New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Critical Thinking in Biology

by: Madisen Robel

Critical Thinking in Biology EBIO 4800

Madisen Robel

GPA 3.99


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madisen Robel on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 4800 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/231858/ebio-4800-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.

Popular in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology


Reviews for Critical Thinking in Biology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/29/15
Review Questions Review Hint 2 In the West Indian landbird data on page 1 of the lecture outline the bestfitting power function has the constant C 88 and Z 0113 The West Indian Island of Grenada has an area of 120 square miles and support 17 species A What is the predicted number of species from the power function B Suppose half of the island s area disappears in a volcanic eruption From the power function how many species would you expect to remain Respond Plugging into the equation gives a S 88 120039113 15 which is close to the observed species richness of 17 species b When only half of the available area the predicted species is S 88 60O39113 14 So roughly 14 species should be present Review Hint 3 l The response relates to historical contingency Anolis lizards in the West Indies and Losos39 work with Anolis lizards 1 Historical contingency In part the theory states that the vagaries ie unpredictability of history events in a geologicalbiological context lead to the prediction that repeated instances of evolutionary diversi cation will lead to different outcomes even if sta1ting conditions are similar Thus history does not repeat itself In the context of Anolis lizards in the West Indies this can be interpreted that even though the starting conditions e g habitats and ecological conditions might be similar on the different islands ie Cuba Jamaica Puerto Rico and Hispaniola that the ancestral Anolis species on each island will diversity into different types of each islands Thus you might get a crown giant on one of the islands but it will probably not repeat itself on the other islands However Losos and coworkers found something different gt What Losos and workers found was exciting they found that history repeated itself that similar specialists eg crowngiant anoles on each island were not related to one another but were more closely related to other lizards on each island regardless of their ecological niche gtThus he found that adaptive radiation in similar environments on each of the islands can overcome historical contigencies to produce strikingly similar evolutionary outcomes e g crowngiant anoles on each island gtReview 8 What is meant by relaxation The decrease in species number on a continental island or a natural preserve to a number that can be sustained in the smaller habitat In the past a continental island eg Trinidad was connected to the mainland SA Since it was connected to the mainland the area that would become Trinidad had a higher number of species since the species present could readily dispersed into the surrounding habitats When Trinidad was created as a result of rising sea levels it was isolated from SA The species isolated in Trinidad included specialist and species of large size Through time the number of species decreased relaxation to species that could be sustained in the new habitat gtAlso 8 What is the SLOSS debate Among ecologists a debate developed around SLOSS single large versus several small reserves which was an attempt to answer the question of whether it was better to advocate single large or several small reserves of the the same overall area In the best possible world the larger the area the better as it can maintain species with large home ranges those species that are area sensitive and specialist If you are unable to maintain the largest area possible smaller areas in closer proximity to one are better than areas farther away Also areas that are connected with corridors are better than areas without corridors See Fig 97page 206 and related text in E reserve paper on Island theory and conservation for further elaboration gtReview 9 Question 2 Question If a community is fragmented species possessing what three characteristics are likely to go first Largest members of a trophic level eg mountain lions vs bobcats specialist species species with unpredictable resources and species with large home ranges gtLecture 9 It says that coadaptation and local adaptation cause gtoutbreeding depression Can you explain this Coadaptation or coadaptive gene complex results when a local population eg area a evolves a gene pool that are better adapte for the local environments hence local adaptation When populations of the same species either from different habitats or from a different geographic area from outside the local population are brought into area A it may reduce fitness the ability to leave offspring This is known as outbreeding depression as the reduction in fitness is the result of breeding with individuals from outside the area gt gt2 lecture 3 question 2 asks for a model of allopatric speciation but gtthe only model for allopatric speciation T have is t e one involving gtthe founder effect which is addressed in the next couple of questions gtwhat is the classical model you are looking for also what is the gtdefinition of allopatric speciation is it just speciation that occurs gtwhen a species is present alone The classical model of allopatric speciation is when a population becomes reproductively isolated from another population A scenario involves any kind of barrier that isolates a population into separate populations These may include tectonic activity change in the water course that may isolate a population The isolated populations may be exposed to different abiotic and biotic pressure and may develop reproductive isolating mechanisms eg different courtship displays or behavior that may prevent the populations from interbreeding if they are brought back into contact gt gt3 Are national parks habitat islands National parks usually have more than one habitat thus in the strict sense they may not be habitat islands However if the national park consists of one habitat eg cypress swamps it may be a habitat island gt gt4 On lecture 89 e reserve questions 12 asks whether extinction is gtdeterministic or stochastic Thomas argues in the paper on pg 203 gtthat it is deterministic but the paper never really makes it clear if gthis argument is correct So are extinctions deterministic or stochastic Extinctions may be either stochastic or deterministic depending