Sex, Gender, and Society 1
Sex, Gender, and Society 1 SOCY 1016
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EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS Lecture Know the assumptions of essentialism and constructionism Essentialism 1 Social phenomena are natural and universal 2 True form exists in nature 3 Social phenomena are biologically determined Constructionism 1 Social phenomena are unstable 2 Variation is normal in nature 3 Experiences are socially determineddefined Know dates when events occurred and terms emerged Know terms and statistics Zip Coon a bafoon failure to adapt to freedom Sam Bou happy there is nothing wrong with slavery Mammy nonsexual she would become a sexual threat otherwise she is strong asexual controlling of males black people can t make it on their own Broots let loose their innovations broot wouldn t have helped slavery because it showed that they wanted to be free but now blacks are an offense to civilization They need to be controlled What does hegemony mean Idealized form of something What does hegemonic masculinity look like Hegemonic masculinity is the perfect man They are strong and controlling What does hegemonic femininity look like Femininity is ideal when the woman is beautiful quiet subordinate protected and weak What is meant by subordinate and marginalized masculinity Subordinate this is the process of men making a hierarchy among themselves This means that men of color and men of homosexuality have less hegemonic masculinity and therefore deserve less prestige Marginalized masculinity has changed overtime but disagrees with the idea that it has created a new masculinity Masculinity has changed we label masculinity types that are not hegemonic emo SNAG homosexual What does the hierarchy of masculinity look like At the top of the hierarchy are straight white men then homosexual men then men of color and last is women What are the intemalextemal dimensions of the hierarchy of masculinity Internal hierarchy among men External negotiation of gender between men and women they still produce a gender hierarchy women subordination What does it mean to essentialist gender characteristics on the basis of race When we talk about minorities an individual s performance is judged based on their ethnicity upbringing EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS How many women make up active duty personnel 14 How many LGB make up active duty personnel 9 Know history including dates of LGB in the service and Don t Ask Don t Tell 1953 Eisenhower did executive ban from gays serving in military amp federal government President Clinton promised to overtum LGB personal while campaigning 1993 Clinton signs DADT legalizing the military s ban 19932009 over 13000 military servicemenwomen have been discharged under the ban Sep 20 2011 ban repealed Who areLeonard Matlovich and Keith Meinhold and what do phases do they represent in the history of LGB s in the service Matlovich sued military and won for discharging him for being gay he was honorably discharged as payment Meinhold sued military and won for discharging him for being gay he was reinstated Both have hegemonic masculinity Know DADT discharge rates and how much has been spent enforcing DADT Lesbians 48 of discharges and only 14 of on duty workers Minorities 45 of discharges and only 30 of on duty workers What gender inequalities eXist in health care and health research Women pay higher health insurance premiums even though they statistically have less health problems than men Women were limited in the eld of medical research because it was believed that their menstrual cycle would alter the ndings 1993 congress mandated that women be included in medical research but many elds refused including HIV CHD and Heart Disease What are the life expectancy predictions for babies born in 2010 know for different intersections of gender and race Average man 755 Average woman 808 White man 765 White woman 813 Black man 702 Black Woman 772 What is midwifery Health care providers who provide health care to women who are bearing children Know history including dates of childbirth and midwifery and how they have changed over time 1950 s nurse midwives were in several medical institutions and standardized education 1968 the American College of Nurse Midwives was founded 1982 the midwives alliances of North America was founded to provide support for all midwives 1990 s the differences between ACNM ampMana became less signi cant as midwives training became standardized Why and when did physicians start to play a role in childbirth What is meant by the professionalization of childbirth What are the structural factors behind this transformation of childbirth practices What role did midwives play during this shift EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS What is meant by the professionalization of midwifery What does midwifery look like today Why do the 1950 s represent the ideal family How does this image re ectdiffer from reality The idealized image is that they were really happy and that the male is the breadwinner and the woman is the housekeeper Reality is that most women work because they needed the money What changes in the structure of the family and the societal role of women took place starting in the 1960 s Divorce went up Increased rates of cohabitation Fewer children Change in women s roles Know family composition statistics from the 2000 s 2000 24 of households were married 1960 45 of households were married What are the current trends and explanations for who tends to hold the most decision making power in a household The person who makes the most money tends to have more decision making power within the relationship this is usually the man but not always Why is housework not viewed as real work You don t make money No fixed hours No vacation Within the private sphere Repetitive and never ends Intertwined with love and care What is meant by the second shift The second shift is the process that made women go into the workforce in response to the war and that the men weren t around but life needed to Know the four strategies most commonly used by men in order to avoid doing housework What is meant by substitute offerings This is when the man offers to do other things around the house that are beneficial but do not consist of doing women s wor Know the historic diversity of the Supreme Court What are the gender inequalities in terms of paid work How much do women make compared to men How are professions segregated by gender Women make 70 to every 1 that men make Women are in industries that are associated with nurturing and caring What is meant by vulnerable employment What role does paid work play in forming men s identities and sense of self EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS The man believes that they should be the man and be the one in the family who brings home the bacon they believe that the more money that they bring in the more of a hegemonic man they are What role does paid work play in forming women s identities and sense of self As a woman who works they have a higher statistic rate of feeling depressed and that they are letting their