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Introduction to Chinese History

by: Shanie Ruecker

Introduction to Chinese History HIST 1608

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > History > HIST 1608 > Introduction to Chinese History
Shanie Ruecker

GPA 3.74

Timothy Weston

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Timothy Weston
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanie Ruecker on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1608 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Timothy Weston in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/231770/hist-1608-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in History at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Unit 3 3302009 90800 AM Lecture 33009 Taiping Rebellion Treaties that were signed with China they were under the Qing government 50 they would disappear with the Qing By 18605 western governments become appalled with the Taiping Rebellion which at the time was falling apart There were all sorts of mercenaries fighting for the Qing but for the Taipings as well American and British forces in combo with Qing forces eventually crush the rebellion in 1864 Nian Rebellion Synonymous rebellion raging in the North At the very moment when China is laid low by western imperialism it is challenged by internal forces within China No western government had any intention of ruling over China as a colony Taiping Rebellion cont During the Taiping rebellion the Qing gave ended up giving away a great deal of power to local Han Chinese officials The goal was for them to organize militia armies to destroy the Taipings Self Strengthening Movement Reaction to the multiple losses the Qing had suffered People were saying that China needs to move towards modernization Ti vs yong substance versus usefulness lets borrow things from the west in terms of defense and military strength Chinese society other than militarily is fine the way it is Li Hongzhang was one of the ones who advocated modernization This movement was a piecemeal act that was not coordinated by the central government In Fujian Province Li Hongzhang builds a shipyard and arsenal Meiji Restoration Japan 1868 By 18705 Japan is emerging as a global power and is modernizing militarily politically infrastructure and education Sino French War French move in to Vietnam in a series of Naval battles along the Chinese coast France ultimately established colonial control over Vietnam Laos and Cambodia stripping China of its sinic tiere At the battle of Fuzhou the French come into the Naval yard and blow up all the ships Li Hongzhang refused to put his military forces in harms way Cosmopolitan culture in Shanghai Shanghai during the Taiping rebellion population explodes It started developing and looking like a western city It attracted talented people and became a center for innovation and decadence Opium was very highly prevalent in Shanghai Parts of China were changing rapidly and some not at all Sino Japanese War 1894 95 China and Japan fought a war to control Korea which had long been a tribute state of China The Chinese fail and get defeated very rapidly and are humiliated One reason why they lost was because they could not coordinate their military forces Some went and some did n t There was corruption within the Navy and some ammunition sold to the Navy was worthless Lecture 4109 Sino Japanese War cont Sino Japanese War had far more of an impact on the Chinese then the previous wars were The Japanese had long been viewed by the Chinese as a subordinate secondary people are were a derivative civilization They called them names like island dwarves Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895 By 1905 Korea was a full fledged colony of Japan up until world war 11 China had to pay a great amount of money to get back the territory of Manchuria Taiwan also became a Japanese colony until 1945 This marked a new point where the Qing were losing Chinese territory other than the previous loss of Hong Kong to the British Kang Youwei Radical Confucian scholar was outraged at the treaty of Shimonoseki He proposed the 10000 word memorial of 1895 This memorial provided advice saying that China should not sign the treaty and should also take on reform Under the Empress Dowager she scolded Kang Youwei and he leaves Beijing and goes back home Some in the southern provinces begin to form study societies It was a cover for political activity where opinion formation for new schools of thought The 10000 word memorial was not against the Qing they were simply trying to save China Scramble for concessions This heated up in the last years of the 19th century China is being gobbled up by the British French the Americans Germans Russians and other states They had spheres of influence throughout China and it was seeming to be cut up by foreign powers The US created an open door policy where there was equal access to all This was just a response to being late into getting into China The Guanxu Emperor He stands up and says he will no longer allow the Empress Dowager to be dominant He invites Kang Youwei and his disciple Liang Qichao back to Beijing to write reforms for the country However the Empress Dowager steps