Western Civilization II
Western Civilization II HST 102
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HST 103 - 002
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Date Created: 10/29/15
The Great Depression Economic Consequences of WWI Structural oversupply too many manufactured goods and food compared to what people can buy The increased production from the war continued In ation that led to de ation war brings in ation the government always spends money they don39t have Excessive De ation return to gold standardssame demand but more supply so the prices fall There is more paper money than there is gold to back it up Loss of Leader England is the usual leader but they couldn39t do it this time What does a quotleaderquot do Lender of last resort Accepter of distress goods free trade Maintain low interest rates Wartime and postwar in ation in Germany had to send reparations to many other countries including France and England 1914 100 42 marks 11923 100 1800 marks Complete breakdown of monetary system 91923 100 42 trillion marks There was a government sponsored strike but eventually just gave up and paid Worldwide recession by 1928 the year before the stock market crashed Everything is just stopping and there is a huge retraction in employment Crash of NY Stock Market October 1929 19293 2 world industrial production declines by 13 30 million people lose jobs worldwide 15 million in US World prices drop 30 What to do in a mess like this Deal with it quickly Give people money BrueningHitler Germany has the exact same monetary problem Bruening was a good guy kept trying to keep the budget balanced like Hoover HooverRoosevelt US presidents that dealt with depression Hoover was president when the stock market crashed said that we just needed to keep the budget balanced at all times Roosevelt somewhat xed it john M Keynes Englishman economic genius of the day General Theory of Employment Interest and Money 1935 became Bible of economics Helps you to understand the demand side of economy Included charts graphs and number Very complex The Rise of the Nazis Adolf Hitler 18891945 born in Austria not German Lower middle class his father was a drunk and beat him his mother was devoted to him He wanted to be an architect but couldn39t find work Tried to enlist in Austrian army but was rejected joined German Army won bravery medals and was injured in gas attack He didn39t seem like a leader Bavaria Munich met up with many others like him Felt like National Socialist German Workers39 Party NSDAPNazis Hitler didn39t found it but quickly became leader Beer Hall Putsch 1923 randomly wanted to take over the town hall Didn39t do anything they were arrested Mein Kampf 1924 wrote while in jail for above quotfl39irherquot Weimar Germany Working pretty well 19241928 start to go into depression In 1929 Nazis have 12 seats in Reichstag not very many the rst time Election of 1930 they receive 107 seats tons now because unemployment shot up to 7 people are worried and think maybe Nazis can fix it By 1932 Nazis are largest party Ianuary 1933 Hitler becomes Chancellor prime minister Nuremberg Laws 1935 These were the laws made speci cally for Jews You were considered jewish if you had even one Iewish grandparent It39s about blood not what you have done or how you live Jews were no longer citizens they were not allowed to y the ag they could not participate in the arts they could not publish anything or working in hospitals and banks Etc Krystallnacht Nov 1939 The night of broken glassquot This was a government organized riot They released the Hitler youth to terrorize the Jews A few were killed but they mostly just destroyed property You might think that Jews would leave the country but no other country was accepting Hitler and the Coming of WWII Hitler s revisionist foreign policy 193 6 Rhineland France was on the other side of Rhineland from Germany After WWI it was demilitarized but Germany now remilitarized it against the treaty from the Congress of Vienna France did not stand up to ght because they were divided and they39re population was going down while Germany39s was rising Axis Treaty with Italy Italy was under Mussolini and even though it had been on the other side in WI they made a treaty with Germany This was called the Rome Berlin Treaty AntiComintern Pact with Iapan Japan had also been on the other side during WWI but now they had a very militaristic government and were they were both against communism Spanish Civil War 19369 One side supported by Nazis and the other not 1938 Anschluss annexation of Austria Hitlers plan included all Germans being part of Germany There wasn39t even any fighting when they did this because some wanted it Sudetenland Czechoslovakia This area was all mountains and also included many Germans and so there was again no ghting even though it was a part of Czech Munich Conference This conference tried to stop what Germany was doing and create peace again Mussonlini started it surprisingly and they discussed whether or not Germany could take Sudetenland N 0 one could really do anything about it without war Appeasement Neville Chamberlain This was the leader of Britain at the time but he didn39t do much 1939 Germany went into Czech but nobody defends it even though Britain and France have a treaty to Problem of Poland Danzig quotcorridorquot This had been in Germany before WW1 and then was made into a free city Germany easily took it all August HitlerStalin MolotovRibbentrop Pact This was a shocking pact because they were very against each other This was simply a treaty of nonaggression But there were secret clauses involved about what will happen if a war begins Appeasement This is keeping the peace at any price which is now considered somewhat of a bad thing World War II Blitzkreig lighting war This was Nazi39s signature way of attacking very quickly with much force They can now attack from the air which includes bombing from above Bombing the cities would destroy the factories that supported them It also includes tanks and works off of surprise 1940 German invasion of Denmark Norway Netherlands Belgium France Hitler invaded and conquered within a short period of time Iune Fall of France and British Expeditionary Force Hitler did not really care about west wanted east So he decides to attack countries to the west so he can concentrate on the east Division of France into occupied zone and Vichy one side of France joined Germany and shipped out their Jews the other side had surrendered to Germany but was hostile Charles de Gaulle and the quotFree Frenchquot IulyNovember Battle of Britain air war Iust bombing to destroy moral and important supplies Terri ed people but they did not surrender By November Hitler called off the air war because British were not giving up and were bombing German countries Winston Churchill 18741965 had held almost every job in the British Government He was 65 years old at this time He wanted the job though and they gave it to him He needed to re people up and was fortunately a great speaker Radar The British had radar for a few months before anyone else and gave them a great advantage Lendlease program Let the US give money and supplies to Britain without making an of cial decision Franklin D Roosevelt 18821965 became great friends with Winston Churchill He had to convince congress to go to war 1941 Iune 22 Operation Barbarossa German invasion of USSR after giving up in the west Germany turned around to hit east He had the largest invasion of Russia ever Ukraine thought the Germans were liberators and welcomed them but they actually wanted to kill them Now Britain and USSR are allies Dec 7 Iapanese attack on Pearl Harbor US was the dominant Paci c power and Japan wanted to be Japan was very militaristic They believed that because of their placement they should be the most powerful The US had been ying secret planes against Japan before this The Japanese launched a surprise attack and after this Roosevelt declared war on the Axis powers He joined up with the British French and USSR The Grand Alliance US USSR Britain Free FrenchThey all put their issues aside to work together North Africa 1942 US and British engaged the Germans in North Africa Italy 1943 The US invades Italy Battle of Stalingrad Sept 1942 Ian1943 Tide turns here Germans had been winning but the USSR protected very well Germans were surrounded but Hitler refused to retreat DDay Iune 61944 Normandy France USSR really needed the other two to draw off some of the Germans British and Americans were waiting until they were really ready It was a miracle and the Allies won and had a place to resupply VE Day May 89 1945 This stands for Victory in Europe This is the end ofWWII Atomic bombing of Hiroshima Aug 6 1945 Atomic bombing of Nagasaki Aug 9 1945 Bombs dropped by president Harry Truman V Day Aug 1415 1945 This stands for Victory over Japan Both bombs caused their surrender Wartime conference of quotBig Threequot Churchill Roosevelt Stalin Tehran Nov 1943 Stalin was afraid to y so they went to Iran This is the rst time all three met face to face They had a conversation about what they would do after the war They decided that in the war they would go all the way to Berlin and stay there so the Germans knew they lost Yalta Feb 1945 They met again Roosevelt was very ill This is the last time they meet We were a lot closer to winning but still not too con dent All three had the same primary war aim beat the axis But now they needed to discuss what else they each wanted The Cold War The Cold