family down A woman worth comes from the happiness of the family and therefor when they work they are creating disconnect between what needs to be done and what they want to be doing for the family What is meant by the glass ceiling and glass escalator Glass ceiling this is the invisible barricades that keep women from advancing in male dominated industries Glass escalator this is the process of fast advancement at specialized treatment that forces men to advance in women dominated industries Ethnic Notions Film What are the cultural stereotypes of African Americans in the US Preabolition Sam Bou Happy creating the image that blacks were happy to be enslaved Mammy nonsexual she is strong she loves the white children she watches and she is controlling of men Postabolition Zip coon a bafoon the black person s failure to adapt to freedom Broots let loose their innobitions showed that abolition needed to be taken away because the blacks needed to be controlled When did they begin 1820 s What purpose did they serve Preabolition these images were used to validity slavery they portrayed the image that this is what the blacks wanted and that the blacks are happy Postabolition these images were used to try and convince people to go back to slavery because the blacks couldn t control themselves that they were unhappy and animalistic beneath white civilization That blacks couldn t handle being free How did they mold and mirror racial tensions The notions that Blacks were ugly and animalistic created the racial tension that blacks needed to be controlled and tamed They also were reestablished in popular imagery How did they maintain the racial hierarchy The view that Blacks are nothing but ugly savage animals inherently placed them at a lower level than whites because they were seen as animals What is the origin of the minstrel show 1830 s 7 1840 s it was the core of the rise of the lens through which American s saw Black America Falsely showing happy slaves while making fun of them Blackface Thomas Dartmouth Rice Jump Jim s Crow What is blackface EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS This is where either a Black or a White performer puts soot on their faces to become black and then use other makeup to emphasize and poke fun of the looks of a black person They would then perform as a Black Character usually drastically outrageous and silly or dumb Who was Bert Williams He was the first famous Black blackface performer He had to learn to speak like a stereotypical black man He made good money but still could not go to a restaurant without being escorted by a white coworker who would take responsibility for the savage black man He could not buy a drink at the bar down the street He was sad about having to be involved in the construction of the negative black stereotypes What is meant that whites could release themselves in blackface This means that the controlled white man could dance sing and show emotion which are all contradictory to the expectations of a white man within society How do comical notions of African Americans become destructive When people continually see African Americans certain ways even as a joke eventually you will start to believe that they are truly like that It also causes youthful Americans to believe that stereotypes are not only acceptable but also comical How did the Civil Rights Movement bring the contradictions of race to a head How are the old images altered for today and used differently How is the creation of theater jobs for African Americans a Catch 22 for African Americans Ch 16 Arab American Femininities What does the author mean by Arab cultural reauthenticity When they move to different countries it is a personal choice to authenticate their culture What are the dualisms discussed in the chapter US culture vs Arab culture American Whore vs Arab virgin Christian Arab vs Muslim Arab What is meant by an insideroutsider status They live here but they are not fully integrated into the American culture What characteristicsbehaviors are captured by the idea of AmericanU S nationalist femininity What characteristicsbehaviors are captured by the idea of Arab femininity Do these femininities intersect in their lived experience and if so how What is the heterosexual imperative Hottentot 2000 What does the butt represent in the US The butt represents her race her sexuality and her primitive nature This is our way of talking about how she is of a different ethnicity or part of the other group How does this view of the butt differ from other cultures Other cultures view the butt as a good thing They view the butt as we view breasts in the United States They believe that the butt is a visual representation of a healthy young sexually fertile woman Why is J Lo s butt in particular the subject of fascination and discourse EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS In particular J Lo is one of very few people in popular culture of her ethnicity She is of more discourse because we see her as a sexual being and also within the norms of our culture and the expectations that go along with that Who is Venus Hottentot Why is her story relevant Venus Hottentot was a woman in the 1800 s whose body consisted of extreme body proportions She had extremely wide hips and butt area and was displayed in a cage for years for the amusement and viewing pleasure of the in public for a small fee Why is celebrating the butt problematic in US culture Celebrating the butt in our culture has a connotation of being a sexual deviant so celebrating this is just like celebrating being a sexual deviant What is meant by discipline in terms of the butt Discipline and the butt are referring to the act of making ones butt smaller and more manageable or less sexual This is what J Lo has been doing over the years She still has a large rear but she has managed to make it less large and more disciplined Damaged Goods What is meant by a sexual sense of self The sexual self is referring to the conception and understand one has of their own sexual behavior body health and actions speci cally wellbeing memories and knowledge What role does sexual health play in the construction of a sexual self A person s sexual health is a key player in the understanding of the sexual self The way that you perceive the health of your body is going to change the way in which you perceive your entire being How do treatable and curable STIs differ in terms of stigma and stigma management Because the STT s are treatable the number of steps in the process significantly decrease The number of steps changes from ve to three stepsYou have less stigma because your perception of your sexual self will go back to normal when the STI is removed You can say that it was a aw or mistake and was not part of who you are What is meant by a spoiled identity or damaged goods What does passing and covering look like in terms of an STI What does stigma transference look like in terms of an STI What was a common consequence of stigma transference for the women in the study What does preventative and therapeutic disclosure look like in terms of an STI Ch 30 The Third Sex Asian American Men in Popular Culture