MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY MCDB 4777
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Willis Mante on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MCDB 4777 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Kevin Jones in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/231837/mcdb-4777-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
MCDB 47775777 Exam 3 Review revised 0307 The Eye and Vision 17 What are the anatomical parts of the eye How does accommodation work How does this relate to myopia hyperopia and presbyopia 27 What is the developmental origin of the eye 37 What are the cell types of the eye and how do they relate to processing of visual information What is the relevance of the pigment epithelium 47 What is the mechanism of phototransduction How does amplification occur during phototransduction allowing single photon sensitivity 57 What is the relevance of rods cones and the fovea to vision 67 What are some common types of genetic defects underlying color blindness How do they relate to the arrangement of opsin genes 77 How do receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells vary and how does the circuitry work underlying these properties ie onicenter vs officenter and centerisurround properties How are horizontal cells relevant 87 What is the molecular basis of color vision How does this help explain color blindness and especially redigreen color blindness 97 What are the characteristics of onicenteroff surround and officenteronisurround retinal ganglion cells RGCs ie how do they respond to different types of stimuli What is the relevance of centerisurround to light adaptation 107 How do the RGC characteristics relate to the type of information relayed to the lateral geniculate nucleus LGN ie what sort of information is emphasized 117 What are the targets of RGC axons in the brain and the general functions of these target structures 127 What parts of the visual world are different parts of the retina the optic nerves and tracts the LGN and the visual cortex responsible for processing and how do deficits in these structures affect vision 137 What are the characteristics of orientationiselective cells 147 What is an ocular dominance column How are ocular dominance columns and orientation columns related in striate cortex 157 What are near cells and far cells and how are they thought to be important 167 What are the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways specialized for and how does this relate to the structure of the RGCs projecting to the magnocellular and parvocellular portions of the LGN What are the different processing streams in extrastriate visual cortical areas specialized for Hearing 1 What are the functions of the external and middle ear What are the ossicles and what do they do 2 What are the oval window round window basilar membrane tectorial membrane scala vestibuli scala tympani helicotrema and scala media and what are their functions in hearing 3 How do the properties of the basilar membrane relate to creation of a tonotopic map Which part of the cochleabasilar membrane is specialized for high frequency sound low 4 What are stereocilia and tip links 5 How are inner hair cells and outer hair cells important in hearing 6 How do the ionic properties of endolymph and perilymph relate to mechanoelectrical transduction by hair cells Trace the functions of different ions during mechanoelectrical transduction What is the significance of having some of the mechanosensitive chaImels open at rest 7 How are high frequency sounds localized in space Describe the circuitry of the LSO that allows this 8 How are low frequency sounds localized in space Describe how information from the two ears is processed by the circuitry innervating the M80 to achieve this How do the localization of high and low frequency sounds differ How are they similar 9 Trace the events from a sound pressure wave in the air to its perception in auditory cortex What types of response properties can be found for neurons in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus 10 What is meant by lltonotopic mapll in the auditory cortex Vestibular System 1 What are the components of the labyrinth What types of motions are they specialized to transduce 2 What are striola What is the significance of the orientation of hair cells in the otolith organs 3 What are otoconia Why are they important How does tilt or linear acceleration affect the otolith organs and corresponding axons of the vestibular nerve What happens in corresponding otolith organs on opposite sides of the head in response to a given tilt or acceleration Can you explain fig 136 What is the significance of the firing rate at rest of vestibular axons 4 What are the ampulla crista and cupula How are semicircular canals on opposite sides of the head related and how do their responses differ with a given angular acceleration What happens with a constant velocity rotation 5 What signals are sent by vestibular axons from semicircular canals in response to angular accelerations Can you explain fig 139 6 Can you explain the vestibuloiocular reflex as we did in class see fig 1310 7 What is the relevance of descending projections from the vestibular nuclei Ascending