WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY GEOG 1982
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SubSaharan Africa Development amp Environment May 22 2008 GEOG 1982 Lecture Outline Africa landforms amp plate tectonics Theories of Development Measuring Development Scale of Development Sustainable Development my arcneg 7 i w i l ll hulkcnonb quotI ll v wt xi39 y umnl um l szm Jlr mmmrniu39n Arabian Sea oViIInrla Pun 3mm 7 a a mum a 7Imln ln Noni km Fig ure 72 Wnrid Reginnul Geography Third Edition zoos w H Freeman and Company 200 Million Years Ago ISO Million Years Ago 140 Million Years Ago 65 Million Years Ago I Fig ure 1 1 0 World Regional Geography Third Edition 2006 w H Freeman and Company Theories of Development Modernization Progress goal Walter Rostow s 5 stages Assumptions poverty is caused by a lack of development problem is inside the country Structuralism ISI Neoliberal SAPs free trade privatization Postoolonial Challenges that there is only one path to development Measuring Development GDP Gross Domestic Product GDP per Capita 1960 2000 I 8489 1247s ll 638 5000 1960 1970 400 48 41980 PH 482 l GDP per capita in 1998 US dollars Iu mi in U ml II 1990 i l 3000 jzooo in 1998 US 2000 14 l l l 3 o Pb Fag 1000 8quot 7 Ghana Kenya South Botswana Uganda Zimbabwe India South Africa Korea Figure 711 Wurld Regional Geography Yhird Edition a mm W H Fr amzn and rnmnan Measuring Development Gini coefficient income distribution amp wealth inequality 0 to 1 lower is more equal higher is less equal a c r a f 39 1 Riff I lt15 307 f E 357 Gini Coefficient 39 407 Problem with measurements TED talk by Gapminder gapminderorg htt wwwtedcomLnrdex talksviewid92 Scale Diversity within each region Other factors to consider in development Environmental quality Social upheaval Power relations 39 2quot07theseemindlvimDossibleis ib39 hfml 11 00 1700 Scale of Development Grassroots development 1960s1970s basic needs approach shelter food education employment smaller scale individuals families communities Nonprofit organizations NGOs helping people help themselves doing what governments no longer do participation amp empowerment Still uneven International regional country amp local NGOs Sustainable Development Efforts to improve standards of living in ways that will not jeopardize those of future generations Examples Development near a mine in South Africa hug www youxube comWatch7vw H023X02Wk Sustainable school in Tanzania htlp www teachers tyvideofo 1W Unnumbered Figure pg 332b World Reginnal Gengraphy Third Edition 2006 w H Freeman and Company zmah LIBYA A r LIsAlmlull h v9 mil SN 3 r I Dh39af Agra 23 Man a I nf s ula SAU l ARABIA l E 5 Jg dab J Y Q 1 9 J r 6ha 39BUb aquot i Khan D956 lquot Horn of Africa K V 9 JM quotquot 398 Dante 1M Barbara 471 v am Peninsula 0 Euatnr o ooyo ooo oomwooo Figure 72 part 2 World Regional Gengraphy Third Edition 2006 w H Freeman and Company llMATIC ZONES Tm ital Humid limnies A mpica w Trnpitai wetdry Arid and Semiorid Climates 3 El Skew Desert Ten ernie Climates 0 EL Midialiludeurhighiand I Suhnnpiammmy I Mediterranaansummerdry Inimrnpiz unvergem39 Fig ure 73 World Regional Gengmphy Third Edition 2006 w H Freeman and Company Southeast Asia Wednesday May 28 GEOG 1982 Lecture Outline Burma amp Thailand Vietnam Laos Cambodia Island amp Peninsular Southeast Asia Malaysia Singapore Brunei Indonesia The Philippines mm mm Buy a I Bengnl l Jquot p i F l cl acrAul l l J lit 771a 9 Mlcnontsl l lam PALM Inna