How did the social landscape of the West change in the 19th Century What is meant by the terms homosocial and Cult of Domesticity What is captured by the idea of True Womanhood Why were the Chinese immigrants portrayed as a third sex Why were Chinese immigrants seen as threatening What do the short stories of Aw Wee and Poor Ah Toy reveal about the intersections of gender sexuality race class and nation both in the 19111 Century and today EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS Climbing the Hierarchy of Masculinity What does the overall hierarchy of gender look like What does the hierarchy of masculinity look like What are the internalexternal dimensions of the hierarchy of masculinity What role do white women play in shaping the hierarchy of masculinity Why are white women viewed as the ideal of beauty and femininity by all of the men When does datingmarrying a white woman move Asian American men up the hierarchy of masculinity and when does it not What does hegemonic white masculinity look like What are the different techniques employed by the Asian American men in the study when confronting the societal ideal of hegemonic white masculinity The Glass Escalator Why are there so few women in male identi ed occupations Why are there so few men in female identified occupations What is the glass ceiling What is the glass escalator and why is it not called the glass stairway What are some examples of maleidentified occupations What are some examples of femaleidenti ed occupations What tends to be the experience of men in femaleidentified occupations both at work and outside of work How do female employees in femaleidentified occupations tend to feel about their male colleagues What are common stereotypes of men in femaleidentified occupations What is the role of the media in creating these stereotypes Division of Domestic Labor in Lesbigay Families How does domestic labor tend to be divided in lesbigay families What are the similaritiesdifferences between heterosexual and lesbigay families in terms of the division of household labor When does household labor tend to be more equitable in heterosexual and lesbigay families What role does paid labor play in determining the division of household labor Why do equity and fairness often get con ated in partners descriptions of their household s division of domestic labor Why is it particularly important for lesbigay families to see themselves and be seen by others as having an equitable division of household labor EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS America s Dirty Work What are the common experiences of women under domestic labor visas What are the common experiences of women under au pair visas What determines the distribution of domestic labor and au pair visas What structural level factors enable abusive environments for domestic laborers What individual level factors enable abusive environments for domestic laborers EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE FALL 2011 Class Material Know basic sociological terminology What are norms values ideologies strati cation and inequality Nonns Social standards of appropriate behavior Values Beliefs about why norms are good and appropriate Ideology Belief systems that justify or challenge particular social arrangements Strati cation The system for ranking societies members based on certain characteristics This in uences the distribution of resources and status Inequality There is tension between those with access to resources and those with limited access or denied access to resources and status Know Berger s techniques and agents of social control Violence or the threat of violence Political sanctions who do we allow to vote or hold office Economic sanctions creating a dependence from paying alimony females getting paid less Threat of ostracism Exclusion Ridicule and gossip making fun of one another Persuasion of intimates people who are important to us persuading us against going against the norm Internalization of norms Expected behavior becomes a part of who we are Agents of social control society as a whole keeps people from doing what we think ought not be done Know the assumptions of constructionism and essentialism Essentialism 1 Social phenomena are natural and universal 2 True form exists in nature 3 Social phenomena are biologically determined Constructionism 1 Social phenomena are unstable 2 Variation is normal in nature 3 Experiences are socially determined Know the history of gender and sexuality terms and differences between them How does the portrayal of sex as an act differ from the p01trayal of sex as an identity In Angels in America Roy Cohn explains why he is not dying of AIDS How can he say that he does not have AIDS but instead has liver cancer He has liver cancer because only Gay men have AIDS He is not gay which means he does not have AIDS He is in a position where he has the power to categorize his own sexuality This power is through money and being in the public eye What is Scripting Theory know the levels and their in uence 1 Culteral scenarios a Most over reaching b Structural features scripting how we are supposed to interact with one another 2 Interpersonal Script Those behaviors based on accepted norms of society Flexible Allows for personal interpretation Bring your own avor to the situation 3 Intrapsychic script a Those individual desires that re ect the values of a society b We have expectations of how we are supposed to act c Individual desires d More exible e What we want How does Scripting Theory relate to Berger s techniques of social control They are both theories that describe how society is in uencing the behaviors of the normal person What are the components of hegemonic masculine and feminine scripts 9 9quot Femininity Masculinity a Passive a Active b Object b Subject c Weak c Strength d Emotional d Rational e Provided for e Provider f Protected f Protector g Dependent g Autonomous What role does the body play in the embodiment of these scripts The body is not only a text of culture it is also a locus of social control Masculinity and Feinininity are seen through the body and on the body through body image and body usage What is implied about race class and sexuality in the US by using the term hegemonic When we talk about a hegemonic person within the United States we are talking about a person that is inherently unachievable The ideal person is somebody who is unreal White Privilege Male Privilege What does the denial or ignorance of privilege do for those who bene t from it What are the costs in ethical development for those who bene t from privilege The denial of privilege only keeps the privileged at an advantage The only way that society will demolish the privileges that are associated with being in an advantaged position is to understand that there are no true privileged states in a society that all people are equal What are McIntosh s definitions of and the distinctions between unearned advantage conferred dominance and entitlements How do they function to maintain privilege Uneamed Advantages Can look like strength when it is in fact permission to escape or to dominate Conferred Dominance