projections to the thalamus What other types of stimuli activate cortical neurons responsive to vestibular stimulation The Chemical Senses 1 Know the anatomy of the olfactory system and relevance of the structures to function see fig 141 2 How variable is the sense of smell in the population and how does it vary with age 3 Where are olfactory receptor neurons located and when are they generated during life What are new olfactory receptor neurons generated from What are sustenacular cells important for 4 What is the relevance of olfactory cilia 5 What type of molecules are odorant receptors and what signal transduction pathway do they regulate Approximately how many odorant receptor genes do you have 6 What are glomeruli Mitral cells How are olfactory receptor neuron projections to glomeruli organized 7 What are taste cells taste buds What cell type besides taste cells is prewsent in a taste bud Why are they important 8 What are the types of taste buds and where are they on the tongue 9 How does sensitivity to different tastes vary on the tongue 12 When are taste cells generated during life 13 Which cranial nerve ganglia are important in processing taste and what do their peripheral processes innervate their central processes 14 What are the receptors and the signal transduction pathway used by taste cells to detect different chemicals How did the rescue experiment in fig 1417 support the labeled line hypothesis 15 What is the trigeminal chemoreception system important for and what are the responses elicited by its stimulation 16 What cell type is responsible for trigeminal chemoreception Motor Control 1 What are the general functions of the different neural structures involved in movement control see Fig 151 2 What is a motor neuron pool Where are the motor neurons of a given pool located in the spinal cord 3 What is the somatotopic relationship between motor neurons and body muscles 4 What is a motor unit What is the likely significance of motor unit muscle fiber organization within a muscle 5 What are the muscle fiber types and what types of motions are they recruited for How does this relate to mitochondrial content Why does it make sense 6 How do muscle twitches and fused tetanus relate to action potentials of motor neurons 7 How are muscle spindles important in the stretch reflex Can you explain fig 15 9 8 What is the function of gamma motor neurons How does this relate to feedback during muscle contraction and to setting the gain of the stretch reflex 9 What is the function of Golgi tendon organs What types of re exes do they function in Can you explain fig 151 1 10 What aspect of muscle lengthtension do muscle spindles or Golgi tendon organs monitor 11 What type of sophisticated circuitry is present in the spinal cord see fig 1513 1514 11 What are some of the facts known regarding ALS MCDB 4777 Exam 2 review revised 207 Synaptic Transmission liHow do electrical and chemical synapses differ 27What are some features of both types of synapses that might make them advantageous in different situations 37What were the types of experimental evidence that led to the conclusion that synaptic transmission occurs through the fusion of presynaptic vesicles 47 What is an endplate potential What is a miniature end plate potential What features of miniature endplate potentials suggested that synaptic vesicle fusion releases neurotransmitter SiHow was the enzyme HRP useful in elucidating mechanisms of synaptic transmission 67What is the function of calcium in synaptic transmission 77Describe the sequence of events occurring during a synaptic transmission event 87 How is synaptotagmin thought to be important 97 What are two functions of syntaxin 107 What are visNAREs e g synaptobrevinVAMP and tSNAREs e g SNAP725 or syntaxin important for How have botulian and tetanus toxins contributed to defining their importance Neurotransmitters 17 What are the major classes of neurotransmitter and how are they synthesized in general 27 What was the critical observation made by Loewi when he discovered vagusstoff 37 What are the three criteria that define a neurotransmitter 47Under what conditions are neuropeptides and classical transmitters typically released 57 What are the enzymes responsible for synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine What are the cell types that we discussed that use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter 67 Where is glutamate a prevalent transmitter in the mammalian nervous system Why are glial cells important in the metabolism of glutamate 77 What type of transmitters are GABA and glycine Where do they function 87 Why would an inhibitor of an enzyme important in GABA degradation be useful for treating epilepsy 97 What are the two pathways important in removal of amine transmitters both of which are targeted by pharmaceuticals 107 What are the enzymes and order of their function in catecholamine biosynthesis 117 Why might taking LrDOPA be useful in treating Parkinsonis disease 127 Why might certain drugs used to treat mental illness schizophrenia in particular lead to Parkinsonis diseaseilike symptoms 137 Where are the major dopaminergic cell groups of the brain located 147 Where are the major noradrenergic neurons of the brain located What are they thought