Ilevulinns mle leul new Item susxannahm 170nommv 33mm mamas w m thkollrk nm E M1 PinmubJJ i 39 9quot 55KAlalauilirlasa 9 Valiumquot ii 39 P223 4 2 l lamp nil Iramind Andaman lllnlls it 59 II Fan r s quot14 r 995 TyTuT 7 7 Ninbm mm 1 9m lam l 9 e mqiuriuywi new l wilillte um an shawls Mili V ii Arafura n mania quotnonLE 1 5 in i mm inst will ml 39s m AUSTRALIA rm 1 M K 7 quota Figure39lo z Wurld Regional Geagmpiiy Third Edition a 2006 w HFreeman and Company Burma amp Thailand Burma Myanmar military regime rural poorpopma on 100000 Burmese living in V refugee camps in mm Thailand amp Bangladesh Cities and Capitals 39 n 3 Over 5000000 a o 1000000 5000000 c a 500000 999999 zsoaonawm V quotMerlin 0W Transportation Maiarroads Railmads Teak opium Thailand industrializing 394 Tiger of 19908 i l 612v Immlg 2 39 E l attracted MNCS T F WWW Wurld Regional Geagmphy Third Editinn 2006 w H Freeman and Company hi VMinh lty Saigon h H upk ltaml Z Mll l m xilmiu Eno Vietnam Laos Cambodia Mekong River sun 939 S92im I H T quot insipid53 French IndOChIna 0 Under 250000 A Cities and Capitals Dong HOI musma onds I I iglst ti f Communist Ish Conflict violent independence i339 Economic trouble i anthli g in 1990s Ell 52 U vMiIes 8 83 has resumed Vietnam POp 81 million Cambodia 126 million Laos 56 million 7 Vietnam War aka American V War 1950s1973 Resistance leaders in northern Vietnam US operated from the south 45 million people died including 58000 from US US sanctions on Vietnam after the war Cambodia Spillover from Vietnam War secret war carried out by H Kissinger Mid1970s Khmer Rouge seized control Violent revolutionary party Subscribed to communist ideals Wanted to destroy evidence of European influence persecuted educated people labor camps execution 1979 Vietnam invaded amp ran government until 1989 followed by a civil war Malaysia Singapore Brunei Economically successful g Malaysia capital Kuala Lumpur F39 Malay Muslim Chinese Buddhist Violent independence 1969 Bumiputra wealth dlsparlty BRUNEIDARUSSTJlIIflIIlf39I W f T l SI ngapo re 39 75 Chinese a v B o r n e 0 Y oquot g Cities and Capitals A o 0 0 nghly planned 339 v o 39 r 033330 3 12lt tm in x rim a W e 2 3336239135353 State control l 9 o 39 Java sea 0 mm zoo Trrunsportution JV o liil eeeeeeee oo Majorroads III Railroads Indonesia 17000 islands Java Sumatra Borneo Sulawesi West Papua New Guinea TimorLeste Sukarno Suharto Deforestation international logging companies Strengthening Indonesian Democracy httpvideoonnvtimescomfr storvFEEDROOM197164 Cities and Capitals v5 1 mm quot i39 Minh City r t o 5 Over 5000000 1 I a I I 7 w x j a o1000000 5000ooo so 39 39 o a 500000 999999 2v 39 SuIII I ia 39 a 250000 499999 39 it he ChinaDA l lggt ll M 3 I 39 TUnder250000 3 i l v i 1 L a Bundnr Seri g muslinormhoz gt aorroa s 1 7 Rallroads 39 o 5 P 39 i I l l 1 In umpurlo x 39 i l l ms Manadct 29 h m gt Poma in ES Pa n r S t x quot r Bekl quot g wla 7 9 MI v l 2 ulli39g 7 a a Luquot 7 E S INDIAN Ba r f M 4 4 quot Arafura 0 g In A TlMORLESTE 5quot 39 VJ quotquot Timur 39 a no E g I I Sell no 6on Philippines Cities and Capitals o o Over5000000 o a 1000000 5000000 0 o 50000lk999999 l Roman Catholic Under 250000 Transportation 335325 Spanish speaking l Mount Pinatubo 07m i i ng t zgme h l PHILIPPINES 1 FerdInand Marcos 0 dictator 19651986 Wealthy Chinese Filipino minority DIWa rk Ai39r39 Subic Bay Freeport Olongapo City South China Sea Figure 1 023 World Regional Geography Third Edition 2006 W HFreeman and