Some of the conditions that privilege creates causes people to systematically overpower certain groups typically a group at a low Statas The negative types of advantages which unless rejected will always reinforce our present hierarchies and these hierarchies are the means for conferred dominance to exist So their relationship is intertwined What are some of the unseen advantages of being white of being male of being heterosexual of being able to attain education Which of McIntosh s listed privileges do you think are of the type that one would want for everyone in a just society and which do you think give license to be ignorant oblivious arrogant and destructive If we acknowledge this unearned advantage why must we give up the idea of our society being a meritocracy How may we be forced to reevaluate our own accomplishments We need to think about whether the privileges that our social groups are given was a factor in the accomplishments that you succeeded in If the privileges played a role in your accomplishments then you did not succeed on your own merit you succeeded through Aristocracy In The Beginning Nature Why are there no universal occurrences that provide any clear evidence of the nature of nature There are no universal occurrences that provide us with a clear nature of nature because different people experience nature differently This goes the same throughout time we do not see things now as we saw them 100 years ago or even 10 years ago This is due to what we see in nature in the world and in human bodies is very much caught up in questions of a social and political order that is in which we WANT to see What are some examples provided 1 The sun is either a ball of hydrogen or gods rst light 2 The big dipper v the great caribou How has the interpretation of the body changed over the years The interpretation has changes from the theory that a man s and a woman s genitalia were variations on an essential phallic theme but in the 18Lh century that concept morphed into the idea that their genitalia were complimentary antitheses or opposites When did the genitals re ect the modern notion of being complimentary opposites The 181 century Why does anyone challenging the privileged status of heterosexuality meet up with biological arguments Why are these arguments faulty The biological arguments for heterosexuality are that because a woman and a man s genitalia are opposite they were created to be together to be used together These arguments are faulty because a person may choose to claim their own good and separate nature apart from the rest of creation I was born this way How do the stories we tell about the body in uence our ideas of destiny The stories that we tell about the body only reinforces the idea that people are inherently heterosexual because that is the way in which we were created This reinforcement only adds to the differences in perceptions about homosexuals and heterosexuals Rock Hudson s Body What are the author s main ideas and themes The main idea of this work is to point out that a heterosexual man will be claimed as clean and ideal whereas a homosexual man will be claimed as dirty and deviant Rock Hudson had to be married to reinforce the idea that he was not a closeted homosexual How is this article related to the masculine script The relationship between these two is that they both state that the ideal man is a great bodied heterosexual man and if you deviate from either of these concepts then you are no longer the hegemonic man What is meant by the starbodyantibody metaphor The starbody was meant to describe his heterosexual era body the body that people idealized and portrayed perfect masculinity The antibody was meant to describe his homosexual body39 the body of a homosexual man with AIDS How does this dichotomy continue throughout the article The article separates sexuality into two categories homosexuality and heterosexuality They further the dichotomy by sayng one is clean one is dirty one is ideal and the other is deviant What aspects of Rock s homosexuality were incorporated into the Hollywood image of his cllaracters and his manufactured heterosexuality and masculinity The fact that Rock was clean and well pampered this was attributed to his masculine and heterosexual behaviors but in reality they were associated with his homosexuality And why was this manufactured heterosexuality necessary in the context of compulsory heterosexuality He needed to be able to look heterosexual in order to be accepted into society He therefore pretended that he was a heterosexual in able to become the idealized man But once he came out as a homosexual the idealized portion of his labeling was taken away How was Rock Hudson constructed for public consumption especially female consumption through photography casting magazine alticles etc prior to being publicly diagnosed with AIDS and after the diagnosis Pre AIDS he was portrayed as clean larger than life and sexual Whereas post AIDS he was depicted as dirty small and no longer sexual Why does his secret sexual life matter so much to the media and ultimately to us His secret sexual life means something to us because we as society do not want to condone homosexual behavior so we need to know that he is a homosexual so that we wont idealize him Why was it necessary to reconstruct Rock s bodyimage after his homosexuality was publicly announced separate from his AIDS diagnosis It was important to reconstruct his image after his AIDS was discovered because we didn t want to idealize homosexuality How is his secret sexual life used to explain his new image His new sexual life is used to explain his AIDS and therefore his new image We depicted him as a dirty homosexual Dueling Dualisms What does it mean to say gender is biological This assumption means that biologists need to actually determine what biological assets make your gender In the case in the chapter they say that there really is no way to speci cally determine what make your biological gender The problem with this assumption is the impossible role of determining what dictates a person s gender What does it mean to say gender is socially constructed A socially constructed gender is nothing more than the categories that society creates to place people into gender Categories these categories enable us as human beings to create hierarchy within society giving some people privilege Only our beliefs about gender 7 not science 7 can de ne our sex How do doctors traditionally determine sex gender Sex Gender is usually determined by the physical genitalia that someone is born with If a person is born with ambiguous genitalia then the doctors will determine the True sex based on either chromosomes or hormone levels Choosing which criteria to use in determining sex and choosing to make the determination at all are social decisions for which scientists can offer no absolute guidelines What are some problems with this detelmination This determination is done at such an early stage that in the later years of life there may be confusion and or complications with the body gender relationship In the later years of a person born with ambiguous genitalia they are more