General Physics II
General Physics II PHYS 408
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cayla Kilback on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 408 at University of New Hampshire taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/231704/phys-408-university-of-new-hampshire in Physics 2 at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Lec rure 9 Thermo II Chap rer39 19 511 Zer39oth Law of Thermodynamics If bodies A and B are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body C then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other Temperature is a fundamental quantity of objects When 2 objects have the same temperature they are in thermal equilibrium Thermal Expansion Objects tend to expand increase in size when they are heated Coefficient of linear thermal expansion 0c 1 3 M MAT Diamond Ol12E6 Volume VL3 gt V L393 LAL3 L31aAT3 gt AV V1aAT3 V V13aAT3aAT2 aAT3 V gt AV 2 V3aAT V AT AVzV AT 823a Heat Heat is the energy that is transferred between a system and its environment or another system because of a temperature difference that eXists between them Q is used for heat QgtO system gains energy heats up QltO system looses energy cools Calorie 1 cal energy needed to raise 1g of water from 145 C to 155 C BTU 1 BTU energy needed to raise 1 lb of water from 63 F to 64 F 1 cal 3969E3 Btu 41860 Joules Absorption of Heat Specific Heat The heat capacity of an object relates the temperature change of an object to the amount of heat that is required cause that temperature change QCATCltTf 4 Far more practical is the speci c heat of a material or heat capacity per unit mass Then Ccm and thus QcmATcmltTf Ti Specific heat of water c 1 calgC 1 BTUlbF 4190 JkgK For lead C 128 JkgK copper 386 JkgK aluminum 900 JkgK NOTE The conditions under which the specific heat is measured do matter constant pressure or constant volume 1 mol 602 x1023 units Absorption of Heat Heat of transformation It takes energy heat to melt an object at constant temperature It also takes energy to vaporize a liquid This is the heat of transformation QLm Solid 6 LF 9 Liquid 6 LV 9 Gas Ice 69 Water LF795 calg Water 69 Steam LV539 calg HeaTing Wafer T 0C Heating one gram of water from ice To steam 8 1 0 LV54O calg C 04 cag C 100 C10 calg C LF80 calg O I l I r r I 80 100 540 Qcal C0 5 3 cal g C ICE Water Steam P V diagrams A gas confined to some W Z F d pAdS pdV gt volume V can do work Vf W IpdV A V p Terminology Thermodynamic process or cycle Isothermal constant temp lsovolumetric constant volume lsobaric constant pressure Adiabatic no heat in or out First Law of Thermodynamics AEth QW Between any 2 equilibrium states the change in internal energy is equal to the difference of the heat transfer into the system and the work done by the system Special Processes Adiabatic No heat is exchanged with the system Q0 lsovolumetric constant volume No work done by system WO Cyclical processes No change in internal energy AEmt0 so then QW Free Expansion special case AEmtQWO Heat Transfer Conduc on A ZAT Bond Q At L L conducuon rate Pcond Thermal Resistance Thermal conductivity k Com osite materials p Pcond AAT Transfer of heat by moving the material itself Convec on Heat Transfer Radiation Thermal radiation Pad 2 08AT4 739 StefanBoltzman constant o56703E8 Wm2K4 Emissivity e number between 0 and 1 Beet Pabs env PM agAT 4 T4
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