Sex, Gender, and Society 1
Sex, Gender, and Society 1 SOCY 1016
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2252012 45200 PM Lecture One I Thinking about sex and gender a What do we mean by sex i Distinction based on biologicalanatomical difference Malefemale X or Y chromosome b What do we mean by gender i Social meaning attached to that difference Masculinityfemininity c Two views about relationship between them i Sexgender essentialistbiologicalnature ii Sex and gender are distinct constructivesociologicalnuture II Larry Summers Controversy Thinking through 3 hypothesis a Lifework balance or gender roles i Odd schedules interfere with fertility domestic work b Variation in natural aptitude at high end of distribution i At the high end of the test men do better ii High end gets PhD iii Average does not vary though only the highest sector c Socializationdiscrimination i Childhood role learning teacher interaction ii Biased against women Old men in the physics dept want to go golfing d Why can these be considered three and a half hypothesis i Because discrimination isn t socialization different things III Review Larry Summer s Hypothesis Lifework balance Variation in natural aptitude Socializationdiscrimination What can these be considered 4 hypotheses instead of 3 i You can separate socialization and discrimination IVBarres weighing in on Summers controversy a Going after other advocates of innate difference position i May by innate cognitive difference b Unique perspectives as transgendered person means Barres has seen this question from both sides In 000quot c His critique of Summers makes 3 points i Argues that discrimination and bias are important factors Argues that innate difference position is not supported by data Cherry picks the data to support hypothesis Argues that this is more than a free speech issue because it impacts university community Barres doesn t believe that men are more competitive and that s the reason men do better d Is it fair of Barres to characterize the innate difference view as the Larry Summers hypothesis i Innate difference rooted in gendersexbiological or is it social construction Why does Ben Barres think he is particularly qualified to weigh in on this debate c He is a female to male transgender Is it fair to characterize the innate difference view as the Larry Summers hypothesis o Innate difference biological difference 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Two I What do we mean by the gender gap a Difference between earnings of men and women II But need to differentiate between raw and unexplained gap a Raw all men and all women III What explains gap a Human capital i Education ii Work experience iii Occupational segregation iv Race v Gender discrimination IVBlau and Kahn The Gender Pay Gap a Examining raw wage gap of about 229 in 1998 Try to control for measurable factors to determine how much of the gap can be accounted for by observable differences between women and men 39 Controlling for race and human capital education plus potential experience reduces wage gap to 183 Using a different data set with better measure fexperience unexplained gap is reduced from 203 to 89 Is unexplained gap discrimination Can discrimination also influence other factors 1 2 data entry level jobs man got pushed up 2 Wage gap is now job but could man have been brought up because he was male Yes iv Discuss experiments that point towards persistence of gender discrimination in labor market 1 Wait staff hiring in high end Philly restaurants more males 2 Blind symphony auditions more women gotjobs What explains decline in gap over time i Human capital increased experience during the 1980s increased educational attainment in 1990s ii Increasing occupational attainment more women in professional and managerial occupations D39 n iii Loss of male income due to decline of relatively wellpaying manufacturing jobs iv Changing labor market demand more service and clerical jobs d Conclude by noting that at least some of the remaining gap is surely tied to gender division of labor in the home What is the difference between the raw wage gap and the unexplained wage gap o Raw includes all men and all women o Unexplained What are some of the factors you would want to control for to explain the raw wage gap According to Blau and Khan how big is the gender wage gap today How does that compare to the 1970s o Today 0 19705 What factorscharacteristics explained a substantial portion of the gap between women and men in the 1970s but almost none of the current difference in earnings 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Three Quiz 1 Lisa Belkin s article Opt Out Revolution open in a book club meeting in someone s living room 2 In the NYT article Many women at elite colleges set career paths to motherhood Lousie Story discusses a survey that was conducted of undergraduate students at what university YALE 3 In the article the Rhetoric and Reality of Opting Out Pamela Stone argues that the biological pull of motherhood is the major factor explaining why professional women are choosing to leave highpowered careers TRUE 4 Just over half of the women interviewed for the Lisa Belkin and Lousie Story articles married men who were less educated less ambitious and less professionally successful than themselves FALSE I The Opt Out Revolution a Belkin s argument i How does she describe the opt out revolution Women have chosen not to have equality with males at the higher end Equality at the begging ie college grad school Careers 510 years out either part time or not at all Once they become mothers things change MBA females take longer ii Who is affected Duel earning couples with similarjobsstatus Elite degrees from elite schools Mostly white High status women Exclusively married iii What kind of evidence does she present to support her claim that it is happening Sample of mothers who have opted out largely Princeton alumnae a When they were there in the early 70s felt bad hard choice b When they were there in the early 90s felt fine seemed ok Data about FLFP of professional women eg survey of female Harvard Business School grads showed 38 working fulltime b Why is this happening