than likely to have to go through hormone level imbalances Why give heterosexuality a history The need to give heterosexuality a history is to further verify its standing as the normative sexual orientation This further veri cation only solidi es the assumption that being homosexual is taboo What is the importance of the body in social constructionism Societies organize their social world through a perception of human bodies as male or female There is a fundamental split between nature and culture between our real bodies and their cultural interpretations Muddying the Waters How do most U S people understand bisexuality and what are the inlplications People believe that bisexuality is the bridge to determining whether they are Heterosexual or Homosexual They do not believe that bisexuality is a sexual orientation in itself What can the people of Sulawesi tell us about our gender binaries Sexual binaries They have 5 gender categories This tells us that our binary male Female binary system isn t enough This tells us that we are missing a group of people in our society Their sexual categories are congruent with their gender categories This also tells us that our current heterosexual or homosexual binary system isn t enough to effectively categorize the options available in nature and society How is gender de ned in Sulawesi Woman A female bodied heterosexual married a mother dresses modestly and appropriately Man A malebodied heterosexual married and afather A man is assertive aggressive and controlled They are categorized through looking at a baby s genitalia They are then placed into one of the many STRICT categories How have Western concepts of identity affected the Japanese Why Why are we more comfortable with transgendered people if they choose to be either man or woman not a mix of both or neither We are more comfortable with a chosen gender because as social beings we like to be able to know what actions will be deemed socially acceptable The only true what to do this is by placing people into their gender category We as people feel uncomfortable if we do not know What somebody is We feel the need to know what they are or we cannot get to the true social encounter What can this chapter tell us about transgendered people Non trans people Doing Gender How do the authors de ne gender Is this a social constructionist or essentialist argument How do you know Gender is an achieved status which is constructed through psychological cultural and social means This is a social constructionist view saying that the social environment that we live in is the reason that we are placed into certain categories According to the authors if we observe an individual doing gender or doing gender incorrectly how do we interpret herhis actions Why You do gender no matter if you are doing it wrong We are always at a risk being assessed by your gender Being assigned a gender in that situation Questioning your gender What lessons do the authors draw from Agnes s experiences What does this tell us about appropriately gendered individuals The authors learned that even though a person may look like one gender their mannerisms will determine what people categorize them as A person will be judged not solely by their looks but also on the way that they behave in social situations Agnes had to act in an extreme manner to counter act the fact that she despite her transfomiation surgery looked masculine On page 48 the authors39 state Women can be seen as unfeminine but that does not make them unfemale What does this quote mean What does it tell us about the achievement of gender versus sex categorization Women can be unfeminine but still be a female Just because we are not acting out on the societal expectations can t change the fact that our genitals have changed Your genitals and your social behaviors should coincide There is a difference between sex and sex categories How might gender performances vary based 011 social situations There are some situations in which a woman or a man need to be perceived as biggersmaller strongerweaker or experience The reason for this is because normal distributions of pairings are needed to these altered perceptions What is gender assessment and why is this concept important for the authors Is gender performance avoidable Why or why not It is central to all of our interactions We are all actors on stage in order to make others comfortable Ease of interaction Unavoidable Heterosexual Questionnaire What is the point of this article The point was to demonstrate how ridiculous questioning a heterosexual about their sexuality was because it is considered the norm Whereas when we encounter a homosexual these are questions that are normally asked of them What does this tell us about privilege The privileges that are associated with being a heterosexual are usually unnoticed These privileges are usually things like not being asked about your sex habits It also is being assumed to being your normative sexual orientation This means that being a heterosexual is considered above being a homosexual Have you ever thought about some of these questions before Why or why not I have never really thought about these questions before and the reason behind that is because it is the normal way of being Privileges Held by Non Trans People Know some of these privileges Where do these privileges come from These privileges come from the hierarchy placed on race categories Some categories are believed to be better than other races These beliefs are created through the systematic ways in which society views race Have you ever thought about this beforeWhy or why not I have never thought about the privileges that are associated with being Caucasian The reason that I have never thought about it because we are trained to see other peoples disadvantages but not to see our own advantages We believe that the solution is to rise them up to our level of privilege but that is impossible because if that were to happen there would no longer be a privileged state Keeping Sex in Bounds Why is the construction of race and gender identity central to our understanding of human identity How do we react when we encounter someone who does not t easily into our categories of race and gender They are not fully human Who someone is is wrapped up in their race gender and sexuality We can t move forward until we have the information because it is essential for us to know this before we can understand them It is central to who they are Historically how has the maintenance of race gender and sexual boundaries been essential to the reproduction of racial inequality Think about the author s example of interracial sexuality What does the author mean when she says inequality produces difference People are unsure of how to act We don t have natural biological differences to priviligde some over others we have to create these categories The differences are made in society We came up with the reasons that cause inequality How do borders and boundaries help to create seemingly coherent and stable identity categories Boundaries separate categories from one another They coconstruct one another You need to have one in order to