Arch 3411 Week 8
Arch 3411 Week 8 ARCH 3411
U of M
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Norden on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Week 8 Tuesday 102715102915 Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 691 One of the earliest Islamic shrines Located on Mount Moriah a site sacred to Jews because Abraham had offered his son to the Lord as sacri ce as well as being the location of Solomon s Temple Sits on the rock from which Mohammad ascended to paradise on his night journey This was the building that pilgrims and crusaders saw it was the earliest Islamic monument Dome of the Rock rock on which temple was founded Hard to find figurative representation of exterior tile Highly developed geometry in tiles plant motifs and inscriptions in Arabic show the makeup of Islamic art Dome has a timber frame which removes the problem of a thrust Closely related to martyrium of Christendom Contains ambulatory around central space that contains shrine around rock from which Mohammed ascended Became the image and temple of Jerusalem summing up the significance of entire city Rotunda similar to that at Constantine s Church of the Holy Sepulcher but dome is made of wood Sophisticated geometry is a shared characteristic with 4th and 5th century Syrian churches Page 154156 House of the Prophet Medina 624 Mosque was primary place of worship Contains a courtyard called the sahn Enclosure of the house differentiates the hall and the sahn The hall is where people worship 5 times a day Prototype for the mosque Columned prayer hall preceded by an open courtyard called a sahn Mohammed s followers assembled in courtyard to hear sermons and pray Great Mosque at Damscus 706 Oldest extant mosque and shows process from which the form developed Stands on site where a Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter and a 4th century Christian church dedicated to St John the Baptist used to be Mosque is based partly on tripartite aisles and nave of a basilican church Outline of mosque determined by shape of Roman shrine Four towers or minarets located at corners of site are where callers would call faithful to prayer Minarets became characteristic of Friday mosques being used to identify the mosques in the landscape similar to the way bell towers or domes on churches did Direction of prayer wall Qibla originally faced toward Jerusalem which later Mohammed changed to be toward Mecca Niche in wall reminds one that it is the Qibla wall In prayer one faces toward Qibla or Mecca and the closest one can get to the wall the better Minbar is a structural piece separate from prayer hall even if it s made of stone and richly decorated Trees on columns reinterprets tree on higher level than just a tree Most of the interior space is a sahn with domed fountain pavilion for ritual washings and an octagonal pavilion used for public treasury Prayer hall or haram is divided into thirds by two rows of columns Near center arcades are interrupted by broad transverse element similar to a nave with wooden dome over central baylater developed into a maqsura a special processional area reserved for retinue of the caliph justifying its dome as a special architectural element Page 157 Mosque of Ibn Tulun Fustat old Cairo 879 Minarets are spiraled Openings in the spandrels of the arches so that wall is beginning to become transparent Broken arches are starting to turn it so that it is becoming more of a circle Great Mosque at Cordoba 8th to 10th centuries First construction was an 11 aisle sanctuary Superimposed arches connect columns in haram the lower ones are horse shoe shaped and the upper ones not quite semicircular Tiered arcades at Damscus mosque and stacked arches of Roman aqueducts are possible inspirations for the superimposed arches but treatment here is original Arches are polychrome made of white stone voussoirs against red brick voussoirs Third renovation added new mihrab that was a richly decorate niche with a forest of cusped and lobed arches covered by a dome formed from interlacing arches anked by domes also made up of interlacing arches These domes probably in uenced domes built in the Italian Baroque by Guarino Guarini 4th extension of mosque made it the largest mosque in Spain In the 16th century cathedral of Cordoba was inserted inside Overlapping arches on exterior as if there are two arcades one behind the other Appear to be horseshoe arch Same iconography of city gate seen in Roman architecture can be seen here Series of arcuated walls and columns like a grove of trees in hall and stages of arches replicating Roman aqueduct Stone wall that is transparent in many ways and its structural integrity is contradicted in the arches Dome has a ribbed vault that is very in uential in Roman baroque Later converted to a Christian church Page 158 Great Mosque at Isfahan Iran 1017th Centuries Originally a hypostyle hall Enclosed areas for elite was developed in Mirhab which became a dome chamber Entries have been monumentalized with niche arch form that is similar to mirab without the minarets becomes a city gate CompleX geometric form inside arches created by many squinches piled on top of each other Alhambra Palace Granada 1338 Last Islamic strong hold to fall to Christian rule in 1492 Many multipurpose rooms that serve different purposes depending on time of day and seasons Community moves from one room to the other Lion Court recalls