to be important for 157 What is the relevance of cocaine and amphetamine to dopamine and norepinephrine 167 Where are the major serotonergic cell groups of the brain located What are they thought to be important for What is the relevance of Prozac to serotonin 177 What is curious about the timing of the effect of drugs including Prozac and drugs targeting transporters 187 How can one gene give rise to many different neuropeptides 197 How is nitric oxide thought to act 207 What does the active ingredient of marijuana mimic How are the relevant molecules distinct from other transmitters we discussed Neurotransmitter Receptors 17 What are the two major classes of neurotransmitter receptors 27 How does single charmel behavior of acetylcholine receptors give rise to an endplate potential 37 Understand the concept of reversal potential for charmels permeable to single ions or to multiple ions 47 What is the relationship between reversal potential and whether a conductance is excitatory or inhibitory 57 What is the effect of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials on the probability of an action potential Are conductances that cause depolarization always excitatory Why or why not 67 What is meant by spatial summation of synaptic potentials temporal summation Where is summation llread outll to determine whether an action potential occurs 77 What is the overall structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Where does acetylcholine bind How do the acetylcholine receptors in muscle cells differ from those in most neurons What happens in myasthenia gravis Why does it make sense that treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors helps these patients 87 What are the two major types of ligandigated ion charmels responsive to glutamate What are their properties How do the unique properties of the NMDA receptor relate to its proposed role in longiterm changes of synapse strength as a result of a sustained string of action potentials 97 What is the nature of the receptors for GABA and glycine What do benzodiazepines and barbiturates do 107 What are the distinctive features of metabotropic receptors How do Giproteins work What are the pathways and mechanisms by which they can modulate neuronal activity How does the timescale of their action compare to that of ligandigated charmels Why should synapses often have both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors for the same neurotransmitters present 117 What are the energy sources used by neurotransmitter transporters Signal Transduction 17 Why does it make sense that neurons use multiple modes of signal transduction with very different timescales 27 What are the different basic mechanisms of receptors fig 71 73 74 37 What are the second messengers how are they generated and eliminated and how do they act Which steps in signaling pathways lead to amplification of a signal and which carmot 47 What are some different pathways regulated by Giproteins 57 How is kinase activity regulated 67 What is CREB How is its activity controlled How can it integrate inputs from multiple signaling pathways 77 Why might a single cell express both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors for a given transmitter e g glutamate Somatic Sensom System and Pain 17 Recognize the appearance of Pacinian corpuscles Meissneris corpuscles Ruffini endings Merkel disks free nerve endings and hair follicle receptors Know the types of sensations they cause Understand the distinctions between rapid and slow adaptation and the implications of these properties for the types of information a receptor can relay 27 Recognize and know the functions of muscle spindles muscle spindle afferents and golgi tendon organs 37 What is meant by twoipoint discrimination receptive field How do these properties vary among receptors in different locations on the body Why does this make sense 47 What is a dermatome 57 What is the path of somatic sensory information from sensory ending to somatosensory cortex in the lower body upper body and head and what are the neurons and nuclei involved in this pathway 67 What is meant by a somatotopic map 77 Why is it thought that painful stimuli are perceived by a separate class of neurons nociceptors as opposed to excessive excitation of other receptors 87 What are the types of pain mediated by nociceptors with axons having A6 fibers having C fibers 97 What is hyperalgesia and what are some molecular mechanisms thought to cause it 107 What is the path of 39 39 and ther rquot 39 f 39 from sensory ending to somatosensory cortex in the lower body upper body and head What are the neurons and nuclei involved in this pathway Identify similarities and differences between these pathways and those underlying mechanosensation How do the differences in the pathways relate to the consequences of spinal injury 117 What is meant by referred pain Why is understanding it useful What are some examples 127 What are the descending pathways underlying modulation of pain What is the relevance of opioids to these pathways Why is pain in the brain 137 How do capsaicin and menthol relate to sensation of temperature What are the charmels involved in detecting temperature
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