on the circumstances gt gt5 Besides the Lesser Antilles what is another example of an island gtformed by subduction Many of the Indonesian islands those that were not connected to the mainland are example of subduction These include Krakatau and the Komodo Islands gt gt6 Honey creepers were derived from finches correct Yes it is gtthought that honeycreepers evolved from New World finches gt gt gton LO 3 6 what conditions allowed for the formation of the 13 gtspecies of Galapagos finches what exactly are you asking for An ancestral finch species probably from south America reached one of the Galapagos islands The availability of food resources and empty niches eg habitat allowed speciation adaptive radiation to occur from one ancestral species to several species 13 species The model for speciation is allopatric speciation In this model the finch species moved from one Galapagos island to the next with speciation occurring on the different islands gt7 for the 5 types of feeding habits do you want us to know the gtdifferent types of beaks and where can i find what the shapes are used for exactly You can look at the figure on pa e 3 The feeding habits are based on zones occupied eg ground finches and beak types For example three types of feeding habits include 1 large ground finch 2 medium ground finch and 3 the small ground finch All three species are found on the ground but feed on different seed size hence different feeding habits 4 The warbler finch is an insectivore and feeds primarily on insects from the trees The woodpecker finch acts like a woodpecker but in the case of the woodpecker finch in breaks off a thorn from a tree and it uses it to probe for insects in holes in the tree gtIO where is this oscillating trait info The oscillating trait gtinformation is on the E reserve paper Natural Selection and Darwin39s gtFinches The oscillating trait refers to the bill size through time as gtit was also shown in the video of the Fortis finch on Da he Island and gtit was discussed in lecture During rainy years when many small seeds gtare present on Daphe Island the smaller bill size in the fortis finch gtis selected However during dry years when only large seeds are gtpresent the larger bill size is selected Thus oscillation in bill gtsize occurs through the years gt15 I have 4 function of vocalization in frogs from the gthandout where can I get another one Four functions will be fine However orientation to the breeding site can be one function and 2formation of breeding aggregations can be the other gt3 5 factors responsible for successful colonization included gtlfavorable conditions abiotic 2 favorable biotic conditions gt3 dispersal ability and 4social facilitation You can add to this gtguestion and 7 below the presence of a propagule A propagule is gtthe minimal number necessary to establish a breeding population gt6 Examples of passive dispersa include wind water hitchhiking gtand via the intestinal tract of birds feeding on the seeds gt7 Persistence of a colonizing species on islands depends gtlbioticabiotic conditions 2ability to produce young what else gtBiotic and abiotic conditions are two separate factors gtAdditionally the biotic factors can be divided into other factors gtsuch as the availability of food resources adaptations against gtpredators adaptatons against parasites gt12 How did plants seeds reached Surtsey Seeds can reached gtSurtsey via 1 ocean dispersal 2 wind dispersal 3 hitchitkers gton bird39s feet or feathers 4 germination following ingesting of gtseeds by birds in one locale and the defecation of the seeds in gtanother locale eg Surtsey by the birds gtl3 The likelihood of seed dispersal is in reverse proportion to gtthe distance ot the source Surtsey This relates to seed dispersal via salt water I provided data in class showing that seeds can be successfully germinated after immersion in water for several weeks This implies that seeds dispersed via salt water will be able to reach Surtsey and to germinate However the further Surtsey is from a source area the longer it will take for that seed to travel through the oceans and the probability of successful germination will decrease the longer it is immersed in saltwater Hence dispersal is in reverse proportion to the distance of the source from Surtsey Review 1 Question 4 Atlantic Islands along the Mid Atlantic Ridge such as Surtsey Ascencion Island Iceland and Tristan da Cunha Indian Ocean Reunion Island Mascarenes Diego Garcia Island Review 2 gt11 Slope of the species area relationship is much steeper for gtisolated islands than for sample area of different size within a gtsingle large landmass The difference between the two curves gtslopes can be attributed to exinction without replacement by gtimmigration of species on isolated islands In contrast within a gtsingle landmass replacement by colonization is much greather gt gt 22 Diamond concluded that the Channel Islands provided a a good case study for the equilibrium theory of island biogeography ie equilibrium in the face of continued turnover in species composition resulting from colonizations and extinctions However Lynch and Johnson concluded that there was little evidence for natural turnover of breeding birds on the Channel Islands gtReview 4 gt gt4 A propagule is the minimal number needed to start a breeding gtpopulation it can be a gravid female a pair a social group it gtdepends on the species and its breeding biology gt gt5 It was found that with some species successful seed germination gtafter immersion in salt water for several weeks decreased However gtfor other species successful germination was greater after gtimmersion in salt water for sevral weeks This suggests that plants gtcan colonize Surthsey by seed dispersal via saltwater gt gtlO R selection strategists usually an organism is small in size gteg mouse reproduces at an early age has a larger number young gtand it is a generalist K selection organism is large elephant gtproduces at a late age has few young and it is a specialist gt gt gtReview 6 Question II The spread of the Shiny Cowbird in the West gtIndies has been facilitated by habitat conversion The islands gtformerly were heavily forested habitat not optimal for cowbird gtWith habitat conversion to agricultural and livestock areas optimal gthabitat was created for cowbirds thus facilitating its spread Questions related to the Brown Tree Snake Boiga on Guam gt18It was first thought that pesticides and introduced bird diseases gtwere responsible for a reduction in bird species numbers on Guam gt 19 The Diet of the Brown Tree Snake on Guam includes lizards and carrion


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.