the colonnaded perimeter that recalls that of the sahn but it is not a sahn Cardinal directions similar to Roman city gridSquare grid with lions holding up water fountain Islamic garden is set in a cosmic orientation Lions were made by Jewish sculptures and most probably came from another palace Hall of the Two Sisters Squinches arch over the corners that make cusp arches Dome overhead is also made of squinches Angkor Wat Cambodia XII AD One of the most impressive monuments displaying Hindu art and one of the largest religious structures ever builtabout 13 miles to visit all the galleries At start of construction was a temple to Vishnu at time of completion it was a royal shrine of Khmer Dynasty that ruled Cambodia at the time later it was converted to Buddhist worship In India Hinduism didn t involve a godking into worship but Cambodian tradition did thus Angkor Wat served as a mortuary shrine for Suryavarman II the king who commissioned the work Represents fusion of Indian religion and native Khmer tradition Multiple towers cruciform galleries corner pavilions and decorative entrance gates lead to the central tower Towers represent sacred mountain and the garbhagriha inside represents the holy cave at the center of the cosmos The central tower is over the main shrine built on a pyramid base whose corners are marked by 4 stepped towers that symbolize Mount Mehru the home of the gods The 25 mile long moat that surrounds the complex symbolizes the oceans from which the mountains rise Made entirely of stone with only corbeled construction so there are no large interior spaces Ornament and shallow relief carvings cover walls and roof depicting both Hindu tradition and Khmer cosmology Horizontal expanse and vertical expression are mixed Architecture is symmetrical and balanced Page 7779 Stupa Sanchi III BCEIII CE Artificial mountainmound made of stone that represents center of the world mound is the main characteristic of a stupa symbolizes joining of heaven of earth Buddhism is not a belief but rather a practice one thing you do to participate is circumambulate a significant site usually a stupa Venerate a teacher who has left this world practice teachings by circumambulating site learning how you can transcend the endless circle Massive stone verdica enclosing fence to indicate sacredness encloses stupa with 4 entrance gates called taranas corresponding to cardinal directions Approach of entrance gates is staggered so as to reduce distractions to the pilgrims Harmica or square railing at the top of stupa marks association of stupa with Buddha Chatra or stylized bodhi tree set inside the harmica symbolizes tree under which Buddha received enlightenment its supporting stalk symbolizes axis of world passing through the center of the entire form Base is encircled by twotiered ambulatory pilgrims circumambulate on lower level while residential community and priests circle site on the higher level Octagonal posts and rounded horizontal rails show how early masons were in uenced by wooden construction Archaic deities portrayed on archway of entrance with trees as well as figures representing Buddhist legends possibly inspired by those on Asoka columns Lack of modeling on figures makes gates appear to be more the work of woodcarvers than masonry sculptors Hemispherical form incorporating cosmological associations of a circle the world mountain and dome of heavens and vertical world axis Page 6668 Chaitya Hall Karli 5070 AD One of many Buddhist monastic sites located in the middle of nowhere Most sites are constructed in existing caves but here an artificial cave is carved out of the natural mountain subtractive architecture Chaitya Hall replicates the form and details of wooden architecture that provided its in uence like the semicircular arched ceiling patterned after exible bamboo structures Larger than wooden buildings of the period Barrel shaped ceiling with arched ribs Rubble extracted from cliff became constructional material for platform extending to entrance a recessed arched porch with free standing columns supporting lion structures Porch contained relief carvings and had painted scenes from Buddha s life High grilles in windows provided dim light allowing pilgrims to take in the large volume with colonnade and large image of Buddha on far side Elusive synthesis of space light and detail Page 6971 Durga Temple Aihole VIII CE Temple and town have a re ective relationship Temples are usually in urban settings Mandala Map of creation a visual image that sums up reality Basis for construction of architecture Kandariya Mahadeva Temple Khajuraho ca 1000 AD Hindu gods are thought to have a particular affinity for mountains and caves Garbhagriha or womb chamber that radiates energy to cardinal and ordinal directions passage for clockwise circumambulation and sacred mountain defining central vertical axis that towers over garbhagriha Most important part shikhara mountain peak roof rises up like a mountain toward heavens Architecture that represents architecture Upper levels of roof carved With geometric ornament making massive form seem lighter While accentuating its contours Figures carved in swaying Sshape postures Freize depicts sexual union Minakshi Temple Madurai XVII Century Towers represent gates Similar to development in Egyptian temples Painted stucco make up iconography on exterior
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