxin Somme 7 Wm M an Muxllruom xoxills rmumuaanE m Herbal mas mm Food Snurccs Sympmms Additional xmbmmuou n V l rvHu hm 1 now Imuwd r y m u I lunaluskim 1 I 4 rccl lmximl yr c x mm md any gnzul Iiugcd 3pm Imllummximm and an m39un m rc I 39d In nmmpcm u x Inn all mrk lin39s n Lucran hdm mm mm A mmmu mmhmmm pl 5 sy um and mm cuml39vc Inml mags nmmecmd m nriulrnulum 0m l H v mmlly w 39 Imus alvdmumal mm diarrllc vmpmnu Outbrch haw m39curml 39qu wher 1w antrt rurkpurs m r scmk mm in 34 Copyright The McGrawHiiii Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display 35 Environmental Contaminants in Food I Lead Dioxins Mercury Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs Pesticides Antibotics 36 Lead and Dioxins Lead Dioxins Toxic used in paint Byproducts of prior to 1986 industrial processes Imported canned Accumulate in animal goods fat and fish Herbal remedies and EPA restricts certain supplements waterways Iron deficiency increases lead absorption 37 Mercury and PCBs Mercury PCBs At risk children Used in industrial pregnancy and setting laCtatiOn Residue on primarily Avoid and limit fresh water fish certain types of fish Controversial Good source of omega 3 fatty acids 38 9 Pesticides Synthetic pesticides Many older ones banned newer ones break down quicker Biopesticides Microbial pesticides Plants that produce their own pesticides Limit reproduction and growth of pests 39 Pesticide Regulation and Exposure EPA FDA and USDA all regulate pesticides Pesticide tolerance Minimizing exposure Washing and peeling all fruits Trimming away fat on meats Certified organic foods May still contain some residual pesticide 40 Antibiotics Used to promote growth in animals and prevent disease Concern with antibiotic resistant bacteria Not used on organically produced animals 41 Table 37 us Aguxci Agcncy Nam Rut n mume11mgquot and l39ln arms and Explmiws ATE u Immntun Pmu mm Aguun39 nanA 1am I Dng cmurslhrhisu c umml and PK nrinn my Ialiun II Marine Nlt MA l nllcnvs Sm And 1me gmmumxm Iksponsibl for Mouimring the Food Suppxy Rusponsibilirics Mcdmds How to 001mm lt i u ml MW and p va uminmm Safe Hnndllng Lululquot pnxlm c vhilc m the eld mm mmva milk c um 133 prodch mu I mm gm st m almlmlic tnmlum immium lK39w gm l L pcmc u M WW Sm pm mic msiduu limiu in mm 800 D 4010 mmmcmc cmp mum uquy Sm umxhnls fur 4w hch am pmsz egg pm ucls Rxgul mm mam w mmquot m puma an himpmdw anma iww 10mm pmdun labels mm uh 39 I mmmu lm s Responds wankrng gumrm mmm mum V mm a mumnmcmal mm m m 39 Inml l n umlum mum plugmlm for pmmuinn and mnxml or mdhunu qu nunr dim n mmmgcmunl 01 Imng um nw mark 0 Show unm pa u uunxL mum nl mummmlk rv39 IIumlucliuxpcclinnsuribud u mmqu 171 ul39wlcphonu Mnnimr rm imlumy within rchml mbxmumm hunk u humm 42 mm lmnicn i Lipids Chapter 6 Learning Outcomes Explain the basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are named Describe the functions of triglycerides fatty acids phospholipids and sterols in the body Classify and evaluate the different fatty acids based on their health benefits or consequences Identify food sources of triglycerides fatty acids phospholipids and sterols Learning Outcomes Describe the recommended intake of lipids Identify strategies for modifying total fat saturated fat and trans fatty acids intake Explain the digestion absorption and transport of lipids in the body Discuss health concerns related to dietary fat intake Describe dietary measures to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease 20 06 gk 5 x 6quot Energy from fat 79 0 h h 0 l O O O O O I l I I I 90 100 Copyright 7L Iepvuuuuiuu or display i Triglycerides Most common lipid in food and body Structure Esterification Joining 3 fatty acids to a glycerol unit Deesterification Release of fatty acidsresults in free fatty acids Diglyceride Loss of one fatty acid Monoglyceride Loss of two fatty acids Reesterification Reattaching a fatty acid comm pm Memenva Campamos mo mummy Hammad car Manamaquot a 6 59 6 Fully acid I Fa y acid 2 106lt I Fu y acid 3 CWVMBTHE MLGraw Hm campames Ync wmm Hammad a W m1us mains hacking Down and Robuilding Yriglyarides Bleri ying Duvaaruri yiwg and Xazshri39ying