War started with US and USSR global rivalry that costed a lot of money costed a lot of lives but not in US and USSRcivil wars backed by the big powers built up new and more dangerous weapons Secondary War Aims Yalta Conference Feb 1945 Stalin Roosevelt Churchill The US didn39t know if we would have to go into a land war with Asia and get the USSR to back them up Postdam Conference Iuly 1945 Stalin Truman ChurchillAtlee meet in Berlin While this conference was going on Churchill was not reelected Just found out that we got a new weapon Atomic Bombs Hiroshima Aug 6 1945 Opening of a new era in warfare Nuclear bombs rather than regular bombs USSR enters war Aug 8 1945 Japan didn39t surrender So the USSR came in Nagasaki Aug 91945 Second bomb killed more people Iapan didn39t even surrender very quickly Iapanese surrender nally within a week they surrender Betrayal in Europe each side believed they were betrayed based on what they would get from Yalta They were going to get to be democratic anyone could run if they weren39t fascist The Communist party took over all of these countries which the US thought there was cheating Hungary Romania Bulgaria Yugoslavia got the Germans out without Russia39s help so there were no Soviet troops Tito leader of the Yugoslav resistance and he was also a communist and he is elected Czechoslovakia lots of communists easy for Stalin to put in communism Poland Poland is the most complicated it was divided up by Germany and USSR and then saved from the Germans by USSR Poland didn39t trust them Stalin played dirty tricks to get a few communists into power Germany East and West East and West Berlin The east was ruled by the Soviets The west was controlled by the French English and Americans They each disagree on what was agreed on at Yalta The Western countries wanted to put Germany back on its feet so that they did not have to waste money being over there and so it was strong enough to resist communism The Soviets wanted to continue occupying Germany They both felt betrayed 1947 Marshall Plan George Marshall US secretary of state Going home from WWI immediately was a mistake this time we need to invest in Europe and invest in Peace Mostly just philanthropy Congress approved the plan Most countries accepted it but the Stalin did not allow any eastern countries to take any Civil War in Greece Truman Doctrine quotContainmentquot Policy to ght against communism wherever it shows up 1948 Berlin Blockade Airlift Soviets were very irritated that there were Americans and English in Berlin so they tried to blockade them off and starve them They also divided Germany and wanted all the western troops out of the Eastern Germany This blockade was met with an airlift for a year The Russians never shot them down though Neither really wants to ght The West won USSR breaks with Yugoslavia Yugoslavia had developed a strong enough government to become the rst nation to break from Stalin39s Communist Regime 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO Canada US England Germany Netherlands and more European powers Uni ed front against the Soviet Union USSR gets atomic bomb They nally gured out how to make an atomic bomb but they didn39t have anyway to get it to the US anyway We had bases in Germany but they were far from the US Communists win in China Mao TseTung Zedong This took a long time to do But there are different avors of Communism and Stalin did not really like anything he wasn39t in control of Rivalry slowly developed over years 1950 North Korea invades South Korea War 19501953 discussed later in notes 195 3 Death of Stalin no one really seemed to mind not even in the USSR Poland rebels 195 5 Warsaw Pact formed Response to NATO by the Eastern countries They both stock piled for war It looked like it might be how the world would end 1956 Nikita S Khrushchev 18941971 He said good things about Stalin at rst Secret Speech This is given by Khrushchev about how they would begin deStalinization Things slowly got better He admitted that Stalin had gone too far and they would slowly change and improve things 1961 Berlin wall Beyond Europe Decolonization This was the end of imperialism The Third World knew a lot about western civilization at this point but we knew nothing about them They became very good at creating independence movements and made themselves less pro table to those who ruled them India Since the 170039s France and England had been in India They actually created India by pushing many other countries together When they started their independence movement England realized they needed to step out of being a world power because they couldn39t afford it anymore Mohandas Ghandi Mahatmaquot 18691948 Leader of the Indian independence movement He was an educated lawyer He led a nonviolent revolution that was very unusual at the time They boycotted English and French items 1947 quot Partitionquot Independence was won but civil war broke out between the Hindus and Muslims India Hindu Both of these religions were supposed to be peaceful Pakistan Muslim They did not feel comfortable in a Hindu state The civil was was extremely violent Chinese Communists take over 1949 There was a new rivalry between China and Russia Mao Zedong 18931976 He was the Chinese ruler and very much liked Stalin He followed what Stalin wanted until he died Then he began being more independent from the USSR Korea Every country was interested in Korea at the time there were lots of communists and lots of anti commnists They divided into North and South USSR backs North Communists US backs SouthThe US went to the UN and said that they needed to stop the communists from taking over the South The US sent troops to S Korea North invades South 19501953 They wanted to unite Korea under a communist rule No one really won but now the North is extremely secluded No one goes in and no one goes out 3 million Korean deaths 50000 Americans Vietnam Vietnam had been part of the French colonies but the French needed to step back and repair their country cause they were broke Ho Chi Minh 18901969 Guerilla Leader of Communist North Vietnam He was actually at the Paris Peace Conference at the end of WWI Vs French Colonizers The French lost and were chased out of Vietnam 1954 Dien Bien Phu Battle between the French and Vietnamese Geneva Settlement splits country They split the country communist and anticommunist US backs South Vietnam 19541975 The US sent over troops to defend South Korea from Communism but after the US left they were taken over anyway and Vietnam is united under communism There were 58000 US deaths and about 1million Vietnamese deaths Cambodia and Loas war spread to these other nearby countries Middle East The Arabs had been under rule of the Ottoman empire for many years Europe freed them but then went back on their word and took them over They didn39t get independence At the end of WWI England got Iraq Palestine Egypt and France got Syria Lebanon After WWII the Arabs were granted their independence Zionism Lots of Jews started going back to Palestine which they considered their homeland The Western Countries thought that the Jews should have their own country Britain owned that area but they gave it over to the UN and they partitioned Palestine and made the independent state of Israel The started a lot of ghting in the area over whose land it is End of the Cold War Leonid Brezhev 19061982 new leader ofthe USSR devout communist Invasion of Czechoslovakia 1968 Brezhev wanted to hang on to Eastern Europe There had been a liberalization effort in Czech Then Soviet troops were sent in to take over government And they occupied it for many years D tente with Richard Nixon 19131994 very anticommunist Neither one wanted to start a ght with either other They started to have meetings about cultural agreements and arms D tente means calming own Arms control 19681975 agreed to slow growth of nuclear weapons Arms provocation late 19705 Brezhev started to create a new circle of nuclear weapons But the US said to stop or we would build more They didn39t stop so we built too Stagnation Economy can39t deliver a higher standard of living Hard life Ending meeting in 1975 agreed that WWII was over Western Europe quotThe Welfare Statequot Everyone buried the hatchet on social class struggle High Taxes giving to the government to redistribute Government healthunemploymentold age insurance insurance helped out and provided a safety net for everyone High level of unionization Unions fought for good labors good bene ts High standard of living consumption people bought more had more Baby boom more money more stuff they could now have more children Class antagonism subsides kindness between the classes Eastern Europe and USSR Soviet Union 19605 frustration with low standard of living People in USSR irritated with not having anything Its not improving Corruption of Communist Party no one was watching the communist leaders And they were becoming corrupt and selfish Desire for more freedom of expression quotdissidentsquot people began to just start writing about it causing them to go to jail Efforts to gain more freedom USSR 1968 Czechoslovia 1968 Poland 1970 Poland 1980 quotSolidarityquot labor union Mikhail S Gorbachev b 1931 Became leader General Secretary 1985 started reforms to go back to ideal communism quotglasnostquot and quotperestroikaquot he said to speak out about what was wrong Slowly but surely people stood up and criticized what was going on Challenges to Union especially by Lithuania Soviet Union separated into 15 