in and the Guanxu Emperor is put under house arrest and Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao are forced to flee again Liang Qichao goes to Japan and becomes a journalist where a lot of his pro reform works flow back into China Sun Yat sen He had a much more radical idea of change and became a supporter of violence to overthrow the Qing Boxer Rebellion 1899 1900 The uprising began in Shandong Province northern China which had became an area under German control It spread over much of northern China following During 1899 there is terrible drought and the Chinese blame it on the influence of Christian gods in the Chinese religious sphere The people who became most hated were the Chinese Christian converts In this environment charismatic martial arts teachers begin to take in recruits They learn about bodily cultivation that will give them magical properties They believed they could walk into an array of bullets and escape unscathed The boxers begin to bully Chinese converts and missionaries throughout northern China The Empress Dowager desperate for support throws her allegiance in with the Boxers Once the court indicates that its not going to crack down on this vigilante behavior all hell breaks lose The Boxers cut off heads and disemboweled Chinese converts by the hundreds and it attracted front page news from around the world An eig ht nation alliance made mostly of Japanese soldiers join forces and march towards Beijing Within Beijing entire neighborhoods were destroyed The Empress Dowager disguises herself and flees to Xian Foreign armies then occupy the city of Beijing Foreign troops begin arresting Boxers and executing them New Approach from the Empress Dowager Cixi She comes back to Beijing and agrees that she was wrong and says that China needs to undergo reform In fact she rides into Beijing by train Lecture 4609 New Policy Reforms When Empress Dowager Cixi came back to Beijing she became an advocate for reform Most consequentially in 1905 she decrees that the civil service examination system which had been established around the time of Zu Xi no longer serves China s interest and it is abolished This shows that the Qing no longer knows how to bring in proper staff into the government Those who had studied really hard were unprepared for the new world that awaited them China also had no teachers so they had to hire Japanese advisors and foreign missionaries who couldn t speak Chinese The Qing recognizes that the most powerful states in the world are all governed by constitutions and the notion of rule of law The Emperor cannot do everything he wants but must operate through legal frameworks The Qing stated that in the near future a constitutional monarchy would be instated to govern the Qing state This was an attempt to win over the elite However in the provincial elections the elites mainly advocated their own interests at the local level Railroads Rights Recovery Movement Sichuan Province By this time China was being criss crossed by railroads The Qing took out foreign loans from banks to build these railroads People became infuriated that the Qing borrowed money rather than raising money themselves fearing foreign interests People began vandalizing the railroads in outrage Rebels begin to advocate violent action against the Qing and they win over the military The uprising begins in Wuchang in 1911 Southern areas of China cede themselves from Beijing and the Qing state The Loyal areas were militarily very strong and it set prospects for civil war The Founding of the Republic of China In Denver Colorado Sun Yatsen reads in a newspaper about the uprising in China He continues fund raising and arrives back in China at the end of 1911 Sun Yatsen has long been associated with the revolutionary movement The parliament set up in Nanjing asks Sun Yatsen if he would like to be the first president Yuan Shikai Was a key military figure in northern China He negotiates an agreement with Sun Yatsen to hand over the presidency to Yuan Shikai and Yuan would persuade the emperor to abdicate The Qing abdicates the throne and Yuan Shikai becomes president of the Republic of China Yuan moved the capital back to Beijing and promised to respect the rules of Democratic government Yuan Shikai does not live up to his promises In the 1912 elections one key party comes out on top along with Song Jiaoren who is looking to be becoming Prime Minister On a train platform he is assassinated and it is assumed Yuan Shikai is behind this Revolution breaks out against Yuan Shikai but Yuan s forces crushes them Yuan also bans political parties closes provincial parliaments and by 1913 the hopefulness of a Republic is lost Japan s 21 Demands of 1915 In 1915 the Japanese make an ultimatum to Yuan Shikai and state that if Yuan wants their support and military aid they would have to accept the 21 terms If brought about they would bring the Japanese semi control of the Chinese government Yuan Shikai cannot defend his interests against Japan and makes a lot of secret deals with Japan In a last ditch effort Yuan leads a campaign to have intellectuals to support Yuan as an emperor In early 1916 there is a coronation of Yuan Shikai as head of his own dynasty Within a little bit of time