Company BRUNEI DARUSSALAM 39 x E39s quot 19 W39 l39 w y TIMORlESTE Fig ure I 09 Wurld Regional Geagmphy Third Edin39un 2006 w H Freeman and Company Introduction to Islam SW Asia amp North Africa May 20 2008 GEOG 1982 Lecture Outline Islam History amp Facts Distribution Veiing Political Islam History of SW Asia 20th century Arab Israeli Conflict Northern Africa History of Islam Founded by the prophet Muhammad in 6220e Islam is understood as an outgrowth of Judaism and Christianity the 3 have a similar early history Islam was dispersed by Islamic empires 630750ce by armies and traders 7501700ce to southeast Asia 12001600ce Rules of conduct shaped country laws ATLANTIC I OCEAN Tangieri 39 e Fe uquot I Tripuli libya The Spread of Islam 630 1700 Growth under Muhammad 632 644 I 645 661 662 750 751 1700 Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia 13th14th centuries Indian 15th century 0 9quotquot 16th century Fig ure 65 Wurld Regiunal Geagraphy Third Edition 0 2006 w H Freeman and Company Facts of Islam Holy book Qur an Koran 5 pillars of Islamic practice One God Daily prayer Ramadan fast Zakat almsgiving Hajj pilgrimage Islamic religious law shari a Sunni Muslims 85 Shi ite Shi a Muslims Iran Iraq Lebanon Extremely Diverse More Facts of Islam No religious hierarchy or central administration Wide variety of interpretations Historically tolerant of other religions seclusion and veiling of women predate Islam Population of adherents about 13 billion hm WWW Woridmaoger orgimagesi ergegngi Qi i Distribution of Islamic Population Hijab I I n g AIAmira Shayla Seclusion in public space Anonymity amp pnvacy Symbol of mmquot CW devout Muslim quotquot3quot W women Fashion Feminist choice hnn www hhr m 39 39 1840iveloislampage4shtm Hijab Shop Party Wear hnn wwwihnhiiah hnn k quot wear Political Islam Religious Ie aders attempt to gain political power Eg Iran 1979 secular authoritarian government overthrown by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Sometimes associated with Islamic Fundamentalism Sometimes peaceful popular movements Often suppressed causing violent response Radical Islamic fundamentalism thrives in chaotic conditions forced relocation rapid urbanization poverty 20th Century History Divided up between France and Britain postWWI except Turkey Bedouin tribes consolidated under Sheik lbn Saud in 1932 later became Saudi Arabia European amp US oil companies worked with local elites 1947 Israel was created Zionists Balfour Declaration British support for Jewish national home in SW Asia Struggles overland and water ArabIsraeli Conflict 1947 Partition 1949 Israel s Jordan s Egypt s expansion Expansion of Israel 1967 Six Day War 1973 Yom Kippur War Settlements UN resolution 242 land for peace 1979 Camp David Accords 1991 Madrid Peace Talks 1993 Oslo Accords Palestinian Authority gains some autonomy in West Bank Gaza Strip 0 Miles 100 SYRIA FRENCH MANDATE W 0 Kilometers39lso Damascus Palestine quot BRITISH MANDATE l Jewish state Arab state lnternationalized UN administration SAU Israeli RABlA El occupied territory SAUD ARABIA Figure 615 part1 World Regianal Gengmphy Third suntan o 2006 w H Freeman and Company ArabIsraeli Conflict Fatah party created by Yasser Arafat HAMAS Islamic Resistance Movement Won Jan 2006 elections in Palestinian httn39 Widen nn nvtimeq mm fr storygge inc nangcnnnmfna m Labeled a terrorist organizatio by US Gaza Strip high levels quot a 39 of violence 39 West Bank water access conflicts ed 1 dat 