different counties without Violence on Christmas day and Gorbachev retired Challenges to monopoly of communist party the People pushed for actual elections with more than one party 1989 East European youth force USSR out fall of Berlin Wall German Reunification 1990 Ronald Reagan 19112004 was brave enough to just believe what Gorbachev was doing Europeans Cross the Ocean What was the 01d Regime The Old Regime was the entire system of the time social warpoliticalagriculturalspiritual very rural time period How did it last so long It lasted about 1000 years It lasted so long because the system served the people well at the time 7001700 How did it come apart The Modern World came into place It became generally more urban trading started and it had a very negative effect on Europe How did the 01d Regime start to become more urban and more commercial Roads were built people stopped growing their own food the people needed just one government the farmers needed to be more productive and there was a higher need for money 01d Regime The whole system of life around 7001700 before the quotmodern world Marco Polo Italian very famous explorer he left Italy on horse to China but discovered that land was not the best way to travel Ferdinand amp Isabella They ruled the Spanish government and invested in Christopher Columbus s trip They unified Spain and made it more powerful They re goal in investing in Columbus s trip was to find gold and people to convert Christopher Columbus He was a mapmaker who set out to get to China by going west He was backed by the Spanish government He was exploring for spices and gold and never knew that he discovered North America He thought that he found India until his death Bullion Gold and silver Precious metal which was money at the time There was no paper money yet Between 15 211600 18000 tons of bullion came to Europe from the New World There was 3 times as much silver found and 20 more gold Mercantilism A doctrine that governments must intervene to increase national wealth by whatever means The purpose was to enrich the treasury Colonies Area far away owned by a country that was usually smaller Colonies were wanted for glory and practical economic benefit Slavery Forced work for example the Spanish enslaved the Native Americans In ation rising money supply leads to rising prices There was a 400 increase in prices over 100 years This quickened the pace of trade and commerce Gunpowder Revolution In the 17th Century we begin to see the government production of individual guns wars became much more expensive Rivalry within Europe Empire existed for a long time this was a political idea with no limits The emperor wants to keep expanding their land forever An Empire includes many different cultures Feudalism this occurred after the Roman Empire fell It was a very local form of power Feudalism is run by nobles that each get a local piece ofland This involves a lot ofwarfare and lots of debt to one another It is very complex Nation State European invention proved to be pretty effective political form created by monarchs It put nobles below them but it offers currency roads laws and an army which ends internal warfare A Nation State rules over people who speak the same language originally This arose from the western edge of Europe and very eastern but not in the middle Agricultural Revolution Nobles this was the warrior class land owners and they serve when the kind wants them to come to war Kings had to make a deal with nobles to keep support They didn t want to pay taxes and they had access to workers so they didn t have to work Peasants rural person live on land and needed access to land They worked on their piece ofland and the nobles land too Open Field System this occurred between 7001700 in western Europe The noblemen lived in nice houses manors and the peasants lived in a village They used crop rotation which allowed people to be settled There wasn t really any livestock Arable Land crop land land that is used for growing food that specific year Fallow Land the resting land It does not grow any food so that it can regain nutrients The only negative is that you do not grow as much Legumes they are nitrogen fixing and are also a crop An example is the potato which saved western civilization The potato had exactly what they lacked It was easy to grow and before this they lacked proper nutrients Agricultural Revolution 16001700 this revolution eliminated the fallow field because of the legumes that fix the soil It causes a population rise This revolution also included seed selection which is digging rather than just throwing the seeds everywhere Improving Landlords people who were interested in improving crops They interfere with nature For example seed selection Elimination of the fallow this is during the 1700s in Western Europe The potato was brought over and eliminated the fallow field Average life expectancy in Europe west 1700 25 years 50 percent infant mortality held this down 1800 35 years Commercial Revolution 1600517005 Towns Europe became more urban during this time and London reached 1 million people Anyone who had skill trades lived in these towns This caused more food to be produced Guilds Kings referred to guilds because they were important to the society Guilds would judge work and decide if you could work that trade It was very valuable to be in a guild Artisans Craftsmen that sell a service They are in guilds and have apprentices They live in towns and offer their specific service Merchants Someone who sells something or trades something These were the original bankers and real estate owners Commercial Revolution this included the price revolution And it is only allowed by the Agricultural Revolution This is when knowledge about money making started speading It was caused by a series of small things money exchange quickening pace of trade people moving into cities Joint Stock Company the Dutch invented this The first corporation was the Dutch East India Company Ioint stock companies were invented because people didn t have enough money to start a company on their own They got help from the middle class by selling shares Dutch East India Company 1602 This was the first corporation Holland is a small country that had no other advantages other than the ocean They really figured out how to make money with money with this company They invented different types of banks and wholesale They were the middlemen and the capitalists Enclosure movement this is because over time there were more and more nobles and less land as nobles divided their land among their sons They also needed more money so they enclosed their pastures and make them usable as crop land This led to fighting and written to contracts to land Improving Landlords Some nobles became improving landlords They were interested in better farming and improving their land to make more crops which gets them more money Apprentice someone had to be an apprentice for 7 years to get into a guild They were treated almost like slaves in exchange for the opportunity to be in a guild The Scientific Revolution What is the Scientific Revolution Originally the Church had given explanations for everything that occurred in life This revolution introduces a new way to find information rather than just going to a priest for information Instead this involves thinking for yourself Things such as the decimal equal sign multiplication sign microscope and telescope were invented Deductive reasoning A system of getting knowledge from the general to the specific Reasoning from a general fact that is already known and obvious to a specific case This is based off of faith in general principal Inductive Reasoning This maybe came from the protestant Revolution because it stressed individualism This involves doing your own experiment or going to find something out on your own Christopher Columbus is a good example he wondered if there was a way to sail west to India and went out to try Scientific Method A system of thinking in which doubt and experimentation are the basis This is the opposite of faith because you measure and test your own ideas It starts with an educational guess and then an experiment which leads to answers Copernicus 1543 Polish very religious He was a canon of the cathedral and his life was devoted to the Church but he was also an astronomer He used math to explain the sky and had an issue with Aristotle s picture of the universe because he realized that Earth was not the center He published a book right before his death but the church condemned it Galileo 1616 Italian Inventor He made a much better telescope which allowed more measurements of the sky He published calculations saying that Copernicus was correct in his findings He was very close to the Pope So the Pope allowed him to publish the book as long as he presented the other View but the book was obviously biased so he was put under house arrest for life Isaac Newton 16421727 He was from England He pulled all of the other scientists information together He was a very odd genius He made great strides in calculus physics optics and alchemy Newton was a devout Christian and a biblical literalist He was the first person to formulate the idea of gravity and realize that it makes things fall and holds the planets in place He also created three laws of motion He ended up being buried in Westminster Abbey which is a very well known cathedral Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Isaac Newton s mathematical book that describes nature This book became widely