he is forced to withdraw and he dies by 1916 Warlord ism In the 19205 China is a fragmented political identity This echoes the warring states period following the fall of the Zhou dynasty This was also a period of competing intellectual schools of thought Similarly this relates to the new warring states period Lecture 4809 New Culture Movement Generalized mood that came along with the founding of a journal in Shanghai called Youth magazine by Chen Duxiu These people looked out to the rest of the world and were seeking to process ideas from the west and put them on China s agenda Confucian beliefs said that older people should have respectable roles in society but the magazine was a political focus on people from high school to 30 years old It represented an idealism that China had not seen before The New Culture Movement was moved to Beijing University which thereafter became the center of the movement They believed the only way they can change China is to change the political culture Politics is rooted in culture Cai Yuanpei Chancellor of Beijing University hires Chen Duxiu and brings in a cadre of Chinese PhD students that studied abroad At Beijing some of the students take up the call Beijing University serves as a model to other Universities that begin to surface They attack Confucianism as a process that enslaves the mind and keeps them from thinking in modern aspects It was pro western and pro change World War 1 China sent thousands to Europe to help the allies overcome the Germans in the trenches After World War I it was expected that Germany would hand over its possessions in Shandong province north During the Versailles agreement it was uncovered that Yuan Shikai had dealt away Chinese territories away to the Japanese Shandong is where Confucius and Mencius came from It was the beginnings of Chinese civilization This occurred on May 3 1919 May Fourth Demonstrations of 1919 Students at Beijing University and others are outraged that China is being bullied at Versailles conference They carried banners and flags with anger directed particularly at Woodrov Wilson They were also targeting the Warlord negotiators for selling out Chinese interests The protestors demanded the warlords resignation Many students in the following days are arrested Student mobs then take to the streets and Shanghai is shut down as a city The students through protest communicate powerfully across class lines and demonstrate their power to the extent to where the warlords decide not to sign the treaty of Versailles Founding of Chinese Communist Party 1921 At Beijing University the Marxism Study Society surfaces The Communist Revolution in 1917 makes Marxism and Bolshevism very attractive Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao co found the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 This party is very closely tied to the international communist movement and receives aid from members around the world The CCP s main aim is to bring about Communist revolution in China Sun Yat sen Reorganization of the Nationalist Party Sun Yat sen slowly cultivates his own connections in southern China In Canton with the help of a warlord Sun Yat sen builds up a Nationalist Party that has long been in existence The CCP gives tremendous amounts of aid to Sun Yat sen because he supports revolution The Communists hoped that through Sun Yat sen they could forge an alliance By 1923 Lecture 41309 Warlordism and Reorganization of Nationalist Party After the death of Yuan Shikai China had no clear political power but it was divided up between warlords In the early 19205 Sun Yat sen has found a warlord supporter in the south His goal was to recreate the nationalist party to unify China under one party as well as getting foreign powers out of China Sun Yat sen begins to understand the importance of military strength this is what they lacked in earlier years Sun Yat sen looks for outside assistance and the Comintern sees Sun Yat sen as effective on the military front and can attract a great deal of people In Canton Sun Yat sen builds up a military force The whampoa academy becomes the founding of a new generation of military leaders The Comintern suggests to Sun Yat sen to form a united front and that the communists would join up with the nationalist party to strengthen its power base May Thirtieth Movement 1925 Demonstrated the continuous power of the nationalists to drive people into these revolutionary parties The movement erupts in the city of Shanghai The Japanese at this time has established a really large cotton plant in Shanghai and there are demonstrations taken for a fairer work environment The Japanese shoot and kill the protesting workers This creates a stir of anger among the nationalists Large numbers of workers and students take to the streets of Shanghai to protest They march outside to the British consulate because they had the most power in China The British open up and fire and kill around twenty protestors Workers refused to go to work protests continue many arrests are made Sympathy strikes surface all over China Nationalists work to publish what was going on in Shanghai to receive further support Numbers of people responded and flocked to the nationalist party During the