understand what the other is This creates no room for other What characterizes an intersectional approach to social phenomena you are positioned based off of all the separate categories that you fit into You are going to experience your role differently than somebody else who is in the same category NOT sexracesexuality YES SEX RACE SEX UALI T YY ou cannot deal with categories individually Sexuality Heterosexuality and Gender Hierarchy In what ways do the categories of heterosexual and homosexual co construct each other How does the concept of boundaries play into this Why does the author argue that heterosexuality is NOT the same as heterosexual sexuality Heterosexuality is more than heterosexualsexuality It is more than just the act it is the social implications that go along with it What according to the author are some claims made about the subversive potential of dissident sexualities and gender transformations What is the difference between doing gender and heterosexuality differently and undoing gender and heterosexuality completely Which One s the Man What does the author mean when she says gender is policed through the deployment of stigmatized sexual identities We threaten people to stay within the norms of their gender by implicating them to name calling for example queer and lesbian They are accusations that force fearful people back into the limits of normal behavior What does the author mean by heteropolarity Heteropolarity is the differences that we make between men and women socially There is a man and a woman that we polarize The bodies of men are the opposite of the bodies of the women Who are some of the bad lesbians What are the ways that the challenge to the phallocentrism of lesbian sex is denied What is the purpose of revolutionary feminist detaching heterosexuality from genderedsexed bodies Does the author think this is effective What is the purpose of revolutionary feminist detaching lesbianism from desire and sexual activity Does the author think this is effective What were acceptable notions of lesbian sexuality based on for some feminist Why did some lesbians write off some feminism as another factor in lesbian oppression What are the differences between feminist and Queer theorists treatment of gender EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE FALL 2011 Lecture Know the assumptions of essentialism and constructionism Essentialism 1 Social phenomena are natural and universal 2 True form exists in nature 3 Social phenomena are biologically determined Constructionism 1 Social phenomena are unstable 2 Variation is normal in nature 3 Experiences are socially determineddefined Know dates when events occurred and terms emerged Wave 1 1848 1 women s meeting in NY 1878 1 proposal to congress for women s voting rights 1870 African American Men got right to vote 1890 Wyoming lst state to grant right to vote to women 1920 US grants women s right to vote 1928 England grants women s right to vote 1944 France grants women s right to vote Wave 2 1953 Simone de Beauvoir s l39The Second Sex 1963 Betty Friedan llThe Feminine Mystiquequot Other 1933 OED defines gender as sex 1989 OED defines gender as sex and emphasizes the cultural and social rather than simply biological aspects to sex 1949 Transsexual was first used by a German doctor named David Cauldwell 1976 Marital rape became legally enforceable What is the difference between organizing for women and feminism What is the rst wave of feminism The suffragist movement Started in 1848 Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton They wanted equal rights for women starting with the right to vote Susan specifically wanted the right for women to vote whereas Elizabeth wanted a broader Free Love movement to occur What are the 15 and 19 hAmendmen13 15m African American Men get the right to vote 19 Women get the right to vote Who were the activists associated with rst wave feminism Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton What is the second wave of feminism The reigniting of the feminist movement Liberal All people were granted basic human rights and these feminists wanted to remove barriers to competition for women and pursued their goals through legislation Radical woman should live woman centered lives and that gender served as a tool to distribute power Who were the activists associated with second wave feminism Simone de Beauvoir Betty Friedan What are the differences between the different philosophies of second wave feminism Radical women should live separate lives than men Liberal all beings have certain inherent rights and they were fighting for those rights through the use of legislation How are the criticisms of second wave feminism and who made them Friedan llThere are too many lesbians in the movement What is the Lavender Menace Fridan believed that because there were so many lesbians in the group that the stereotypes of quotmannishquot and quotmanhatingquot lesbians would provide an easy way to dismiss the movement What are the differences between sex gender and sexuality When did these distinctions occur These distinctions occurred 1980 s Sex the physical genitalia or other distinguishing attributes of a person Gender The societal meaning behind the sex and the behaviorisms of an individual Sexuality the erotic behaviors that one practices What are the five reasons that trans sexuality and sex change surgery became more visible when it did Changed understanding of sex Loosening of sexual morals Endocrinology New surgery techniques PPN Popular press increasing the visibility of these individuals 19 0 s Who was the first transsexual celebrity Christine Jorgenson 1952 Became the model that polices gender uidity Who were Lily and Agnes and what do they represent Lily 1930 s Ovarian graft She was a woman stuck in a man s body Had to construct herself as intersexed Agnus 1950 s Used synthetic estrogen She became more female She was a woman who had a penis What were the strategies people wanting sex change surgery used to get them They had to construct themselves as either intersexed or they were a manwoman trapped in a woman sman s body Either way they had to claim that something was wrong with them How did feminist de ne transsexuals Mocking women Reinscribing rigid gender roles Selfindulgent Manipulative OR Emblems of gender liberation Emblems of sexual liberation Revealing the flexibility of cultural and body concepts What have transsexuals done to sex gender and sexuality Give some examples They have created a new understanding of the fluidity of gender and sex Anjie Zapata Brandon Teena Gwen Araujo How does the changing definition of sex during the early 20th century contradict heteronormativity The idea that sex is now purely the physical aspect of a person s genitalia means that the heteronormativity is contradicted in the way that a person is able to be many things A person can be a butch woman or a femm man This has created the possibility for more people to be outside of the norm of perfection In the critique of Halberstam a politic of alliance is suggested what is this alliance based upon The different experiences experienced by different groups of transsexual