known by other people It was translated and spread Principia 1687 Isaac s book was written in Latin the sacred language of Christianity And this was what it was called The Enlightenment What was the Enlightenment Intellectual movement whose proponents believed that human beings could apply a critical reasoning spirit to every problem How is it related to the Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment could not have occurred without the Scientific Revolution happening first It had already led people to think for themselves when trying to solve a scientific problem and now it could be applied to everything What were its impacts Education becomes more favored and people are not just relying on the Church to explain things Philosophes This is the French term for philosophers Thinkers Age of Reason This is a synonym for Enlightenment John Locke 16321704 he wrote quotTwo Treatises of Government He was an Englishman and the founders of the United States used much of his writings He believed in a sharing ofproblems Montesquieu 16891755 He wrote quotSpirit of Laws He was very interested in law and government He asked himself why there are different types of government and created the 3 branches we use today Voltaire 16941778 He wrote quotCandidequot and quotLetters on England He was a Frenchman who was eXiled for his writings He was always fascinated with England and admired Newton and Locke He was mostly a playwright that loved satire He questioned authority and was critical of the French government and Church He believed in toleration Enlightened Monarchs These were absolute monarchs that were also legislators and reformers They applied the term enlightened to themselves and believed in reason and laws They thought that laws of man should imitate laws of nature They worked towards religious toleration agricultural reform ending torture and they basically pushed for improvement Examples Frederick the Great Prussia 17651790 Catherine the Great Russia 17621796 especially tolerate Ioseph II Austrian Empire 17651790 wrote 11000 laws in his lifetime Eighteenth Century France Society of Orders First Estate Clergy Those who pray 5 of population Priests nuns the only one you don t get into by birth right Second Estate Nobility Those who fightquot 2 of population Hereditary land owners possessed a title owned about 20 of good land Third Estate Third Those who work AH the rest Diverse peasants mostly city folks farm folks united by taxes Privilege based on birth special laws specifically for nobles and clergy the main law was tax exemption people of this time were born with a assumption of inequality Third Estate Taxation This led to a push for revolution Head Tax per person universal tax 20th Tax on agricultural income Taille really supported the state tax on being peasants in general Indirect Taxes gabelle tax on salt which was essential for preservation Tithes tithes means tax Third Estate Groups Bourgeoisie live in towns and own property Middle class most own businesses lawyers and doctors Peasants live in the country and most own some property They farm and because they re far away the King can t hear their complaints Sanculottes live in towns and don t own property The name means quotwithout pants because they did not own fancy knickers that others had they are working men poor people The French Revolution 1789 Feudal Reaction There was a series of things being done to the peasants by the nobles The nobles wanted cash but didn t want to work They get money from the peasants so they started finding old fees for them to pay This made the peasants terrified of serfdom again and so they began demanding for equal taxation Louis XVI 17744793 He didn t want to pay the national debt so he tried to raise a tax over the nobles This was highly disputed so an Estates General was called which hadn t been called in over 150 years Estates General May 1789 this was the representation of French people who get to make choices This combined the 1552 and 3ml Estates The Third Estate had double the people by request Then the Third Estate wanted voting by head so that they would have a equally weighted chance The rest of the estates did not want this so a stalemate occurred National Assembly This is what the 3ml Estate called themselves They wanted a constitution and they came together vowing not to disband until there was one Tennis Court Oath The 3ml Estate met at Tennis Court because the King closed the hall they were meeting in On June 17th they all took an oath to now be called the National Assembly and go for a constitution Bastille July 141789 Paris crowds stormed the Bastille which was a prison and they thought it might have weapons which they wanted just in case they needed to protect the National Assembly They did not get very many weapons but it was now very clear that the Third Estate was rebelling Great Fear This was basically disorder among the peasants because they were terrified the nobles were planning to bring back serfdom They started causing havoc that summer by lighting things on fire and sometimes attacking and murdering the nobles Many nobles left the country during this time Marie Antoinette Queen of France who had lots of kids She was known for being very elegant She had to move from the Palace ofVersailles because of the March to Versailles and she was eventually executed March to VersaillesThis occurred during fall The women of the times were really feeling the pressure of the economy and decided to go straight to Marie Antoinette to speak quotwoman to woman with her about the problems they were having They took all day to get there and then demanded to see the queen She refused so they broke in but the Marquis of Lafayette saved the day and said that the King and Queen would come back with them Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen This was created by the National Assembly It called for taxation based on wealth promised that serfdom could never come back and basically gave them their rights End of Feudalism The end of Feudalism a system of dues and obligations had already occurred but now it was official according to the National Assembly Reorganization of the Church This was also done by the National Assembly It brought the Church under state control so it couldn t become too powerful and laws would affect it First Constitution 1791 This created a Constitutional Monarchy It took over a year to write It was very similar to England and the United States constitution Girondins this was a political party in France It was the more liberal group conservative Iacobins this was a political party in France It was the more radical group They said they would write a constitution and get rid of the king They did arrest the King and said it would now be a democratic republic They also later made price controls which ended up being bad for everyone except the Sancoulottes 1792 War Austria was upset about the arrest of Frances King and Queen and said that if they touch them then there will be war The other crowns of Europe wanted to keep an eye on France so the same wouldn t happen to them In 1791 the King Queen and their kids tried to escape but they were caught and brought back to Paris The people became cocky and had war fever So France declared war on Austria and Prussia Robespierre He was the leader of the Iacobin political party He was one hero that came out of the situation He personally had a bad feeling about the war because the country was divided and the nobles who normally lead in war had all ed Committees of Public Safety This was the new government after the King had been executed They did not make the public safe at all There were only 12 members and they mostly held trials oof people accused of treason against the revolution The penalty was always death so 20000 people were executed It was used by the poor to get revenge Eventually the Committee itself was executed Execution of the King 1793 After a very short trial he was found guilty of treason by one vote and was executed immediately The queen was later executed leaving behind orphans Reign of Terror 17931794 This was mostly ordinary people settling scores It was a very violent time Democracy looked terrible to other countries Robespierre was trying to handle the war and make a constitution and the chaos in Paris Paris lost control of France Some areas were in full rebellion against the revolution Guillotine This invention killed 20000 people in Paris It chops off the head in a quothumane execution technique Before this they had used axes Directory 17951799 this was made up of5 men that got down to business got rid of the price controls closed down the government workshops finished war and chucked the constitution This reestablished order for a short time Napoleon and The Congress of Vienna Napoleon Bonaparte 17691821 He was born on an Italian island that had been taken over by France He studied at a military school and became part of the French Royal Government Army Napoleon was incredibly smart and well read He became a main general and people loved and encouraged him He took over the government from the Directory and created 3 Consuls Then he decided that the other two would be the only two voted into place and he would always be a Consul Then he changed it and made himself Emperor At his coronation he invited the Pope but crowned himself He always made it look like he was looking to the people for their opinion He also institutionalized the Enlightenment by creating public schools and adopted the metric