movement Sun Yat sen dies of cancer The public opinion of China has come to see Sun as a great political visionary and are saddened by his death Chiang Kai shek took over power within the Nationalist Party by 1926 However Chiang Kai shek is not a visionary but a military leader He feels that problems must be solved by force Northern Expedition A joint force of Communist and Nationalist revolutionary forces move north in an attempt to subdue the warlords It is remarkably successful Unlike the warlords the revolutionaries do not loot conquered areas but feels they are liberating the people During the northern expedition political organizers were sent into local areas and seek out people who supported the revolutionary movement They attempted to carry out strikes and lay the front for revolutionary activity One of these political organizers was Mao Zedong The Communists are very active in Shanghai By 1927 Shanghai is liberated by the nationalists Chiang Kai shek makes a decision He feels that the communists and the nationalists are growing too powerful Chiang orders the mass arrest and slaying of communist organizers The Communists become decimated by this point The Communist party is forced underground Nanjing Decade A period of extraordinary modernization Many believed the aspects of the revolutionary future are starting to be had Shanghai becomes a beacon for Chinese modernity At this time there are a lot of sexual advertisements movie stars become household names Chiang Kai shek sees this all as corrupt and sees it contradictory to modernity He says modernity is not about individualism Chiang then becomes very unpopular with intellectuals and students who seek individualism and rights Increasingly Chiang Kai shek becomes a fascist leader Germany supplies Chiang in the 19305 political support and Chiang begins to model himself on the fascist image He forms the blue shirts which serves as an allegory to the brown shirts in Germany Japan Invasion In 1931 Japan invades Manchuria The Japanese bomb Chinese controlled parts of Shanghai Chiang Kai shek is powerless to subdue the Japanese in Manchuria Manchuria actually becomes a puppet state of Japan in the following years Civil War with the Communists The Communists move into rural areas that were very difficult to get a modern military into They set up Soviet areas where Communists work with the peasantry to build up support These really poor areas were ideal for communist views The key leader of the Jiangxi Soviet was Mao Zedong He claims we don t have to base our revolution among the proletariat industrial workers but among the peasantry He transforms Marxist ideology to gather support Lecture 41509 Long March When the Nationalists decide to abandon the United Front civil war breaks out After the Shanghai massacre the majority of the Communist membership moved out of the cities and into a rural settings Soviets When the Nationalists attack a key Soviet in Hunan the Communists made a long march over mountain passes rivers and tough conditions to northern China in Shanxi This takes place from 1934 to 1935 Of the original 100000 people who set off 7000 made it to the end in Yan an Mao also received tremendous respect by sacrificing to merge into the rank n file The most important person to survive was Mao Zedong who lost his wife and son along the way He arrives in Yan an as the agreed upon leader of the Communist survivors Mao creates a myth saying these were the people who were chosen to survive and in the future contend to the power of the nationalists Mao turned this brutal defeat in numbers into a tremendous success in the desire to carry on Xian Incident December 1936 Its very clear that the Japanese are preparing for a strike against China out of Manchuria The former warlord of Manchuria Zhang Xueliang persuades with the communists to bring Chiang Kai shek to Xian Zhang kidnaps him and demands him to forge the second united front Zhang turns out to be a man of his word and frees Chiang Kai shek who ceases the war against the communists Again there is a sense of hope that the Chinese people will get along and stand up to China s problems as a whole Manchukuo The Japanese a puppet regime in Manchuria in 1932 They claim that it has always been separate from China until the Manchu conquering of the Ming The Japanese were trying to play the part of liberators for the Manchus Puyi the last Qing emperor becomes the puppet emperor of Machukuo The Japanese apply a lot of skill determination and money and develop Manchuria as the most industrial region in China It emerges as the major industrial sector of the Chinese economy War With Japan from 1937 1945 On a bridge in Beijing the Japanese claim they were fired upon and declare full scale war on China Beijing or what was called Beping at the time quickly falls to the Japanese The Japanese also have their hearts set on the economic soul of China Shanghai However since it is a cosmopolitan city the Japanese don t want to provoke the international community They attack the Chinese sector however Chiang Kai shek was prepared for their attack and a long drawn out bloody affair results The Japanese expected a fairly easy operation but instead they lose large amounts of troops while