rum Acids T u HC R H7 a o c R H20 0 D H a II Cv R lt7 n7 07CRH20 I H H O C R H2O YrTgMntidssom mm mm a glymml ham and a in acids x you an m baml in mm Im Jwvbom sdnin A n39 my a form uh ma Mm om group unl lyaerol minim wmm mhya m ulom Pram n a WWI ml 039 u E a 11 hand Wequot a loving and 91mm u lvd m m whammy Hp mm lime an m bard bum Ihis u Had nluri imliunl vim win a dx39gbarid 2 in acid mud 2 1 glycnml Begun Yams 2 mlmulu of mm rm simumry Insz a In giywvdo augmm 3 walnv mks A Mmlnolwalu is used whun a my acid bmhewu mm 19 cl Loam muca daumih39mion mmde m antacid m ug ml be boonuth m2sluliiim onwill pvodutl uwnlur mixquot Carbon Chain Length Long chain fatty acids 12 or more carbons Medium chain fatty acids 610 carbons Short chain fatty acids Less than 6 carbons Saturation Saturated fatty acids No double bonds Monounsaturated fatty acids One double bond Polyunsaturated fatty acids Many double bonds 10 mpwuumam u u my GrewHm Copyright E I U I 5 I U I U I ELI I LL I I k I I viiI IJI quot2 UI 3 ll H3quot U I o 1 I U I I li I I KL I IiiiI I L I I KlJ I z IgU I 73 2 n I 391 1 0 1 Methyl I I Copyrigm The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required or reproduction or display H l c l H T c c c l H H H H 2 double bonds H l c I H H c H H 1 c l H H H O H TTC H H Curboxyl lupvuuu m u u play GrawH l Copyright s T Ou E I U I 5 I U I U I I ikIJ I I kl I I KlJ I IiiiI I LL I JH 3 H39L g I kL I I kIJ I IJI Iiiil I kL I I kIJ I T 1 0 1 1 2 5 Shape i Cis fatty acids Bent carbon chain Trans fatty acids Straight carbon chain Hydrogenation Adding hydrogen to make an unsaturated fat more saturatedyields trans fatty acids 14 Oleic acid Elaidic acid 15 Unsaturatear vegetable oil liquid Adding under pressure Pa niali rhyrdircr Jenoted fut semiso id Naming fatty acids Omega System Double bond closest to omega methyl end Delta System Uses the carboxyl end and indicates location for all double bonds 17 Essential Fatw Acids Alphalinolenic Omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA Eichosanoids Linoleic Omega 6 fatty acids Dihomo gamma linolenic Arachidonic acid Eicosanoids 18 Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display I Polyunsaiuraied Fu y Acids I Omega6 fatty acids Omega3 fatty acids Alphalinolenic acid I V l ij jgmgiggrgmg iinqlig iqFEM Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA l i v Aruchidonic acid H Docosahexaenoic acid DHAJ39 i Eicasanoids 39Tecimically DHA yieids docosunoids which are similar to eicosanoids 19 Food Sources of Triglycerides Fruits and Vegetables Low fat except avocados and coconuts Dairy Low fat products are available Grains Low fat except when fat is added ie pastries pancakes I Fats Usually a combination of manydescribed by the predominate fat 20 Table 61 Type and Double Sm at Room Hcaltll Effects Bonds Main Sources Temperature Saturated Fatty Acids 0 lncrc uc blond Icvcls ul39 choirsrcroi Lung Clmjn Lard m in i7cci1p0l k Sulid Iud Limb Medium and Slmn Milk flu bumr Soft ur liquid chm coconut 011 palm oil palm kcrucl ui Monounsaturated Fatty l Olin oil canulA uil Liquid Acids pmnm nil Decrcasc blond icwl of clmlvslcml Polyunsaturated Fatty 2 or more Suunmm nil mm nil Liquid ci 5 saf ower nil lish nil Dam cam blood levels oi39cliolcsicml Essential Fatty Acids mu Iphm S CUIAI39WMCI39 sh salmmL Liquid HUICHIL39JCM unmrdix Iu crr Rama in munurion walnum n licmp mpnuscs 7 cm oil mnolu ml suylwun n39 1 mi plasma nil i 7 m Sulid to liquid Lam than thc I UPA ust m nmkc mm I11 ncr blond duo cl nl ner than mmch fur B Uur smluw 0i Mul owcr oiL mm nil Mm garinc wincm tub Su m L39ry sulid siicksluu1cning Copyright The McGraw Hitl Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Saturated Fatty Acids Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated Fatty Acids Coconut oil Butter Palm oil Lard or beef Fat Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Olive oil Canola oil39 Peanut oil Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids SatHower oil Sunflower oil Com oil Soybean oil Trans Fatty Acids Tub margarine Stick margarine Shortening l l I 0 20 40 60 80 1000 20 40 60 80 1000 20 4O 60 80 1000 20 40 60 80 100 Rich