system which spread very quickly Napoleonic Wars 17991815 Even after Napoleon had calmed down France Britain still wanted war even though France did not want to fight anymore So in 1798 England and France had the Battle of Pyramids in Egypt Bonaparte led his armies to a win on land but they lost on water It was never really clear who won Napoleon began transforming modern warfare His main tactic was mass and speed and he was also much kinder to the people in country s he was invading so he did not have to carry food with him because they would sell it to them Code Napoleon This was a law code that was written down as orderly and rational laws for France He started from scratch and they applied to the whole country This made for an orderly system ofjustice for example it told you what to do when someone is arrested This spread quickly in Europe and was the basis of most of Europe s law Concordat This was an agreement made with the Church that separated Church and State Napoleon knew that he ruled over many Catholics so settling things with the Church helped him He also allowed Catholic schools so people had a choice between public or not Mass and Speed This was Napoleon s way of winning battles He figured that you just need more men that could be moved faster He wasn t the first to think of this idea he was just the first to figure out how to make it happen He was a great analyst and got so many men in the army by using conscription He also motivated his men so they were not running away and they were willing to walk faster Conscription Every Frenchman at a certain age had to go into training for the army He made it seem like all men owed something to their country They were trained for a few years so that if something happened they would be prepared for war He had 85000 men coming out a year Continental Blockade Britian still always wanted to fight so Napoleon decided to make a trade embargo against England Ths was called the Continental Blockade but it did not really work because other country s were hurt more than England Trafalgar 1805 During these battles Napoleon continually won and his reputation grew Austerlitz 1805 Moscow Borodino 1812 Russia continued trading with England so Napoleon attacked but no one really won France ended up capturing Moscow but then winter set in which killed 400000 men Congress of Vienna 18141815 The czar of Russia led everyone into France they captured Napoleon and had a peace conference Bonaparte was exiled to an island in the Mediterranean Sea and they restored the French Monarchy with Louis 18th as the new King This Peace Treaty lasted for about 99 years in Europe Their main objective was to bring back the balance ofpowers and create order in Europe Metternich Austria AlexanderI Russia He came to the Congress himself rather than sending a representative Castlereagh Great Britain Tallevrand F rance he had been in the French government starting with Louis the 16th Waterloo 1815 Napoleon escaped from the island and got back to France but this time they put him on an island in the Atlantic instead where he stayed until death Balance of Powers This is what the Congress ofVienna was working towards They thought that there should always be more than two great powers so that if one country trys to take over they can keep them under control In this system the winner does not take all but everyone compromises Liberty and Order The Congress reorganized Europe after Napoleon was eXiled They kept the German confederation the school system and the Napoleonic Code Legitimacy In Spain and the Kingdom of the two Sicilys they changed out rulers for the legitimate neXt monarch rather than who Napoleon decided he liked Restoration of Bourbon Monarch In France they brought back the Monarch who was Louis the 18th nephew of Louis the 16th But even with the monarch they kept the constitution and National Assembly German Confederation Originally there were over 300 states which made it very confusing and Napoleon made it into 32 states They kept it this way because it made more sense Industrial Revolution England17601780 Over this period of time many changes took place England became very rich because of many advantages they had This includes investing in other countries having a large cheap labor supply a secure middle class great connections convenient geography and trade with their own colonies Primogeniture this was the inheritance system in England at the time The oldest son in the household gets the land and the title This differs from France who divides up their land England only passes it all down to one The younger sons become businessmen so England doesn t really look down on their middle class at all because they are related to the upper class Deforestation Very early on England started running out of trees They wanted pine trees because this is what you made ship masts out of and what they used for fuel When they recognized that the lack of trees was an issue they began looking for other sources offuel They found coal and began mining Iames Watt He was a Scottish Man that invented the steam engine in 1763 People of the time were trying to create a pump to get water out of the coalmines He built off of these ideas and when it was finally invented it was used greatly Iames Hargreaves Englishman that invented the Spinning Ienny in 17650riginally wool and linen were worn because cotton took a very long time to make The spinning Ienny named after his daughter allowed a worker to spin 7 spools of thread rather than 1 spool Putting Out system This is where a factor would go and hire farmwives to spin yarn and then they would take the thread to a weaving man to finish it Factor someone organizing the production of a product they were originally over the puttingout system and then over factories Factory the newly invented machines couldn t fit in a home so factory buildings were built This truly changed the lives ofworkers because it took them away from home and their families Cotton Cloth it was originally very difficult to make cotton cloth It was considered a luxury It was the perfect first item of the Industrial Revolution because it was wanted everywhere It was very comfortable and was not expensive to make English textile Industry this married together the steam engine and the spinning jenny If you worked for this industry you could not leave the country and England very carefully protected the spinning technology from exportation There were 102000 females and 88000 males quotseperation of work and life This was caused by factories People left their homes and were pulled out of the countryside into the cities Rights of Man Thomas Paine wrote this in 1790 he was admiring France s way of life He talked about factory life and how it is changing life dramatically Luddites 1790 Theses were teXtile factory workers men that felt the machine was their enemy They sabotaged the machines Peterloo 1819 The English Army shot into a crowd of angry workers complaining about low wages 10 were killed and thousands were wounded quotCombination Acts 1799Parliament made it illegal for workers to quotcombinequot or meet up to complain Congress of Vienna 18141815 The czar of Russia led everyone into France they captured Napoleon and had a peace conference Bonaparte was exiled to an island in the Mediterranean Sea and they restored the French Monarchy with Louis 181h as the new King This Peace Treaty lasted for about 99 years in Europe Their main objective was to bring back the balance of powers and create order in Europe Mette mich Austria Alexander I Russia He came to the Congress himself rather than sending a representative Castlereagh Great Britain Tallevrand France he had been in the French government starting with Louis the 16th Waterloo 1815 Napoleon escaped from the island and got back to France but this time they put him on an island in the Atlantic instead where he stayed until death Balance of Powers This is what the Congress of Vienna was working towards They thought that there should always be more than two great powers so that if one country trys to take over they can keep them under control In this system the winner does not take all but everyone compromises Liberty and Order The Congress reorganized Europe after Napoleon was exiled They kept the German confederation the school system and the Napoleonic Code Legitimacy In Spain and the Kingdom of the two Sicilys they changed out rulers for the legitimate next monarch rather than who Napoleon decided he liked Restoration of Bourbon Monarch In France they brought back the Monarch who was Louis the 18th nephew of Louis the 16 But even with the monarch they kept the constitution and National Assembly German Confederation Originally there were over 300 states which made it very confusing and Napoleon made it into 32 states They kept it this way because it made more sense Industrial Revolution England17601780 Over this period of time many changes took place England became very rich because of many advantages they had This includes investing in other countries having a large cheap labor supply a secure middle class great connections convenient geography and trade with their own colonies Primogeniture this was the inheritance system in England at the time The oldest son in the household gets the land and the title This differs from France who divides up their land England only passes it all down to one The younger sons become businessmen so England doesn39t really look down on their middle class at all because they are related to the