people are what cause these alliances I suggested that the politic of alliance presented by Halberstam s critics is really about what The alliance is simply there because both or all of these groups have fear They band together because they are afraid of violence What are the statistics regarding women39s experiences of violence and men s experiences of violence 2445 of women are raped or are victims of attempted rape at some point in their lives 1 Cause of violence towards women is domestic 15 sec A woman is battered in the United States 13 of all women who are murdered are murdered by a husband or boyfriend 5 Of heterosexual battering victims are male 99 of rapists are men 75 of family violence is men 74 of disorderly conduct is men 88 of murder victims are killed by men Based on the statistics how are men and women39s experiences of violence different Women Women tend to be the victim of crimes They are the weaker species and they tend to be passive beings This inherently means that we are going to be victimized to establish dominance by the dominant gender Men men tend to be the attacker in most crimes and are rarely seen as the victim They tend to be the dominant and more aggressive gender so they use violence to convey the message of power Why is it important to study violence against women By studying violence against women we are able to educate women on ways in which they may be able to protect themselves from violence What are the shifting perceptions regarding masculine violence used to control women Why is it important to study masculinity and violence It is important to study masculine violence because we need to find ways in which minimize the amount of attacks on women by men Who does society typically talk to about preventing rape Women Who does society need to talk to about preventing rape What do they need to know Men They need to be talked to about ways to keep from attacking women Who is more likely to be a victim of violence Sexual violence Women Paris is Burning What are drag houses Families for people who don39t have families or don t have families that accept them for being gay or transsexual How did they evolve or what purpose do they serve The purpose that they serve is to allow the people of the gay community joy satisfaction and the ability to become anything that they want to be They want to be famous It is a small fame within the community because it is something that you have been craving from the beginning How do drag houses reimagine kinship They have house mothers who are there to guide and mentor the younger people in the gay community This is a way of creating a family because either they do not have a family or they have a family that does not accept them What impact does social inequality have on the drag ball culture Most of the people who are at these balls live in poverty They have two things going against them They are gay and most of them are black They are less likely to get the high paying jobs because they are black or because they are gay How are the drag balls a release from racism classism and homophobia They produce a white middle class heterosexual This allowed them to escape the restrictions that gays have in the world How does the quotmilitary categoryquot reproduce masculinity similarly to the drag kings in quotWalk Like a Manquot It is subtle and quiet They are strong tough and dominant It s all drag What versions of femininity and heterosexuality are being reproduced in the drag ballsWhat role does race play in the reproductions of the above versions of femininity and heterosexuality This is white America The women want to be wealthy white women because they believe that the white woman has no problems that they will be able to do anything How do the drag balls featured in the lm denaturalize heterosexuality separate it from nature The drags bring a norm of homosexuality How do the drag queens and transsexuals in the film provide a critique of heteronormative gender How do the drag queens and transsexuals in the film reinforce heteronormative gender The heteronormative gender is reinforced in this film through the sense of sexual behavior and disease How does Venus Extravaganza39s life subvert norms of race gender and sexuality She has small features She is afraid of violence Doesn t hustle She wants to be a real woman and a model How does Venus Extravaganza39s death reinforce norms of race gender and sexuality She was killed in a sketchy hotel Probably an act of violence because she still had a penis She was also a woman of color She was murdered because she was a hustler Ch 14 Whose Body is this Anyway Why do we place such an emphasis on genitals as essential markers for quotrealquot manhood or womanhood We live in an essentialist society As a whole we believe that people have to be categorized either male or female and that the proper way to categorize these people is by looking at their physical body Hormone levels genitalia and chromosomes Why do we place such an emphasis on an individual s sex matching their gender When dealing with somebody whose gender does not match their sex we don t know how to act around them and we don t know how to categorize them And because we are an essentialist society we place a high priority on binary categories From whom did Hale feel pressure to have surgery Hale had pressure from her doctors to have surgery Ch 17 Walk like a Man How is drag con ated with notions of transsexuality Doing gender differently is protesting the binary Being a transsexual is also protesting the binary Why does Koenig argue that drag queens are more visible than drag kings Drag queens are watched more Men are unnoticed Kinging is more submissive than queening How is a drag queen39s performance different from that of a drag king A queens performance is more extravagant and noticeable According to Koenig whose performance is more subversive drag kings or drag queens Why Drag Kings they are more troubling The speculators are put on the offensive What are the differences between Butler s and Halberstam s theoretical positions on gender Butler s It s all drag we are all performing all the time Halberstam s gender is always shifting and moving Why does Koenig conclude quotI think it s safe to assume that there will be no unifying theoryquot The two main theories on gender are so different that there is never going to be a consensus According to lecture what aspect ofthese different theories are unifying Gender is not a binary Gender is according to each person Ch 18 390 Au No Keia Voices from Hawai i39s Mahu and Transgender Communities What was the author s experience ofgender like throughout life He experienced life through that of a Mahu He was treated either as an outsider or as a critical part of his culture He experienced gender as both a man and a woman He was taught to defend himself but also to take care of the elderly How has the influence of western culture jeopardized mahu ritualism and practice With western society influences the Mahu has been converted into a deviant category They are being compared to the Americanized llgay They are no longer being treated with the respect that they were in