source of the omega3 Fatty acid alphalinolenic acid 7 and 12 of total Fatty acid content tor soybean oil and canola oil respectively The natural trans fatty acids in butter are not harmful and may even have healthpromoting properties such as preventing certain Forms of cancer 1 Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or dispiay rs l I Nutrltlon Facts Serving Size 1 Link 459 Servings Per Container 10 Amunt For Serving calories 140 Salaries from Fat 120 quot g y WW1 w r r39 4 39 Total Fat1ag 2096 WI E N E Saturated Fat 59 23 meamims warm seer 5m wail SYRUP sows naxmass T ans Fat 09 H mom 39 I 39 mu MAYO mmmsmgummmxmmmrmain150mm cholesterol 20mg 7 EEG ii MITRNE Sodium 420mg 1 7 quot Total Carboh drate 27 1 KEEP REFRIGERATED Dietary Fiber 09 D Sugars 1g 7 i 7 4 pfotein 5g 591 Vitamin A 0 VitaminC 0 thPASSfB gV i 0 g quoton mag I quot g39 V Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 39 39 calorie diet W W 39 39IHI EIK39B 0T trans tat SHOU IU be 35 CW as r a i passible g 23 Fat Replacements Water Protein Carbohydrates Starch derivatives fiber and gums Engineered fats Olestra Salatrim 24 Functions of Triglycerides Provide Energy Provide Compact Energy Source Insulate and Protect the Body Aid Fat Soluble Vitamin Absorption and Transport Essential Fatty Acid Functions 25 Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Nucleus Cell 1 1 membrane 39 i SIXi Fat droplet Adipose cell 16 Phospholipids Hydrophobic and Hydrophillic Ends Functions Component of cell membranes Emulsifier Sources Synthesized by the body Food egg yolks wheat germ and peanuts 27 cawngmamu Mchzwva Dammit m Pamussum mum hvlemodumm Dummy 0 H H ll 1 H c 0 P o lt c N CH3 H H lt H o 6 CH3 5 Glycerol quot quot Phosphale Lecithin Phospholipid 39 lnr 39 39 Ullepluuuuiulvordisplay Phospholipid H dro hobic pgosp ale fail H dro hylic pzosp are head Phospholipid bilayer cell membrane Copyright 1115 McGrawHill Companies inc Permission required for reproduction or display Oil emulsi ed in water Hydrophilic head at lecithin attracts water Oil in hydrophobic Hydro hobic core tailso lecithin plus Wafer around OHTGCi agitation portion of lecithin Hydrophobic portion of lecithin 30 Sterols Ring structure most known is cholesterol Functions Steroid hormones bile cell membranes chylomicrons Sources Synthesized by the body Food animal origin 31 05233 3 55253 25 ESEEE mmzmesu grieve miozzaau Capyright The McGrawHiil Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display 533 I a Total Dietary Fat Saturated Fat As low as possible Tram Fat ns low as possible Unsaturated Fat Mast offat intake Omega 6 linoleic acid 5 of calories Omega 3 alphaEinolcnic acid 06 to 121Fcalo cs Cholesterolquot As low as possible 39Narilmal Chulcstcml Edutau39cm l mgmm daily m39ummdmm x chulcstcml is 200 mg or Ems 33 American Heart Association Recommendations Limit saturated fats to 10 of total calories Limit polyunsaturated fats to 10 of total calories Minimize trans fat intake Limit cholesterol intake to less than 300 m9 34 Mediterranean Diet Up to 40 fat if comprised of monounsaturated fatty acids Diet is high in Olive oil fruits vegetables whole grains beans nuts and seeds Small to moderate amounts of cheese yogurt and fish Limit eggs and red meat Exercise 35 Essential Fatw Acid Needs Adequate Intake Approximately 24 Tablespoons daily Deficiency Unlikely Toxicity No upper level set 36 Fat Intake North American fat intake has doubled in the last century Omega 6 intakes are plentiful Omega 3 intakes are usually low Food sources Supplements Cautions 37 Fat Digestion I MOUth Lingual lipase Stomach Gastric lipase Small Intestine CCK triggers bile Bile emulsifies fatmicelles are acted upon by pancreatic lipase with the aid of colipase 38 5 Fat Digestions Triglycerides are broken down into monoglycerides and free fatty acids Phospholipids are broken down into free fatty acids glycerol and phosphoric acid Cholesterol esters are broken down into cholesterol and free fatty acids 39 lurch l39 39 large inles ne Less than 5 of fat passes repmduclnen or dxspiay la is digasled liver The liver produaes bile which is shred and released by Ihe gallbladder