1 L v 1 Krasuo 7 fth a quotV lt m 4 re i39 Ierranean Sea Ban h quot quot Sidi Po 9 En my Barrani Sat Ga quot quot 5 z r A H t 5 ll Alexandria I r zquot39 a Cairo BAHRNKO 615339 5 all f ohah amam h 5 76 mike x u m 9 t t Y b I a n in mam g Namus 5 UN39 t RN 0 a r AIJawf a m AswghV J e5 a39 u I a f ddah P e D l R0 mkkah Desert 3 N quotbidquot 5 V etc b alKhah Desert km Figure 62 art 2 Warld Regiunal Geography Third Edition 2006 w H Freeman and Company Lebanon Sunni in power backed by Saudi Arabia US Hezbollah party Shiite majority urban backed by Iran Syria httQvideoonn imescom fr story212bd360629f25502e1027f7715bb69667f87278 Last week battles in Beirut hitn39 Widen nn nviimp mmfr storU 9 b 09139 em 439 4 27610d W W a M 4 g p 0 LnndEIevnuzns 3 unw mom 5 0523 mains Xins 5 g usslak mr s39aaaiaaz39iiiwarmer r it 39 WW 1 g who cm 14 wk 5 975 39 I snnhulkn1iulf a lake Eelnweaizvel Binwsaalzve 5 M 553 mm m 0 39 40 39en WWW 5a quot i 43914 quot JZMISZ 1352 9 r 2mm was rms TURKEY Ind lt in Hisk 39 Illmsin a W V an 9 39 r Fla QSgNISM wage T uagqun 39 5quot 1quot Exile Hus 39aeilr i Ii quotour I l OME39WWMHquot 5 i i in lipgym 6 Duavgla Wynquot quotBMquot quot9quot 133quot Ki Mg 39 Alarm z Siquot N lih lIBYA i EGYPT 4 Wawmll amux K r a quotpenI15quot quotquotquotquotquot 7 Bi rMisahah if 491293 Shun 391 Nubi quot quot y 39 lt 3n WWWW Basequot 7 Pnnsm39n G Dnnqnlah it Asm39quot r V 39 seb lime hka w V AFashll D 1 ed i mm 9 gna Hmn 039 Penm l d Afriw i N in a n WEE149 was s g 9quot I u rige m m mm gnun A at m5quot Mama 39 39 Malay L E23 Limommumuw WM Fig ure 62 World Regional Geography Yhird Edition 9 2006 w H Freeman and Company Northeast Africa Nile River Lake Nasser Aswan High Dam 1970 Sudan desert north Muslim Khartoum steppe middle SW Darfur Arabspeaking Muslim swampy south Christian amp indigenous 1983 Muslim law enforced in Sudan civil wars South 1983 httpwwwsavedarfurorg Northwest Africa The Maghreb Libya Tunisia Algeria Morocco Western Sahara Atlas Mountains trigger rainfall on coast Sahara Desert south Algeria 1962 Independence 1990s Structural adjustment programs 1990s Civil war targeted media women 1997 Moderate Islam party won election Oil Algeria amp Libya supply 14 of EU s oil 1O ATLANTIC ocmr GDP per capita 200 Sahara 998 rrude petroleum 0 Miles 500 800 0 Kilometers Oil and Natural Gas adjusted for PPP in US Resource Areas and Pipelines ii Over 20000 Oilpipelines 510000 520000 Gas pipelines I 55000 59999 El 0il and gasproducing areas I 52000 54999 OPEC member 1 Under 2000 3h AUDI ARAB I A 931 petroleum 8 Aquot Apetroleunr prailurts 7 la 6 3 lt9 quot J 39 quot pulirins E No data A gt 50 of exports in a single ommodity Fig ure 61 4 World Regiunal aeagmphy Third Edition 2006 w H Freeman and Company Perreni Percent of World Oil Reserves for Selected Countries quot a w 1 G Saudi Arabia Iraq UAE Kuwait Iran Russia USA Terms from the book ch 6 Al Jazeera desertification Diaspora economic diversification Gulf War haii Islamic fundamentalism IsraeliPalestinian conflict Judaism OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries protectorate public spaces in relation to veiling Qur an or Koran salinization seclusion secular states shari a Shi ite or Shi a Sunni Zionists Gender roles amp spaces 237241 Western Domination amp State Formation 230231 11 Oceania Global Warming Thursday May 29 GEOG 1982 Lecture Outline Oceania s climate El Nino Climate Change International Agreements Climate Justice Effects of Climate Change El Ni o