Evolution of Populations Class Notes
Evolution of Populations Class Notes BI 203
Popular in Ecology
Popular in Ecology
This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Madi Raines on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to BI 203 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Clay in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Ecology at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/21/15
Evolution of Populations Class Notes 0 DNA the code that manufactures all the processes within the organism double helix strand of bases 0 Chromosome compacted DNA wrapped around a histone Linear in eukaryotes 2 copies of each chromosome 0 Gene code for proteins 0 Why do we have two copies of each gene 0 Inherit one from each parent 0 OUR DNA 0 There are different versions of the same gene called alleles They differ in the exact sequence of bases in DNA 0 These differences can result in slightly different proteins Allele multiple versions of a gene 0 Genotype the actual alleles you have the combination of alleles Phenotype how to genotype is expressed physically Alleles and Phenotype Phenotype one dominant allele and one recess allele often looks like two dominant alleles DOMINANT DOES NOT MEAN MOST COMMON IN THE POPULATION NATURAL SELECTION ACTS ON PHENOTYPE 0 Evolution is the change in allele frequency over time 0 Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals 0 What creates variation 0 Point mutation 0 Gene duplication o What are the affects of mutation o no effect 0 disastrous results or bene cially The following affects variation much more frequently 0 Geographic Clines 0 Sexual Reproduction Recombination during meiosis 0 How do we know if a population is evolving Predict what population will look like in the next generation if it is not evolving and compare the next generation 0 If all other factors remain constant the frequency of particular alleles will be constant from generation to generation genetic equilibrium 0 Factors that upset genetic equilibrium 0 Mutation 0 Natural selection 0 Nonrandom mating 0 Small population size 0 Migration Evolution by natural selection 0 when allele frequencies change because one phenotype is more t than the other so individuals with that trait set of alleles leave behind more offspring 0 Genetic Drift changes in allele frequency that has nothing to do with tness by random chance 0 Evolution by gene ow when alleles from one isolated population get into another isolated population thereby changing the allele frequencies in the receiving population 0 HardyWeinberg equation predicts the number of individuals of each genotype if the population is in equilibrium 0 Must know allele frequencies in the population 0 Plug allele frequencies into HW equationexpected genotype frequencies for a population in equilibrium 0 Compare those predicted genotype frequencies to the observed genotype frequencies 0 Remember allele frequencies are dependent upon the allele frequencies of the previous generation 0 Natural Selection amp Genetic Variation 0 Over time natural selection can reduce genetic variation 0 How is genetic variation maintained Mutations Heterozygote protection 0 maintains genetic diversity within the population Heterozygote advantage 0 Frequencydependent selection
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