into lhe common bile duct which empties into the small inlasiine Bile emulsifies fat Pancreas The pancreas secretes pancreatic lipase phaspholipase and chaleslerol eslerase inln il39le common bile duct which empiies inla ihe small inles ne Pancreaiic lipase digests iriglycerides Fhasphalipase digesis phospholipids Cholesterol esteruse digesis choleslerol ihrougli ille large intestine and is exaeied Slemach Gaskic lipase is secreted Unla 40 5 Fat Absorption Short and medium chain fatty acids are absorbed via the portal vein Long chain fatty acids are reesterified and enter the lymphatic system Bile is recycled via enterohepatic circulation 41 Cnpyugmcvva MchwNucmmm InL Pamiim mqwlmulvaprudwlmnom spuy enemas m a l I gallbladder up P ham pancreas u break down 1 D l mommaquot El 9 0 a Bile miy and lecm n emusify furs ima smuiler pumcles Mmmmcms x o 0 0 mmme 0 IluguHHudder ngtb t sham and mediumi chain In acids a M0 I may and 13 13711me as quoty micelles lhrough m bmh heydarand lhen reformed ink urigyugzdel Monoglyoerides I Tliglyun39ds a Cholsshzro gm thsphclipids o 42 Transporting Fat Fat is transported as lipoproteins Lipid core Shell composed of protein phospholipid and cholesterol 43 Lipoproteins Chylomicrons Transport of dietary triglycerides VLDL Produced by liver they release triglycerides IDL Formed from VLDL LDL Formed from IDL they contain mostly cholesterol HDL Pick up and recycle or dispose of cholesterol 44 Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Chylomicron VLDL LDL HDL Triglyceride Triglyceride Cholesterol Protein Carries dietary t from the small intestine to cells Carries lipids both taken up and made by the liver to cells Carries cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells Helps remove cholesterol from cells and in turn excretion of cholesterol from the body 45 75 50 25 he 0 M1 6 muMM R m4 0mom w Q su 5 50 25 Q 9 W A 3amp6 6m o MOM 0 1x 05 Q Q N 3 R M gpq 03 A 01 bxo 00 ban 3 mu 0 46 Choiesiero bound to fa y acids Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake Receptor Pathway LDL broken down and utilized in the body Excess becomes oxidized Scavenger Pathway Removes oxidized LDL Can build up over time High Density Lipoproteins Picks up cholesterol throughout the body 47 Inr Centrifuge tube Copyright The McGrawHiI Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display HDL arises from the liver and intestine and buds 0 other lipoproteins HDL transfers cholesterol from bocly cells mostly to other lipoproteins for disposal LDL taken up by receptor pa ways in body cells ILD 7 LDL taken up by scavenger Eathways in l vessels 7 especia ly oxidized LDL 49 LDL B100 apolipoprotein Cells have pits on the surface which contain LDL receptors LDL gt B100 apollpuprotein LDL binds to the LDL receptors in the pits The LDL bound to LDL receptors is taken Into the cell by 50 Cell lining endotlwelium Muscle layer Vessel opening Normal artery Beginning cholesterol plaque Early iniury vanced cholesterol plaque Signi cant atherosclerosis Blood clot Complete blockage 51 s Health Concerns High polyunsaturated fat intake Excessive omega 3 fat intake Imbalances in omega 3 and omega 6 fats Intake of rancid fats Diets high in trans fats Diets high in total fat 52 Cardiovascular Disease CVD Development of CVD Atherosclerotic plaque forms Result Heart attack and stroke Risk factors Cannot change age gender race and gene cs Can change blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels hypertension smoking physical inactivity obesity diabetes and other diseases 53 39 Inr 39 mymumimmmipmy j k 39w Cholesterol To lt200 Desirable 2002 39 Borderlth high 2240 P gh op nm 100 129 Near optimal 130 159 Borderline high 16m189 High 2190 Veryl gh Optimal Near optimal Borderline high Phg Very high reventing CVD 5 Total fat 203500 total calories Saturated fat lt 7 total calories Trans fat low Polyunsaturated lt 10 total calories Monounsaturated lt 20 total calories Cholesterol lt 200 mg daily Include 2 grams plant stanolssterols Soluble fiber 2030 gr Keep body weight at a heahhylevel Increase physical activity 55


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