upper class Deforestation Very early on England started running out of trees They wanted pine trees because this is what you made ship masts out of and what they used for fuel When they recognized that the lack of trees was an issue they began looking for other sources of fuel They found coal and began mining Iames Watt He was a Scottish Man that invented the steam engine in 1763 People of the time were trying to create a pump to get water out of the coalmines He built off of these ideas and when it was nally invented it was used greatly Iames Hargreaves Englishman that invented the Spinning Ienny in 17650riginally wool and linen were worn because cotton took a very long time to make The spinning Ienny named after his daughter allowed a worker to spin 7 spools of thread rather than 1 spool Putting Out system This is where a factor would go and hire farmwives to spin yarn and then they would take the thread to a weaving man to nish it Factor someone organizing the production of a product they were originally over the puttingout system and then over factories Factory the newly invented machines couldn39t fit in a home so factory buildings were built This truly changed the lives of workers because it took them away from home and their families Cotton Cloth it was originally very dif cult to make cotton cloth It was considered a luxury It was the perfect rst item of the Industrial Revolution because it was wanted everywhere It was very comfortable and was not expensive to make English textile Industry this married together the steam engine and the spinning jenny If you worked for this industry you could not leave the country and England very carefully protected the spinning technology from exportation There were 102000 females and 88000 males seperation of work and lifequot This was caused by factories People left their homes and were pulled out of the countryside into the cities Rights of Man Thomas Paine wrote this in 1790 he was admiring France39s way of life He talked about factory life and how it is changing life dramatically Luddites 1790 Theses were textile factory workers men that felt the machine was their enemy They sabotaged the machines Peterloo 1819 The English Army shot into a crowd of angry workers complaining about low wages 10 were killed and thousands were wounded Combination Actsquot 1799Parliament made it illegal for workers to combine or meet up to complain Classical Liberalism and the New Middle Class quotDual Revolutionquot French and Industrial these two revolutions happened in two different places at similar times changing the world permanently Middle Class these were the most important people of the time they thought they deserved rights they were hard working They loved the ideas to Adam Smith Classical Liberalism 19th Century Liberalism This is the belief that individuals have rights The government should just protect your rights and nothing more This philosophy is similar to the enlightenment ideas Civil liberties theses are basically civil rights A set of political and judicial rights that individuals are believed to have Such as freedom of speech religion press assembly Economic liberties similar to civil liberties except relating to the economy Such as freedom to control prices trade and property Adam Smith 17271780 A Scottish writer who wrote mThe Wealth ofNationsquot in 1776 He said that the best thing to do for the economy is to leave people alone to make their own choices quotLaissezfairequot this is a belief stating that liberty is good People should be left alone by the government Self interest will take over and is more ef cient Economic liberty is more productive john Stuart Mill 18061873 Englishmen who wrote about mostly economics He wrote 0N Libertyquot in 1859 He says that liberty is good for a society and everyone should be themselves It is dangerous if everyone thinks alike Conservatism this is the belief that tradition is good Everyone should stick with the original ideas such as monarchs nobles and the old regime as a whole Edmund Burke 17291797 He is the father of modern conservatism An Irishmen in British Parliament He wrote an angry rant about why we should stick with monarchy and hereditary rights No big changes should be made Expansion of suffrage Originally only a few could vote all from the upperclass but there was a steady expansion of this right Great Britain 1832 Reform Bill this doubled the number of men who could vote and xed irregularities Chartists 18381848 thousands signed a petition for all men to vote during this time But parliament said no 1867 Second Reform Bill All men could finally vote France Revolution of 1830 expanded to 250000 men could vote This is only 3 Louis Philippethe last king to rule France Revolution 1848 this led to the second republic 2 d Republic after the revolution of 1848 It of cially adopted the motto Liberte Egalite Fraternite Nationalism 18151848 Ideals of the French Revolution Liberty Equality and Fraternity The French thought that these three things went together perfectly Although later on they would think they go against each other Romanticism early 1800s this was the reaction to Enlightenment Romanticism is not based on reason instead it was based on instinct feelings expression and spirit It is not always happy feelings though it can be any strong emotions People are not ONLY rational they have feelings too Bryon British romantic poets Shelley British romantic poet Goethe German romantic poet Nationalism A feeling not proven Love for your country Sovereignty resides in the nationquot Benedict Anderson wrote an imagined communityquot that asked what is a nation And what makes someone in your nation Considering you cannot go just off looks Language religion and history mostly help decide Expressions of nationality making their own language loved and nding pride in it People started writing where we came fromquot stories They are building up a national literature Serbian Dictionary written in 1818 Russian Poetry written by Alexander Pushkin in 1820 Brother s Grimm German folktales Scandinavian founding epics 1840 Unity independence sovereignty what a nation is supposed to have Revolution outbursts over the government 18101820 Spain Italies SerbiaGreece 1830 France Poland Belgium 1848 France German lands Austria Hungary Louis Kossuth Leader in Hungary that demanded independence from Austria Louis Napoleon Bonaparte President of France Then he decided to be an Emperor and generally provided good government for a while Revolutions of 1848 goals Liberal constitutions limited monarchies everyone wanted these National unity national independence popular sovereignty Rights for workers socialismthis is what truly motivated people France in 1848 trying not to have a King new constitution elected president 2 d Republic elected Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Ireland in 18405 Famine 1 million died of starvation because they only grew potatoes The people living in the cities were hurt the most First Recession no one knew that it would ever end cause it had never happened before Socialism Robert Owen 17721858 Successful industrialist owned a textile factory observed his factory and found that it was great for him but terrible for the workers He thought this wasn39t fair so he turned his factory into somewhat of a charity He also invented what would be called Owenite Henri Saint Simon 1760 1825 he believed we should use the golden rule and that you should treat the workers like you would want to be treated Charles F ourier 17721837 wrote 14 volumes The problem was factories People should be on the land not in factories He said that there is someone for every job Karl Marx 18181895 Thought that all of the former mentioned were ridiculous Utopian socialist He was a scienti c socialistquot German philosophy major He wrote the Communist Manifesto He had to leave the country because of the reaction to his book Then he wrote for newspapers Friedrich Engels 1820 1895 German worked with Marx His father owned textile factories and sent him to manage factories Communist Manifesto 1848 written by Karl Marx The rst statement of socialist values He was later hired by workers association Das Kapital Capital 1860s Marxism most systematic but not the rst Marx wanted to be the Isaac Newton of society A theory of History principles that are everywhere laws that exist Progress thoughout history Stages Marx decided these stages cover his idea of theory ofhistory Primitive communism feudalism capitalism socialismcommunism The quotmotorquot that causes change class struggle revolution Bourgesoisie vs proletariat factory workers A critique of capitalism Karl Marx made up the word capitalism He said that owning land money and investments was most important Labor Theory of Value He said it is not proper or just for one person to own the means of production Things that come from the earth should belong to everyone It is dehumanizing to work in a factory doing division of labor Darwin and Social Darwinism Charles Darwin 18091882 biologist natural philosopher He studied geology and found that the world seemed to be much older than we originally thought He said that nature was a constant struggle to survive And that there was evolution through natural selection On the origin of species by means of natural selection 1859 Stated that the world was much older animals have evolved This book was very controversial and very popular These were powerful new ideas that came out in England Galapagos This is the island where Darwin studied