the nationalists put up quite the fight Eventually the Japanese prevail Nanjing Massacre The Japanese soldiers march to the capital Nanjing The nationalists then pick up and move their capital up to Wuhan However they left the population behind and the Japanese move in and butcher everybody This bloodbath was witnessed by several members of the international community The Nanjing regime was very tied into foreign governments Images got out and created revulsion and anger in the US By 1940 Japan has come and swept the heartland region of eastern China The Nationalists are further forced to flee westward to Chongqing The Communists remain centered at Yan an In the meantime the Japanese set up a number of puppet regimes throughout China Yan an Versus Chongqing In Yan an the Communists are self sufficient and grow their own food They smuggle in weapons and create in Yan an a sense of utopia in the direst of situations These oppressed people were coming alive and were able to think for themselves Mao was a masterful propagandist and spreads the word outside of Yan an and it attracts in a great deal of intellectuals throughout the country Chongqing becomes a center of corruption and inability of the leadership class to relate to ordinary rank n file members of society There stirs a growing disenchantment against Chiang Kai shek Lecture 42009 War with Japan from 1937 1945 The Americans knocked Japan out of the war through complete destruction and island hopping In terms of who lost the most in the war it was both very high in China and Japan Tens of millions of Chinese died During the war the Communists and the Nationalists joined forces after the Xian incident They used the war as an arena for competition and tried to outdo one another to show which side was willing to make the greater sacrifice The Americans joined the conflict to assist the nationalist party However Chiang Kai shek s government grew very corrupt and they held information from the people The people grew very upset bc the party was supposed to be fighting for democracy The nationalists were also very harsh on their soldiers and did not provide for them Foreign aid that went into Chongqing simply disappeared The Communists on the other hand skillfully able to demonstrate leadership in the war against the Japanese In the end there was great relief of Japan s surrender but the bloodshed in China would continue By 1946 war had broken out between the nationalists and the communists Civil War between the CCP and the KMT Following WWII the Chinese fled to Manchuria when the KMT reassumed power Taiwan had been a Japanese colony from 1895 onward When the war ended and the Nationalists poured their influence in there Taiwan however wanted to be independent The nationalists forces purged people belonging to the independence movement in 1947 Meanwhile the Communists sweep out of Manchuria and take over China Americans were outraged at Chiang Kai shek and his failure The Nationalists party packed up everything they could and fled to Taiwan in 1949 They however felt that they were eventually going to retake China from the Communists The Americans intervene and state their protection of the nationalists Communist Take Over This is a moment of hope in 1949 In October of 1949 Mao Zedong announced the founding of the People s Republic of China He expels missionary institutes the treaties founded under the Qing and foreign influence What kind of Revolution was 1949 It was a nationalist revolution to save China from Japanese domination It was a revolution to end decades of rough treatment of China from the rest of the world Many who fled to the Communists had no idea of what communism was There was strong efforts to rebuild China s infrastructure and help those whose families were broken up by the war They also inherited the task of modernization War in Korea The Communist party benefits from the Korean war The party presented an idea of defense against imperialist powers Because they did not lose and fight the Americans to a stand still was a huge boost for morale In the fifties the Communists were very successful in economic recovery as seen in grain output This legitimated the CCP s rule in China Hundred Flowers Movement 1956 1957 Represents a moment in time when Mao looks around what is happening around the world He becomes furious at Khrushchev at his denouncement of Stalin Mao did not want people to denounce him so he gives people the opportunity to speak their mind Lecture 42209 Hundred Flowers Movement cont 1965 57 Mao s expectation was that there was going to be little criticism coming and that people would be happy with his leadership First on campuses at Beijing students began to speak their voices and it turned into a flood of forums posted on walls Many were quite condemning of the party Mao does a complete 180 and goes against the harsh critics Anti Rightist Movement This was Mao s response to the Hundred Flowers movement All of these people who took the bait and spoke their minds found themselves in a political struggle of being anti revolutionary Many of them were branded as rightists and enemies of the people Many lost their positions in school of faculty positions The worst offenses were taken away to do back