i Motherhood pull Want to be mothers no one can do it better than a mother childcareehhh ii Workplace push Work doesn t permit women to be a mother potential punishment at work to be a mother c What does it mean i Indication of stalled feminism ii Change in women s priorities II The optout revolution as sociological phenomenon a What revolution i Are Belkin s women typical No married men have enough money so women don t need to work ii Stone points out that even among that demographic white college educated women 3054 years old 86 are working compared to 82 20 years b Why is it happening i Pull factors Maternal pull Ideology of intensive mothering Hays a Hayes motherhood has changed over time ie how they take care of kids i Colonial times childhood was short because they needed to work ii Now need lots of attention dedication from mother time energy resources love attention from mothers 9 Intensive mothering Rise of concerted cultivation Lareau activities and academics a Lareau kids need specific cultivation academicactivities to hold attention get the parents involved kids success is based on mother being home ii Push factors Workplaces that refuse to accommodate parttime flexible schedules All or nothing mentality produces high penalties for working moms who try to balance work and family Hands off husbands limit choices c Rhetoric of choice versus reality of constraint III Are female college students planning to opt out a In NYT article Louise Story reported that 60 of female undergrads at Yale that were surveyed planned to opt out for some time after having children N138 freshman Methodological criticisms i How were students chosen Students were sent an email to residential colleges dorms ii How was survey administered Email worst possible method Do it if you re interested or you know the creator Length Don t know the nonresponse What was nonresponse rate Sent 500 out received 138 Look at characteristics of both iv Flaws in survey instrument leading questions Leading questions Question is biased v Follow up survey at Yale survey produced strikingly different findings Larger sample N469 D39 Found that only 41 of women plan to exit the labor market permanently after having children and 718 planned to take less than one year off work versus original survey finding that 30 of women surveyed expected to take a few years off How does Lisa Belkin define the opt out revolution Does the NY Times article by Louise Story support the idea of an opt out revolution Why or why not In Stone s view does rhetoric and reality differ when it comes to opting out In her contexts article Pamela Stone argues the popular media depiction of a return to traditionalism is wrong and misleading p 19 What is wrong in her view Is it fair to characterize Lisa Belkin s opt out revolution piece as depicting that view What does Stone mean by the choice gap 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Four I Global population growth and fertility a In 2000 global population at around 6 billion people up from approx 3 billion in 1970 by end of century estimated to be 910 billion Most of that growth will be in developing countries 8488 Differential fertility and population growth rates across the world highest Niger with a rate of 719 lowest Taiwan with a rate of 91 i Why does fertility decline GDP per capitaeconomic developmentgrowth Biggest level of female education a Control of reproductive choicefamily planning b Education greater control ii Fertility still highest in developing countries especially is sub Saharan Africa and Middle East But has also decline dramatically in many developing countries during second half of 20th century Below replacement levels in 20 developing countries already by 2050 75 iii Highly uneven across developed countries d Highest fertility among OECD countries Mexico Turkey USA II Europe s own opt out revolution a Fertility in many European countries is below replacement rate b Demographers have coined term lowestlow 13 births or less c Bu varies with region i PostSoviet countries where declining population growth due in part to increased mortality after 1989 Germany and Austria high rates of childlessness But real differences in NorthSouth southern Europe Italy Spain Greece have lowest low rates Start paying women to have children If not having babiese immigration iv Northern European countries with higher fertility also France and UK fertility rate in Scandinavia is 18 What explains this divergence and especially the NorthSouth split 0039 D e i Correlation between percentage of women working and fertility rate N more work hours more kids Doesn t follow optout revolution Think it d be other way around N helps the workfamily relationship a Subsidies childcare ii What might explain this Significant public support to help women juggle work and family in Scandinavian counties Little state support and male breadwinner model may explain declining birth rates in more traditional societies Women are shouldering the burden more than men not worth it to have job and family also choose less kids so less of a burden iii Possibility that Europe is just leading edge of a global phenomenon Japan Thailand South Korea Italy highest ages of first time mothers 40 a Could contribute to only having one b Don t leave their parents house until later in life 305 c Hard to have kids at 40 Germany really hard to get yourjob back once you leave iv How to explain the US outlier with a birth rate of 206 Large migration flows Gendercultural norms Religion Actual flexible labor market Why should we care i Older population costs more money healthcare Economic drain when not enough people s money for what there is ii Small populations smaller number ofjobs not enough people to fill jobs If this happens immigration a Citizens Taxes Education Political tension b Basically all of Europe OR lower economic growth iii Nativist probirth policies among a population Ie native born Italians Europe Italy lowest of 13 o Below replacement rate o Population decline Scandinavian highest of 18 o Still below replacement rate o More likely to work outside the home Why such a difference between Europe o Increased education for females o Low