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Earth History

by: Cathrine Hoeger

Earth History ESCI 402

Cathrine Hoeger
GPA 3.67


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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cathrine Hoeger on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESCI 402 at University of New Hampshire taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/231683/esci-402-university-of-new-hampshire in Earth Sciences at University of New Hampshire.

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Date Created: 10/29/15
ESCI 402 Review Sheet for Final Exam Don t forget to review previous two exams Case Study 5 Dinosaurs Ch 1214 Earliest Chordates Cambrian Rise of vertebrates and tetrapods Five major classes of sh Evidence for tetrapod ancestry in lobe nned sh Land adaptations that allowed emergence from water lungs 3chambered heart stronger limbs and bones interlocking vertebrae new ear structures etc Rise of anmiotes Key evolutionary innovation of anmiotic egg Skull morphologies Anapsids Synapsids Eurypasids Diapsids Saurischian lizardhipped versus ornithischian birdhipped dinosaurs Saurischian dinosaurs familiar examples of theropods eg T rex and sauropods eg Apatosaurus Brachiosaurus Ornithischian dinosaurs familar examples eg Stegosaurus Triceratops Evolutionary links to birds Dinosaur paleoecology Thermoregulation u 39 39 versus 39 39 39 vs 1 quot quot 39 Arguments and list of evidence for and against endothermy in dinosaurs The KT boundary mass extinction Lines of evidence for a bolide impact and its geographic location Yucatan Other potential causes of the mass extinction volcanism random coincidence of several factors Case Study 6 Western Cordillera Ch 10111315 The Antler orogeny Devonian through Pennsylvanian initiation of subduction and collision with island arc Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplift Late Paleozoic uplift in middle of continent The Sonoma orogeny Late Permian 7 Early Triassic Accretionary tectonics growth of North America during the Mesozoic by incorporation of exotic suspect terranes The Nevadan orogeny Jurassic well developed continental arc sedimentation on the Colorado Plateau The Sevier orogeny Middle Jurassic 7 earliest Cenozoic 180760 Ma Seviertype thinskinned deformation The Laramide orogeny Late Cretaceous 7 Early Tertiary 70740 Ma Laramidetype thickskinned deformation Expansion of vast Cretaceous epicontinental seas caused by increased rates of sea oor spreading Basin and Range extension crustal stretching caused by tensional forces normal faulting possible causes of extension Development of San Andreas Fault change in tectonic style caused by subduction of spreading ridge beneath North America Columbia Plateau volcanism great outpourings of basaltic lava in the Miocene Cascades volcanism classic example of continental arc volcanism produced by subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate ancient and modern volcanic activity Yellowstone National Volcano caused by a plume of upwelling magma Case Study 7 Mammalian evolution Ch 1416 Distinguishing features of mammals Some preserved in fossils others are not Early evolution of mammals Three groups of synapsids pelycosaurs therapsids mammals Use of sail on the back of Pelycosaurs Transitional characters of therapsids Ecology of earliest true mammals eg arboreal insectivorous nocturnal Cenozoic Mammalian evolution and climate change Greenhouse to Icehouse transition Evolution of grasslands Miocene Great American Interchange Case Study 8 Human origins Ch 17 Primitive characters and diagnostic characters of primates Differences between two major groups of primates prosimians and anthropoids Three groups superfamilies of anthropoids New World monkeys Ceboids Old World monkeys Cercopithecoids Hominoids Primate origins archaic forms are prosimianlike animals from Late Cretaceous Lemurlike adapids and Tarsierlike omomyids Origin of anthropoids Diversi cation and spread of apes in the Miocene 23714 Ma Hominid traits Geologic setting of human origins Primitive australopithecines Sahelanthropus Lucy and the First Family Australopithecus afarensis Laetoli footprints Hypotheses of early hominid evolution linear model vs bushy model Transition to genus Homo gracile vs robust australopithecines distinguishing traits of Homo Earliest members of genus Homo Homo erectus Later Homo evolution Out of Africa hypothesis vs multiregionalism theory Mitochondrial Eve Case Study 9 Pleistocene glaciation Ch 15 De nition of a glacier Process by which glaciers grow and recede Flow of glaciers downslope under force of gravity ductile deformation at depth and brittle fracturing near surface Effects of glaciers on the landscape Marinebased evidence of glaciation Primary long record of global glaciations from oxygenisotope stratigraphy 180160 ratios measured in fossil foraminifera of marine sediments Ice core evidence of glaciation and changes to chemical composition of atmosphere Causes of Pleistocene glaciation Potential causes of Greenhouse to Icehouse transition Cyclicity of glaciations and relationship to changes in earth s orbit Milankovich cycles Late Pleistocene Megaherbivore EXtinctions Links between atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global temperature What do records of past climates imply about current and future climate change


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