the past but instead they are now being treated as a freak What are the differences between being mahu in the countryside and being mahu in the city City they are gay bad deviant a freak Country Accepted not faced with judgment possitive How does the concept of the Hawaiian mahu differ from mainland US gay and lesbian as well as transgender and transsexual identities The main difference is that the Mahu is safer in the country whereas the transsexual is safer in the city in the United States This is because the more traditional country areas in the United States are very radical whereas the cities are becoming more liberal and understanding Also there is more people in the cities so the transsexuals are able to group together and form families for protection Ch 22 The Egg and the Sperm How are the egg and sperm described in many science texts Egg Inferior Production is finished at birth Wasteful Large ampPassive Rescued Sperm Superior Production is constant Small amp aggressive Active Rescuer How has science quotgenderedquot male and female biology and the egg and sperm more speci cally The egg is feminine because it is passive it needs to be rescued The sperm is masculine because it is aggressive it does the active role of impregnating the egg What are the social consequences of this gendering of biology The social consequences are that the female is seen as less important in the reproductive process or at least in the impregnating process What has new research shown Have these new views of biology been embraced by science and society The new view is that the sperm does not have enough power to get through the wall of the egg and that the egg has to trap the sperm on its walls until the sperm can release its enzymes But the reasoning is still that the sperm is the active force that the egg must use trickery to hold in the power of the sperm Ch 23 Gender Shock What is the UCLA quotfeminine boy projectquot They took in children who were acting in gender deviant behavior at a young age and tried to fix them They placed them in therapy and retaught the children appropriate behavior with accordance to their gender What was the motivation for the project The thought was that a child who acted in inappropriate behavior as a child was likely to become gay The doctors were trying to fix the problem of being gay before the issue arouse What were the project s goals Were these goals achieved The goals were to get children who were acting in deviant behaviors to change behavior towards an appropriate behavior In most cases they were successful with their goals At least in the short run What techniques were used in the project They used aversion therapy and rewards and punishment How do these UCLA researchers reflect larger societal values and beliefs Their larger beliefs were that children needed to be taught how to behave at a young age in order to prevent adults from becoming gay and acting in inappropriate ways in the future They believed that being gay could be cured Ch 25 The Function of the Orgasm How has the western view of the function of the orgasm for men changed over time The view as a whole hasn t changed all that much over time The main thing that has changed is that we now know that a man does not need to have an orgasm to impregnate a woman although it does significantly increase the chances How has the western view of the function of the orgasm for women changed over time The view has changed drastically 1 Men and women both had to orgasm at the same time to conceive two seed theory 2 Orgasms were a health benefit and doctors would stimulate women if they had gone too long without having an orgasm They could suffer from hysteria 3 Orgasms now no longer have a health benefit or a benefit for conception In short a woman has no need for an orgasm How does societys view of the function of the orgasm correspond to gendered beliefs about men and women It strengthens the idea that woman are passive and inferior to men This is because a man has value in his orgasm but a woman does not How does societys view of the function of the orgasm correspond to the societal value ofthe orgasm Since the society does not believe that there is a purpose to the female orgasm it has become a taboo topic and is now handled as an inferior afterthought to the man s orgasm Why according to Blackledge is it important to understand society s view of the orgasm The understanding of the orgasm is a linkage to the understanding of a woman s sexual behaviors and the way in which a woman is treated because of those behaviors Ch 34 Rape and the War against Native Women Why are issues such as forced sterilization and medical experimentation often not discussed in US society or taught in history courses The reason is that we are still practicing some of these injustices The reason that we don t talk about it is because we do not want to admit that what we are doing now is wrong whereas we are okay with saying a different generation is wrong when it comes to something that is in the past How did the colonizers view Native Americans How is the legacy ofthese beliefs visible today The colonizers viewed the Native American s as dirty animals that were impure This is visible when looking at the living restrictions we have on them today Yes you may live but only in these areas Why did the colonizers target Native women in particular They believed that because the woman did not cover up and were seen as impure This impureness in their eyes was cause for the belief that if you are impure then you cannot be violated How have Native traditions been jeopardized by mainstream society The mainstream society has taken over the land and created an idea that anything worth having is westernized This means that the ideals and behaviors of the Native American are no longer valued According to the author is it possible for Native American women to heal from this personal and historical abuse lfso how They need to create a strong cultural and spiritual identity Ch 35 Rape and the Prison Code What is the code How has the quotcodequot changed over time Code The rules that the prisoners lived by It was the prisoners vs the guards Now dividing the prisoners They have to prove themselves among themselves 1 Masculine men 2 Service men 3 Punks weak fags 4 Snitches How do the guards use the code The guards use the code as a way of keeping order in the prison system They use it to maintain a low level of work on their behalf What are the structural elements of the quotcodequot 1 Masculine 2 Service men 3 Punks weak femm fags 4 Snitches How do characteristics of the prison system contribute to problems of rape and violence among inmates The lower you are on the hierarchy the more likely you are to be victimized Also you are more likely to victimize another in order to maintain your sense of masculinity How is the hierarchy ofthe prison system similar andor different from the social hierarchy on the outside Similar in the sense of victim rate increases as you get lower to the bottom Wealthy white men White men Wealthy men of color Men of color Gay men Women wwaWNH Women of color
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