fertility o N more for more public supportwelfare o Subsidized healthcarechildcare 0 Paid maternity leave 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Five I BlairLoy s Competing Devotions a Looks at unrepresentative sample of current and former female executives and professionals b Research design i Interviews with two groups careercommitted women N56 and familycommitted women N25 ii Trying to explain how these women understand the choices they have made between competing schemas of devotion II Key concepts schemas of devotion are institutionalized ways of understanding one s life and one s place in a larger social context they help individuals make choices within constraints and give those choices meaning a Devotion to work schema i Complete dedication to career ii Rewards are emotionalpsychological not just material iii Equated with acting male b Devotion to family schema i Based on traditional understanding of familial division of labor ii Negative example reaffirms choice despite some disconnected intensive mothers 1 If mother is working their kids have problems BlairLoy uses them to criticize the rational choice argument Becker that sexual division of labor reflects economic logic of utility maximization 1 Add extra leave to encourage families to experiment with gender equitable rolese Norway 2 Government shouldn t decide how to do this 3 Make their own decisions for themselves a Women who works just to pay for day caree not worth it Does author meet criteria she set for herself re neutrality with regard to content of each devotion My job as a social analyst is not to declare that one group is right and the other is wrong but to analyze how these cultural schemas and the institutions they de ne limit and shape women s choices and their evaluations of them p 10 Evidencedatainterviews Ethnography She provided the commentary What is the authors social location What are the implications of her sample s characteristics for understanding the workfamily balance debate Wealthy socioeconomic status White Married Highly educated Heterosexual Can schemas of devotion change How Yes competing devotionse something has changed A lot of these characteristics have changed gender division of labor Structure vs agency Sociologists find this group intriguing because of their choices less constraints more choices How does sexual orientation affect decision Structure bigger than a person or individual context ex Labor market gender norms has LT consequences Agencye choice abilitypower to make a decision 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Six Quiz 1 In her article Masculinity Whiteness and the New Economy Lois Weis calls the northeast rust belt town where her research subject live as FREEWAY 2 When they were first interviewed by Weis John and Clint has very different views about gender roles especially what it means to be masculine TRUE 3 The major factor explaining why John has become a settled liver and Clint has not is because John was able to get a college degree and find a white collarjob in the legal profession FALSE 4 Although he has an MBA form Harvard Jeff Einstein the focus of Mahler s article was working at WalMart when Maher s article was written FALSE I Thinking about masculinity as a gender a How do we understand the social construction of masculinity b What are the downsides to masculinity II The four tenets of masculinity studies according to Weis a Masculine identities are historically and culturally situated b Multiple masculinities exist c There are dominant hegemonic and subordinate forms of masculinities Connell s theory of hegemonic masculinity d Masculinities are actively constructed in social settings i Something that is done all the time ii Women do it by appearance conversationally unassertive iii Even if its subtle men still do it III Weis s research design a Comparing the work and family lives of 30 year old men including their views of gender to the expectations and views they had when they were in high school What is the setting of this study i Freeway is a working class town and former manufacturing center that has been hard hit by deindustrialization ii men still worked and provided for family this is what affected them growing up D39 c Weis s research question is how have men adapted to economic restructuring which creates a disconnect between the model of masculinity they were raised with and their own lives IV Main Findings a How do these men s experiencesfamilies differ from those of their father s i New working class jobs ii More insecure lowerpaid work puts breadwinner model out of reach b Use examples of two subjects to demonstrate the different ways in which men of the same background have responded to these changes i Clint hard liver 1 Lives with parents and girlfriend 2 No steady employment 3 No kids 4 Back injury ii John settled liver Preoperation prep Some schoolingskills Married Wife and 2 kids Both help with childcare 6 Both in healthcare sector c Main argument although all men recognized that the old model of workingclass masculinity no longer applies not all are able to embrace to new and different ways of being men V Mahler Masculinity identify and the white collar unemployed a Mahler looking at new phenomenon relative to the decline of manufacturing employment discussed in Weis article b Breadwinner model of masculinity extends across SES VI The Mancessions in 2000s a Definition of recession a period of general economic decline or contraction lasting more than a few months a decline in GDP for two or more consecutives quarters in the standard definition used by most economists U39lPLAJNH b Two recessions since early 20005 i the dotcom recession Q2 of 2001 to Q1 of 2002 ii the great recession Q2 of 2007 to Q3 of 2009 1 70 of lostjobs held by men c Both defined as mancessions because men disproportionately affected 27 gap in unemployment rate in 2009 highest recorded since 1948 39 Result is narrowing of male and female labor force participation But men have been major beneficiaries of declining unemployment during recovery During 2010 men gained more than 1 million jobs while women gained 149000 1 Must be actively looking for work 2 WWII was the