the relationships between plants and animals He noticed variations and asked himself whether they change overtime The Beagle The ship that Darwin was on to go to the Galapagos Islands Evolution The idea that species evolved based on a struggle to survive Although this does not necessarily mean that the species improve Herbert Spencer 1820 1903 Social Darwinist He applied Darwin39s ideas to society saying that it was also making progress through struggle All men are not created equal some have better qualities Friedrich Nietzche 18441900 German philosopher wrote many books social Darwinist He said there was natural inequality among humans and maybe nations are unequal too Social Darwinists were saying maybe we should not be trying to prevent wars Imperialism Why was it happening National Prestige glory status projecting an image looking powerful Strategic Concerns gained men to ght fueling stops bases and other military advantages Religion religious people were looking for converts tons of missionaries mostly protestant were headed to Africa They were funded by the middle class Economic Motives business men more than government pushing for Imperialism Markets more people to sell to Materials Rubber food products wood dyes diamonds gold coal Investment opportunities oint Stock companies were growing and now they were spreading to African Colonies Coming of the First World War 1 Problem of Germany were does it fit in Germany did not start WWI they had just been united Educated industrialized People did not know who were their friends and who were their enemies Kaiser Wilhelm I King of Prussia added surrounding land to Prussia He was very clever Chancellor Bismarck He led the Franco Russian War He was the Prime Minister of Prussia very conservative believed in monarchy He helped create Germany Three Emperors39 League 18811887 Bismarck Germany Austria Hungary and Russia created this They realized that being centrally located in Europe was dangerous and needed to look out for each other Triple Alliance Germany Austria Italy RussoGerman Reinsurance Treaty 18871890 This was the German leader trying to continue being allies with the Russians despite disagreements Kaiser Wilhelm II This was the new King of Prussia He was not the son of the rst He was cocky and got irritated with Bismarck and decided they were not renewing their alliance Naval building program Everyone wanted a strong army This worries the British because Germany did not even need a Navy FrancoRussian Entente 1894 They made a deal to deter German aggression and they let Germany know about this deal AngloFrench Entente 1904 English and French agreement against Germany AngloRussian Entente 1907 Russian and Englands agreement against Germany These 3 quotTriple Ententequot These agreements together make this Russia France and Britian Toward a bilateral system quotTriple Ententequot vs quotTriple Alliancequot this became a two sided issue which created problems Race to gather weapons If there was 5 or six sides there would not have been much of a problem 2 Problem of the Balkans quotPowder keg of Europequot Decaying Empiresnations losing Great Power status Three great old powers backed up to the Balkans They were all decaying and had something to prove o Ottoman Empire Everyone in Europe thought the Ottoman Empire would eventually just die out Mostly Muslims o AustroHungarian Empire Wanted to limit the expansion of the Balkans through nationalistic ideas 0 Russian Empire Orthodox They were the big brother to Serbia who gained independence from Ottoman Empire in 1815 Slavs Living in Bosnia Herzegovina rebelled to become part of Serbia Serbs Living in Bosnia Herzegovina and Serbia mad that Austrian Army could be there Russians agreed with them BosniaHerzegovina independent 1878 annexed by Austria 1908 This was part of the Ottoman Empire before They became free but not independent Now Austria39s Army could occupy it Balkan crises 1908 1912 1913 1914 3 Military planning General staffs Mobilization schedules Russian plan to use the TransSiberian Railroad to get all men to the border in 2 weeks Schlieffen Plan Plan created by Schlieffen for Germany to take on France and Russia one at a time Take Paris by going around 4 Domestic stresses Democracy popular sovereignty public opinion Social Darwinism maybe we just have to fight Maybe a quotshort victorious warquot will end our political bickering The spark Assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand Iune 28 1914 He was drian through Bosnia on the Serbs National Holiday This provoked Serbs A secret terrorist Organization Black Handquot assassinated Franz Ferdinand and wife Germany s quotblank checkquot Germany agreed to back up Austria this is why they are blamed for the rst world war Austria s ultimatum to Serbia They gave an ultimatum to Serbia after checking that Germany would back them Willy and Nicky these were a set of telegrams between Wilhelm II of the German Empire and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia trying to avoid war considering their old friendship Declarations of war Iuly 28 AustriaHungary vs Serbia Aug 1 Germany vs Russia Aug 3 Germany vs France Aug 4 Britain vs Germany Aug 6 AustriaHungary vs Russia Soldiers and Citizens The Schlieffen Plan this was the Germans plan to ght the French and Russians in sequence To take Paris in 2 weeks then go get Russians But the Germans Did not follow this The Battle of the Marne Paris 1914 Germans trying to take Paris they failed The Battle of Tannenberg 1914 This was the battle between the Germans and Russians The Russians were allies with France and successfully divided the German Army Machine guns new at the time killed huge amounts of people because they were more accurate and easier to load The power of the defense Being on defense gave you the power because in Trench warfare if the other side was attacking they couldn39t re When they created machine guns they only thought about shooting not getting shot There were 10 times more death on the attacking side Trench warfare very slow killed many illness spread quickly because of wet dirty conditions there was a very small chance of living if you tried to advance Artillery these were canons behind the lines They tried to shoot into the other sides trenches but it didn39t work very well They learned that when the artillery stopped the advance was coming eg Battle of the Somme 1916 July 151 the British attacked the Germans in Belgium This was the bloodiest day of British history Artillery bombardment lasted 1 month 21000 tons of shells 15 million shells uly 1 1916 first day British attacked lost 60000 killed amp wounded Germans defended lost 6000 5 months each side lost 625000 men British quotwonquot 7 miles along a 30mile front Home quotfrontquot all of society was involved in the war The nurses mothers caring for children and factory workers supporting the war Factory work for women all men were off at war and there was a need for bullets so women took over Some men exempted from draft skilled men that are needed for making metal were exempted sometimes Gov39t intervenes in Labormanagement relations In ation Shortagesrationing encouraged to save bread Nationalization of major industries socialism Tax increases there was a need to pay for what is only destroying and not building New gov t agencie sbure aucracies National debts increases Size of gov t increases more rules and regulations The Russian Revolutions of 1917 Emancipation of the serfs 1861 this effected 90 of population They started ooding the cities Nobles and the Tsar didn39t like this Industrializationurbanization 18905 full blown industrialization People moved to cities and learned more because they are now free Revolutionary movement 0 Social Revolutionaries SRs peasantoriented seIfs wanted the redistribution of land Even out the ownership of the land 0 Social Democrats SDs Marxists workeroriented this spread quickly throughout the cities Vladimir Lenin 18701924 he led the SDs and helped create it These parties were illegal so he kept it undercover 1903 split this occurred because of Lenin He wanted the party to be selective Both were Marxists though 0 Mensheviks others who except everyone 0 Bolsheviks they were with Lenin wanted a selective party RussoIapanese War 19041905 Russia lost and it was very embarrassing The Russian people felt even more that their government wasn39t capable Revolution of 1905 this revolution did not dethrone Monarch but there was a lot of commotion Tsar Nicholas II grants a constitution and Duma he granted a legislature and parliament He held elections for the Duma Kadet Party Classical liberalsmiddle class this was the first legal party Russia in World War 1 fails the political test of the war it was very important that people supported the war and no one did anymore St Petersburg becomes Petrograd It was changed because it sounded too German whom they were ghting Grigorii Rasputin mad monkquot He was a supposed holy man that was attached to the Tsar and family He seemed to call the shots for the Tsar and this angered people The Nobles killed him eventually International Women39s Day March 8 1917 this is a holiday in most of Europe you give owers to the women in your life But this speci c day women were not very happy and they took to the streets to start a revolution This encouraged men to do the same When the troops were ordered to do something about it they refused Nicholas II abdicates March 15 FIRST REVOLUTION OF 1917 His generals told him he should quit so he