Survey Communication Disorders
Survey Communication Disorders COMM 520
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margarett Jast on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 520 at University of New Hampshire taught by Stephen Calculator in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/231703/comm-520-university-of-new-hampshire in Communication Sciences and Disorders at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
AUGMENTATIVE AND ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION What is AAC 0 A set of strategies and methods to assist people who are unable to meet their communication needs through speech or conventional handwriting 0 Keep in mind we all use multimodal communication 0 AAC can be a temporary or a permanent applicationcompensation for impairments actiVity limitations and participation restrictions 0 WHO Model emphasizes actiVity limitations and participation 0 AAC is one component of Assistive Technology AT Aids that promote communication and other aspects of wellbeing such as physical and motor performance Augmentative Used in conjunction with residual skills enhances aids or supplements speech e g letter cueing Another would be word prediction to increase indiVidual s speed of typing Note Research indicates AAC fosters speech and other communication skills Alternative Replaces the more typical communication mode eg replacement for socially inappropriate challenging behaviors Another example would be a picture board for a patient on an ICU With a ventilation tube whom is unable to speak ISAAC The International Society of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Communication is the essence of human life Every person has a right to communicate to the fullest extent possible Communication Bill of Rights ASHA IDEA Zero exclusion criteria For Whom is AAC Intended I Intended for individuals with complex communication needs still hear terms AAC user and augmented communicator Intended for individuals unable to use speech andor writing as primary means of communication 08 12 of the population Cannot meet daily communication needs through their current methods of communication ASHA estimates 2 million Americans presently have complex communication needs and challenges Major sources of problem Cognitive intellectual disabilities 0 idea of no cognitive prerequisites zero exclusion Motor Cerebral Palsy Sensory Blind may use an object board Braille etc Developmental disabilities e g autism and intellectual disabilities Acquired disabilities eg aphasia and TBI Degenerative diseases eg ALS Two categories ofAAC Systems Aided Require additional equipment external to the body 0 Dedicated deVices designed speci cally for communication 0 Nondedicated can be used for other purposes eg a computer 0 Electronic vs nonelectronic light tech Unaia ea Require no additional equipment 0 Usually requires functional gestures and fine motor control 0 Idiosyncratic gestures o Transparency We usually think in terms of multimodal communication aided unaided o Familiar and unfamiliar listeners o Vary based on setting and communication needs Code Switching Components ofAAC Systems 0 Symbols Means to represent can represent an object action concept or idea Something that stands for something else Vary in compleXity actual objects to words Symbol hierarchy Symbols can be acoustic Morse Code Graphic Manual or Tactile e g Braille Symbols can be transparent transluscent or opaque 0 Display set 0 Fixed display remains the same before and after a symbol is selected e g pointing to a picture of a TV on a communication board 0 Dynamic display As screen is touched the display changes 0 Visual Scene Displays 0 Techniques Means of Selection Direct Selection Selects symbol from an array of choices point light pointer even big toe 0 Not dependent on time 0 Can require physical pressure to depress a key physical contact only with no force necessary pointing without contact e g eye pointing or speechvoice input where a certain vocalization results in a corresponding recorded message Scanning ie indirect selection Possible choices are offered in sequence 0 Electronic scanning linear and rowcolumn 0 Partner assisted scanning not in text 0 Directed scanning o Often involve switches Easiest and fastest switch 0 Strategies o Refers to the way symbols are effectively and efficiently conveyed 0 Many are designed to improve message transmission time and support grammatical formation 0 Examples include topic setting letter prediction word prediction 0 Aids 0 Atype of assistive device I No tech Low tech High tech I Electronic Nonelectronic Means of Transmission How user sends message to listener 0 Speech generating devices SGDs Digitized speech Computer recording Synthesized speech Synthesizer produces speech based on alphabetic or phonetic spelling AAC Assessment Always requires a multidisciplinary team of professionals 0 The individual himherself parents or spouses teachers SLP PT OT Rehab Engineer SW Psychologist Vocational Counselor nurse etc o The SLP is usually the team leader Some key Components of an AAC Assessment Case History Feature matching Match users needs and abilities e g cognitive sensory motor and language to features of AAC systems symbol type means of selection39 mode of transmission etc 39 Text points out problem of people buying iPads and similar deVices with AAC apps and then trying to fit client to deVice rather than Vice versa Capability assessment 0 Speech production language listening speaking reading and writing cognition perception hearing and Vision primarily and motor Assess understanding of symbols Consider indiVidual s communication skills and needs in relation to those of sameaged peers in natural environments and situations 0 Examine environmental demands 0 Opportunities and reasons for communication 0 Discrepancy analysis 0 Consider communication partners 0 Social closeness Identi Participation Patterns 0 Opportunity barriers imposed by other people prevent participation in communication activities 0 Can relate to policy segregated education practice school does not all child to bring AAC system home with her skill knowledge and attitude 0 Access barriers 0 Stem from capabilities attitudes and resources of person using AAC Intervention 0 Usually interdisciplinary array of sensory motor cognitive and related considerations 0 Consider both longterm employment and shortterm replace challenging behaviors priorities 0 Consider role of environment opportunities and reasons 0 May want to modify environment 0 Consider role of communication partners 0 Partner training effective communication strategies 0 Augmented inputaided stimulation FOSTERING INCLUSION INTERACTION AND PARTICIPATION