breaking labor This campaign consumes some of China s best and brightest Intellectuals then became very afraid of the party and shut their mouths By the end of the end of the movement things turned very sour for key intellectuals and showed itself to be very suspicious for those with an independent mind If you had studied abroad or served in the nationalist military that made you suspect Great Leap Forward By the late 19505 Mao inserts his own will and opinion within party policy He was very uncomfortable with the Soviet Union s economic path He was very impatient with the five year plan model He encourages the Great Leap Forward through large scale propaganda The idea behind the Great Leap FonNard was very Maoist and is a utopian scheme Within a few short years time China was to surpass the industrial powers of the world China may be poor but if we turn on the Chinese people 247 the will and spirit of the people will progress the nation In the fields the Chinese built kilns used to melt pots and pans to create raw steel Most of the steel created was worthless and the nation gained nothing The propaganda continued and people were afraid of becoming an enemy of the people by speaking out The ultimate tragedy is that people were asked to dig way too deep in the soil where the alkaline exists and it kills the seeds Drought of epic proportions also contributed to famine and 30 million people died This was the result of a politically caused campaign and the Communist Party under Chairman Mao is to blame Those who spoke out against Mao were removed from power Sino Soviet Split late 19505 Mao s opposition to the Soviet Union s policies become so loud that its obvious that the USSR and China can not be friends War nearly broke out between the tWO States Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966 76 By 1966 Mao has regained his power At Tiananmen Square in 1966 Mao appears with his fawning officials before thousands of students The students come to this event to see what they thought as a living god Mao says to the students that the revolution is not done and its your responsibility to carry it on it is rig ht to rebel The kids then believe themselves to be Red Guards A lot of power were put in their hands The wish is to carry out the will of the chairman He built around himself the Cult of Mao and he is seen as an adored figure for the Chinese people The Red Guards were given little red books which were their bibles of the movement In particular Mao was saying to go out and attack the four olds Lecture 42709 Great Proletarian Cultural Rev continued Red Guards Mao Zedong told the Red Guards to go out an attack the four olds Old culture thought and beliefs They were to dig them up and attack them mercilessly Whoever was in authority over them were thrown in front of angry mobs and humiliated Red Guards would go into houses and look for western objects and use this as a pretext for beatings They smashed religious icons Temples and books were destroyed By 1968 the situation was so out of hand The schools stopped functioning and red guards would compete against each other and fig ht over who was closer to Mao Mao announces a halt and tells them they have to go down to the countryside and learn from the peasants in 1968 The kids had no idea how to farm and were a large burden on the peasants The idea was that they were going to be toughened and be more revolutionary They had no idea if or when they would return to the cities The Gang of Four They were the collective face of the cultural revolution Jiang Qing Mao s wife was the most hated member By September 9 1976 Mao dies The nation was in shock and mourning The thoughts of the nation was confused of what to think about his death The gang of four very publicly gets arrested in October 1976 and there was a great deal of celebration in the streets Deng Xiaoping During the Cultural Revolution Deng was a chief target of attack by Mao He survived the cultural revolution and by 1978 he comes out as the strongman of the CCP Lecture 429 Rise of Deng Xiaoping 1978 Represented a different policy line to China and the rest of the world Pragmatism over ideology The emphasis on the top political position in China during Mao s period was ideology It was about being a good communist Deng brought a much more pragmatic idea to the CCP Deng put an emphasis on the four modernizations Four Modernizations Agriculture Military Science and technology Industry Intellectuals were going to be in leadership positions Universities had to be revitalized from political to real skills like Math and Social Science Opening to the West By the early 19805 China sends a flood tide of students abroad to study at foreign universities The opening to the west required a change in relations between the US In 1978 Deng and Jimmy Carter reopened diplomatic relations Previously the US had recognized Taiwan as the official government of China but this changed in 1978 The US however offered to give aid if the PRC was ever to attack Taiwan Tiananmen Sq uare 1989 1997 Throughout the eighties intellectuals became more bold to test the limits of free speech In addition to the four modernizations they claimed China needed a fifth democracy Taking advantage of the 70th