Irregular climatic event every 2 to 7 years Changes in circulation of air and water in Pacific Ocean Also called ENSO El Nino Southern Oscillation Sea levels also vary with El Nino A Normal Equatorial Conditions f y lt2 Warm water layer Cold water laer Figure 1 15a World Regional Geography Third Edition is 2006 w H Freeman and Company B Developing El Ni o Conditions Figure 1 15b World Regional Geugraph y Third Edition 2005 w H Freeman and Company m r Wawrmiwaiterjayieri quot 39 I r er 9 ure 1 1 5c World Regional Geagmphy Third Edition 2006 w H Freeman and Company 1997 Kyoto Protocol Meeting of UN Framework on Climate Change Free market approach to reduce greenhouse gases cap and trade Countries choose level of compliance amp method EU Emissions Trading Scheme Canada offset system Japan federal subsidy program Harsh penalties for noncompliance at minimum Annex I Nations US Canada UK Japan etc Annex B Nations developing countries including India China Why the US Didn t Sign Kyoto Common but Differentiated Responsibility Every country shares the burden but each country implements different programs US skeptical that Annex B would participate amp shied from the prospect of costly penalties China amp India Annex B Increasing use of fossil fuels increasing emissions Mostly exempt from reductions in Kyoto first round US thought its own reductions would be outweighed by Annex B s lack of reductions 2007 Bali 2008 Bangkok UN Climate Change Conferences Bali Roadmap proposed US didn t commit was booed by other countries finally signed the Roadmap Bangkok Expand on Bali Roadmap Start to drafting a climate pact halt greenhouse gas emissions increase in 10 15 years reduce emissions drastically by 2050 Both meetings plan for Copenhagen 2009 Climate Justice US has 4 of world population emits 21 25 of world s carbon Per capita accounting Us 20x higher than India Q ggg riagym us 12x higher than Brazil AH quot l Account for historical emissions 2 Offshoring quotR Survival vs Luxury emissions Unequal ability to respond adapt Possible Temperature C lncreas More than B 4 6 2 4 0 2 Figure 1 1 1 4 World Regional Geography Third Edition zoos w H Freeman and Company 5 139 w FRENCH ALED ry EUTUQ P LYNEsrA 3 okr rru 9 O V mus coorr Forecasted Effects on Selected Areas oi Change in Climates and Rise in Sea Level 0 Economic and social disruption limited to small localized areas Some economic and social disruption if Miles 1l1tlll Ea o Kilririrelers1auu O Widespread economic and social disruption 150 130 0 Area unlnhabitable or below sea level East Asia Tuesday May 27 GEOG 1982 Lecture Outline Physical Geography Population History China Japan Korea Taiwan Last 30 years in China Three Gorges Dam c 839 x Q lundllzvntiuni nllilr1 lee I twnnvx g zaitu ninmw mm 39 i an n l at 339 um I u m m r 393 gl 0 maggot 5 Ilium at Al Pmmio 4 steps 1 Plateau of Tibet Major Rivers Major Cities 2 low mountains plateaus basins Zhujiang Pearl River Beijing Shanghai 3 low mountains hills coastal plain Chang Jiang China 4 continental shelf mostly underwater Huang He Yellow R Taipei Taiwan Hong Kong Taiwan Hainan TOKYO Japan Qingtiao K I Yel ow a x aizhai Ea by ocEA Persons per sq km sq mi 0ver100 Over 260 50 100 130 260 10 49 25 129 1 9 El 3 24 Under1 l Under3 3 Capitals and cities 1 million and over 0 Capitals under1 million Figure 96 World Regional Geography Third Edition 2006 We H Freeman and Company China 90 of population on 16 land area History Late 13th century Hangzhou city of 