did This was the end of the monarchy Period of Dual Power For the next 6 months this existed It was set up for just continuing the war Made up of the Duma and the Soviets o Provisional Government Kadets amp Alexander Kerensky government for the mean time o Soviets workers39 councils SRs Mensheviks Bolsheviks formed in factories streets It started spontaneously they elected their own representatives Nov 7 1917 Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd SECOND REVOLUTION OF 1917 the public had more faith in the Bolsheviks Lenin pushed his team and arrested the provisional government quotLand Peace and Breadquot quotAll Power to the Sovietsquot motto of the Bolsheviks party Treaty of BrestLitovsk March 1918 signed peace treaty this was a disaster for England and France Paris Peace Conference and the End of WWI 1917 Russia leaves the war Lenin surrenders because he thought they would lose BrestLitovsk Treaty in March 1918 says Russia is done with war The Army of Russia never cracked the population just wasn39t willing anymore US enters the war They had been neutral the whole time so far Decided nally to get involved saying that trade was being disrupted It took a while for the Americans to arrive President Woodrow Wilson He had run on a platform saying they would stay out of the war He requested a declaration of war in his 2ml term Said he was protecting shipping in Atlantic Nov 11 1918Armistice The Allies won The Germans cracked but they still thought they did a great job and weren39t very upset with how they fought Cease re on the 11111 hour on the 111h day of the 111h month Defeated Central Powers Germany Austria Hungary Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Peace Conference Paris 1919 there were thirty countries invited to this conference but the defeated Central Powers were not invited o Woodrow Wilson US Determined war He was out of US for 2 months 0 Georges Clemenceau France 0 David Lloyd George Britain prime minister o Vittorio Orlando Italy prime minister 14 Points This was the speech given Wilson39s speech to congress and it covered what he believed the US stood for For example even small countries have a right to independence League of Nations This was an international organization It was Wilson39s idea to prevent war But the mistake they made was not inviting the bad guysquot to be involved Treaty of Versailles with Germany There were 5 treaties But this is the only one remembered because Germany was blamed even though it wasn39t their fault o Demilitarized Rhineland o AlsaceLorraine returned to France 0 Decreased size of German military this is basically saying the League of Nations did not win militarily 0 Polish corridor quotfree cityquot of Danzig 0 quotWar Guilt Clausequot reparations says Germany is responsible for the war and they must pay Dissolution of AustroHungarian Empire newly created countries 0 Austria 0 Hungary 0 Czechoslovakia o Yugoslavia Dissolution of Ottoman Empire 0 quotProtectoratesquot 0 Egypt 0 Syria 0 Iraq 0 Lebanon 0 Palestine 0 Arabia Dissolution of Russian Empire 0 Poland 0 Lithuania 0 Latvia 0 Estonia 0 Finland Inventing the Soviet Union Civil War 19181921 This war was very bloody 5 million were killed This time was lled with starvation and murder When it was over the economy was a mess Reds Socialists led by Bolsheviks vs Whites this was communism against not communism The whites didn39t like a one party government Whites were made up of many groups that did not like Reds Bolsheviks still won They moved the Capitol to Moscow New Economic Policy 19211928 Lenin announced this gradual approach to building communism The people had a need to become a modern mixed economy There was a complicated system where you elect who elects who elects There is only one party VI Lenin 18701924 leader of communist party Started slow process towards Communism but died of multiple strokes It was unexpected and left people lost Succession struggle Iosef V Djugashvili Stalin 18791953 gave himself the name man of steelquot He had been a follower of Lenin He was from Georgia but adopted Russian nationality He won in 1928 and ended the New Economic Policy Leon Trotsky 18791940 Marxist He was a revolutionary but he lost and Stalin had him killed by his agents How to industrialize late and fast Wanted to catch up with the rest of the world First FiveYear Plan 19281933 plans to quickly modernize the Soviet Union Collectivization of Agriculture 192932 government tried to take all the animals People killed them because they didn39t want the government to have the animals Famine in Ukraine 1933 no more animals to pull the plow Purges 19361939 getting rid of foreigners or those who may be spies traitors to communism No one can make sense of this Rise of Fascism Postwar disillusionment no one back at home really knew how war was They had never been to war Apparent success of socialism and communism it seemed to have won or be successful although it didn39t really spread at all Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD this was the biggest socialist Party in Europe Weimar Republic Germany 19191933 Communist International 1919 this was a organization that met in Moscow They made a lot of noise and worried people They planned a world revolution but nothing really happened Strikes strikes by workers because they wanted more money There was a backwards strike where they locked the managers out and kept producing Liberals discredited These parties pretty much died because they were blamed for the war They also could not solve the after war problems so they were considered people who couldn39t get anything done These were surprisingly the middle class parties A new politics F asces Italian word for a bundle Stronger tied together Fascism Benito Mussolini created this It was a political party They wrote no books though so it was unclear what theirideas were They meant to attract everyone 0 Anticommunist They didn39t want communism in Italy People do not belong to a certain class 0 Antidemocratic they considered democracy wimpy and weak because its based on division Democracy can39t win wars They didn39t like that people voted Leader party Popular charismatic leader uni ed the people the idea man Nationalistic uni ed unity of the nation this makes your identity Aversion to modern life this got the votes let39s be more polite and make men men and women women Cult of masculinity and militarism virtues are manly virtues of soldier a true man is a soldier a true woman is a mother of a soldier Benito Mussolini Italy 1922 Italian leader that created fascism The Great Depression Economic Consequences of WWI Structural oversupply too many manufactured goods and food compared to what people can buy The increased production from the war continued In ation that led to de ation war brings in ation the government always spends money they don39t have Excessive De ation return to gold standardssame demand but more supply so the prices fall There is more paper money than there is gold to back it up Loss of Leader England is the usual leader but they couldn39t do it this time What does a quotleaderquot do Lender of last resort Accepter of distress goods free trade Maintain low interest rates Wartime and postwar in ation in Germany had to send reparations to many other countries including France and England 1914 100 42 marks 11923 100 1800 marks Complete breakdown of monetary system 91923 100 42 trillion marks There was a government sponsored strike but eventually just gave up and paid Worldwide recession by 1928 the year before the stock market crashed Everything is just stopping and there is a huge retraction in employment Crash of NY Stock Market October 1929 19293 2 world industrial production declines by 13 30 million people lose jobs worldwide 15 million in US World prices drop 30 What to do in a mess like this Deal with it quickly Give people money BrueningHitler Germany has the exact same monetary problem Bruening was a good guy kept trying to keep the budget balanced like Hoover HooverRoosevelt US presidents that dealt with depression Hoover was president when the stock market crashed said that we just needed to keep the budget balanced at all times Roosevelt somewhat xed it john M Keynes Englishman economic genius of the day General Theory of Employment Interest and Money 1935 became Bible of economics Helps you to understand the demand side of economy Included charts graphs and number Very complex The Rise of the Nazis Adolf Hitler 18891945 born in Austria not German Lower middle class his father was a drunk and beat him his mother was devoted to him He wanted to be an architect but couldn39t find work Tried to enlist in Austrian army but was rejected joined German Army won bravery medals and was injured in gas attack He didn39t seem like a leader Bavaria Munich met up with many others like him Felt like National Socialist German Workers39 Party NSDAPNazis Hitler didn39t found it but quickly became leader Beer Hall Putsch 1923 randomly wanted to take over the town hall Didn39t do anything they were arrested Mein Kampf 1924 wrote while in jail for above quotfl39irherquot Weimar Germany Working pretty well 19241928 start to go into depression In 1929 Nazis have 12 seats in Reichstag not very many the rst time Election of 1930 they receive 107 seats tons now because unemployment shot up to 7 people are worried and think maybe Nazis can fix it By 1932 Nazis are largest party Ianuary 1933 Hitler becomes Chancellor prime minister Nuremberg Laws 193 5 Krystallnacht Nov 1939