anniversary of the May 4th Movement students marched days on end and called for democracy and openness The students eventually occupy Tiananmen Square and rallied the entire nation for their cause Deng Xiaoping on June third sends in the Liberation Army and hundreds of students were shot down dead One June 4 1989 the Tank Man stood in front of a line of tanks daring them to run him over This movement happened in front of the world s cameras The world s attention was centered on Tiananmen square It brought on a lot of shame for the CCP and people wondered if the CCP was going to collapse Deng Xiaoping died on February 19 1997 He voluntarily gave up the leadership to Zeng Zimin There was no real struggle and casualties that resulted in the transition for power as their had been after Mao died Zeng Zimin lead China up until 2004 and gave power over to Hu Jintao who presided over the 2008 Beijing Olympics The 2008 Olympics was highly technical Beijing was cleaned up the intention was to tell the world it had arrived as a world superpower 3302009 908 00 AM C 339 73 Liang Qichao on His Trip to America pp 335340 1 Who was Liang Qichao and why was he an important historical figure c He was closely associated with Kang Youwei and was a prolific journalists 2 What sorts of things does Liang find strange about the United States o Its very rich but life is very bleak forjews Italians and cinese Crime is very high and there is large gap between rich and the poor 3 What sorts of things about the United States impress him o Libraries big buildings a nation state etc 4 What sorts of things about the United States does he criticize 5 How does his time in the United States lead him to think about China What sorts of things does he say China must do c He believes that socialism cannot be avoided with the unequal distribution of wealth 6 What does he mean by Chinese character and Western character Do you accept this way of thinking Why or why not c He means Chinese character are messy and unintelligent Western characters are intelligent and always have business to attend to 7 Do you think his criticisms of China are fair ones 8 What motivates him to criticize China in the way he does here Ch 74 Ridding China of Bad Customs pp 341347 1 How did intellectuals concerned about China s viability in the world think and talk about footbinding and why o They felt it was very uncivilized compared to western customs 2 Who was Qiu Jin Is it right to say she was a courageous person Why o She advocated women s rights and was courageous in the sense that she died a revolutionary 3 What are Qiu Jin s main points in the address she made pp 34244 How does what Qiu Jin said fit with Confucian values and expectations 4 PP 5 6 7 8 o She goes against footbinding and arranged marriages especially when men are harsh What are the main points made by the author of the piece on opium 34445 o opium must be banned to save the country The government must poor a lot of money helping people to stop smoking Who does he believe has to take responsibility for this problem o The government What does it mean to say girls were enslaved in Chinese society 0 How does the piece on freeing slave girls fit with Qiu s Jin s address o It advocates women s rights What do you learn about gender relations in Chinese society from the piece on slave girls o It was very bad and many women were either prostitutes concubines or slave girls 9 Who wrote the piece on slave girls when and why What were the author s motives o The piece was written by a man who said that owning slave girls was wrong and that they were not efficient Lecture 41009 My Old Homequot Ebrey pp 354359 o 1 Who wrote this story What do you know about his background Lu Xun wrote this and he studied medicine and read western literature and philosophy He is one of those who began to write the newly created short story o 2 What is the basic plot of this story What is the main message The main character goes home to pick up his family to move to Beijing Beijing is probably a better environment because he goes home and sees his house as very run down Runtu is a key individual of the common rural person that suffered from warlordism and taxation o 3 How is this story a description of the plight that young educated urbanites found themselves in at this stage of Chinese history o 4 Is the story ultimately optimistic or pessimistic It seems more optimistic because rantu always seems optimistic about his situation and they remember their childhood o 5 What is the difference in experiences between the different generations of people in this story There is the emergence of class conflict The narrator and Runtu have a good childhood together and when the narrator comes back they are completely separated by wealth and class The class struggle can also become a mouthpiece for socialism The Spirit of the May Fourth Movementquot Ebrey pp 36063 1 who wrote this piece and what was the author s relationship to the events she describes Deng Yingchao wrote this and she was involved in the Tianjin Women s patriotic society 2 what was the May Fourth Movement all about What precipitated the movement May 4th movement was a response to the treaty of Versailles in protest to the Japanese seizing