900000 Opium Wars 18391860 Britain won control of 3939393939 w Hong Kong Britain won trading access China and Japan SinoJapanese War 1895 Japan beat China Chinese government coHapsed Japan invaded China 39 1937 controlled China until end of WWII 1945 httprokdropcomwpcontentuploads2007O1sinojapanesewarjpg Japanese Empire 1895 1945 quotw m 7 Z k A If ff E Japanin1875 sz AMPmm Controlled as ot1914 mgquot II Controlled as of1933 Controlled as of1941 5 Japan in1942 Japan in 2000 Hami ii 39 39 PACIFIC Islands OCEAN Caroline 313 Leg paau Islands 2 I Borneo 39 N39 r r A F Radios gig1 i is k s at Miles snu 21 J 0 9 39 E DashL n Kilometers 1200 S quotquotquot isng w J Fig ure 95 World Regional Geography Third Edition e 2006 w HFreeman and Company Korea Japan occupied Korea until WWII 19501953 Korean War USSR invaded Korea in 1945 US proposed national division amp controlled South Korea 1950 North Korea supported by USSR amp China attacked South Korea North Korea military government closed CO U ntry httpwww ind mm indexphpIalksviewid244 630 China and Taiwan Chang Kaishek amp the Kuomintang KMT lnstituted Leninist socialist policy in 1924 Supported by urban upper and middle classes amp by the US Chinese Communist Party CCP opposed KMT Supported by farmers 1949 Mao Zedong amp CCP took control KMT fled to Formosa now Taiwan KMT claimed to be a governmentinexile China s Communist Era Centrally controlled command economy Integrated outlying areas northeast amp west lnvaded Tibet Improved condition Reallocation of land wealth to farmers landless Better health better education Huge public works projects Problems Persecution famines resulting from poor planning Cultural Revolution 1966 forced support of communist Mao s party persecution of intellectuals and other dissenters China s Last 30 Years 1978 Deng Xiaoping mixed communist statecontrolled economy with neoliberal economic policy 2001 China joined the WTO 39XINIIANG TIBET GANSU Gross Domestic Product perCopHol997 Over 10000 yuan I 6000 10000 yuan ZZZ 4000 5000yuan ZZZ Under4000yuan 4 Migration routes QINGHAI VUNNAN NlNGXIA SICHUAN V ChongqingEl x l GUANGXI HONG KONG HAINAN PACIFIC OCEAN Miles 300 Kilometers 500 Foreign Direct in millions of US dollars 52000 or more Sacco 10000 I 51000 52000 I under 100 Economic and Technology Development Zones and Special Economic Zones development zones El Special economic zones 0 u I S 23962 33 a u 0 m a nagENSo i Il39Iutlln MN 39 nn 5 co m eggNgm Wm2E E ESSE e E 22 sag i E vE quot 3 5 5 U I Principal Sources of Foreign Direct Investment in China in millions of US dollars and Other Investments 2002 0 Economic and technology Q ll ex 12m Dalian In w g Ifquot or Haikou an a L39n u 39 1 hanghal 39 7 It f a a39 39 s 39 1445m it Figure 99 World Regional Geography Third Edition C 2006 W HFreeman and Company SEZS ETDZS Hukou system residence registration system now restricts people s movements floating population p 371 1989 Tiananmen Square protests 100000 students amp workers demanded more freedom of expression and government accountability Government fired into crowd killed hundreds injured thousands I 7 quot7 Beijing Olympics 8808 GANSU r 39 Eaiih kim Shanghai J m mmmwam mg rquot Quake SICHUAN Epigeng amid CHINA gunNAN Eung i 39 r quot mg i MYANgr39quot 39V ET Three Gorges Dam China Chang Jiang Reservoir370 miles long 13 million people displaced 13 major cities 140 large towns 1003 of small villages m p fvideo cum magma gmy231e744eee24 gg75 41d5b7a0dABBBB39aEEe le07