entry for women 1 Weis argues that it is in the movement off the space of white working class hegemonic masculinity that masculinity which emerged in relation to the old industrial economy that now encourages this stability for the stable livers What does she mean by the movement off the space of working class hegemonic masculinity 2 Lois Weis d article is called masculinity whiteness and the new economy an exploration of privilege and loss Why do you think there is a reference to whiteness in the title given that race is not a theme discussed in the article 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Seven Quiz 1 Hannah Rosin begins her article discussing the biologist Ronald Ericsson who in the 1970s came up with a way to separate carrying maleproducing Y chromosome from those carrying the X Twenty years later which sex are prospective parents using fertility clinics more likely to prefer FEMALE 2 Which Lady Gaga music video does Rosin describe to suggest women s new sense of power TELEPHONE 3 Rosin describes a class on fathering in which the vast majority of attendees lost their highpaying jobs in the computer and software industries due to the economic recession FALSE I The End of Men a Article in the Atlantic magazine opens with the story of biologist Ronald Ericsson i How is his method for sex selection being used by fertility clinics today 1 Method produced more males 2 Changing role in society ii What does this suggest 1 Changes in roles 2 Want female to have better life than grandmother more possibilities b Article also discusses possibilities that postindustrial economy more favorable to women 39 Echoes Weis on the impact that economic restructuring has had on men 34 of 8 million jobs lost in recent recession held by men Women comprise majority of workforce for first time in American history Women also hold just over half 514 of managerial positions 26 19080 Changing balance of power between men and women in workplace connected to changes in family 0 In 1970 working wives contributed less than 5 of household income today is it 42 Declining status of men linked to more femaleheaded households 40 of births in US to unmarried parents 1 Able to do it now because they can support on their own 2 Men aren t making a contribution d Predicts these trends will continue based on educational trends i Women earning almost 60 of bachelor degrees i39 Concern about gender balance of college classes led to preferences for male applicants at liberal arts colleges Women interviewed for story plan to be working fulltime careers compare w Story No opt out revolution here II Are men really over a Is data cherry picked i Majority of managers are women but at what level ii Some fields eg politics finance remain mostly male preserve b If these trends are significant how pervasive are they Is this a US phenomenon i Article suggests that economic development in places like South Korea are eroding male privilege and parental preferences for males Gender development index suggests significant variation among countries in status of women clear but not perfect correlation iii Sex selection is there sill a preference for males 1 Normal sex ratio is about 102105 boys per 100 girls 2 But in many countries ratios are far from this ratio suggesting purposive efforts to increase male decrease female births Sen s 100 million missing girls 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Eight I Introduction to Globalization a What is it b Is it good or bad For whom c For our purposes globalization refers to the interconnectedness of national economies and the rise of the global assembly line i What does this mean for developed countries ii What does this mean for developing countries iii What does this have to do with gender II Focus on Mexico s maquiladoras a Maquiladoras as prime example of global assembly line b History of maquiladora program i From Bracero to creation of BIP in 1964 ii Debt crisis in 19805 promote expansion of maquiladoras iii Since NAFFA changes in geographic and gender profile III For we are sold I and my people a First English language book on maquiladoras b Asks question why women i Nimble fingers ii Docile labor less inclination for military unions iii Myth of male breadwinner justifies lower wages c Affects of maquiladora employment exploitation or liberation What is the main argument of Paul Krugman s article about sweatshops in developing countries After reading the chapter from FernandezKelly s book would you say that she most agrees or disagrees with Krugman How did FernandezKelly get the data that she presents in the chapter that you read inside the maquiladora What are the advantages and drawbacks of this method 2252012 45200 PM Lecture Nine Quiz 1 Paul Krugman opens his article In Praise of Cheap Labor by describing scavengers in a garbage dump in which country PHILIPPINES 2 Which statement would you say best describes Paul Krugman s argument about exportprocessing jobs in developing countries These sweatshop jobs often represent the best employment opportunity available in poor countries and they help fuel development 3 The rash of murders Livingston describes in her article about Gender Sexual Violence and the Global Assembly Line have occurred in a Mexican city that is across the border from which American city EL PASO I Cuidad Juarez Today a Since 1993 somewhere between 350 an 1000 women and girls age bt 1222 have been killed in Juarez Overall murder rate has skyrocketed In 2010 there were 3111 murders which makes Juarez the deadliest city in the world In February 2011 the city was averaging 8 murdersday in a city approx the size of Phoenix c Juarez the oldest and largest center of maquiladoras in Mexico II Murder in Juarez by Livingston a Profile of victims many were working or had been employed in maquiladoras Attitude towards victims and handling of crimes i How have the authorities in Mexico responded to the violence against women 1 Contaminating the site 2 Don t really care Link to the maquiladoras i Resentment of US power ii Resentment of women associated with foreign companies iii Anger about the displacement of men as breadwinners Assessment of maquiladoras D39 Pquot n D