power over Shandong province Since they helped in WWI China felt that they deserved the German territories back There is a great feeling of self determination and nationalism has a place in this world However they get screwed 3 what ideas and causes motivated the students who took part in the movement The Russian Revolution really motivated students and protestors Another idea includes the idea of saving China 4 how and why did the students try to communicate with nonstudents 5 how did the warlord authorities respond to the student activists How about the college authorities They set the police on them and used violent action The students responded saying they should be patriotic 6 what was the relationship between the May Fourth Movement and the women s liberation movement The men from the may fourth movement worked together to overcome all obstacles and the women s liberation movement attracted more people into the movement The DogMeat Generalquot Ebrey pp 37377 1 why was this piece written and when Was written by a magazine to publish Zhang Zongchang s cruelties 2 what did Zhang Zongchang s career consist of before he became governor of Shandong province He comes into power in Shandong through military action 3 how would you characterize Zhang s style of rule Its very autocratic He overtaxes the people and lops their heads off to demonstrate how brutal he is 4 what is the point of the section of the article having to do with taxes It just goes to show the level of corruption and over taxation He is in many cases taxing the people over and over for the same thing 5 was Zhang Zonchang a sweetheart If not how come he remained in power He was very cruel he promises to pay his soldiers but does not This is all a comment of a martial and unstable society This represents the danger or a militaristic society Recitation 41709 The General Strike o The mid 1920s Shanghai had a huge foreign presence and a large group of laborers o The background of the strike is political against the warlords and imperialism c There is a pattern of heavy western economic influence including a minimum wage and equal rights for men and women o Most of the strikers are factory workers public transportation and ship workers o It is an incredibly violent and terrifying five days c When they are asked to go back to work it kinda gives the warlords who own the companies to have reason to give into their demands o Chiang Kai Shek is unhappy with the power of the communists and chooses to slaughter them Narratives to Live By o Many Chinese express distaste at the Japanese because of events like the Nanjing Massacre o The Century of Defeat extends from the defeats of the Opium Wars to all the failures and instability of the Chinese to the end of World War II Part of the humility is China s inability to defend itself or set up a Republic government in the aftermath of the Rev of 1911 o This is a very nationalistic peace and they claim that the humiliation are caused by the foreigners They claim that the Manchus were corrupt and imperialism also had a lot to do with the humiliation o Pastism vs Presentism its looking at history as an indicator for what is going on in the present Presentism gives you pride and an identity you can believe in to marshal people for a cause The Chinese don t want an identity where they are getting trampled over o The Chinese use victimization against the Japanese and ridicule them They claim they are their little brothers and ought to respect them o China uses Vietnam and Korea as a symbol of presentism and pastism because it shows look what we did and we can do it again o The impact of western ideas shattered Confucianism for China Generalissimo Jiang On National Identity o Divided into two speeches one before World War II and one in the post war world o The principles he states are principles of the people social progress nationalism democracy These are articulated by Sun Yatsen o Jiang claims that the Ming fell through weakness of a few officials which submitted it to foreign expansion They claim that in 1937 they are fighting for the welfare of the nation and have a revolutionary spirit o The Chinese people especially under a Chinese regime will prefer death to disgrace They claim that Japan is a barbaric hybrid o In the second speech the Chinese claim themselves to be the main player because they suffered the most and lost the most during the war The rest of the world however does not share this view c There is no mention of the communists in this essay They were more successful during the war Recitation 42409 Red Guards They ranged from middle schoolers to college students They tried to spread Mao s revolutionary ideas They are arrogant in the sense that they are taking this past China s borders They respond to accusations about being crude by saying they cant be soft towards revolutionism and modernize They are interested in taking down the capitalists The four olds were thoughts ideas and culture People were following them by embracing Mao and hanging up his portrait everywhere The Red Guards also go on their own long march and find support from Mao s writings Their mission is to spread propaganda 3302009 908 00 AM


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