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Remote Sensing of the Environment

by: Jeremy Steuber

Remote Sensing of the Environment GEOG 5093

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Geography > GEOG 5093 > Remote Sensing of the Environment
Jeremy Steuber

GPA 3.87


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This 113 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeremy Steuber on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 5093 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/231911/geog-5093-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Remo re Sensing of A rmospher39e Land and Ocean Pr oper Ties from Ter39r39a 39 Remote sensing of atmosphere land and ocean proper iies 39 Examples from Earth observa iions Orbi i sensors and samplin charac ieris iics Go EOS Goals amp Mission ObjecTives als Develop an under39sTanding of The ToTaI Ear Th sysTem and The effecTs of naTur al and humaninduced changes on The global envir39onmenT Expand scienTific knowledge of The Ear Th sysTem using NASA39s unique capabiliTies from The vanTage poinTs of space air39cr39afT and in siTu planor39ms DisseminaTe infor maTion abouT The Ear Th sysTem Suppor T naTional and inTer naTional envir39onmenTal policy r ecommendaTions Mi ssion ObjecTives Cr39eaTe an inTegr aTed scienTific obser ving sysTem ThaT will enable mulTidisciplinar39y sTudy of Ear Th sysTem science Develop a comprehensive daTa and infor maTion sysTem including a daTa r eTr39ieval and processing sysTem Acquir e and assemble a global daTabase emphasizing r emoTe sensing measur39emenTs from space over a decade or more Impr ove pr edicTive models of The Ear39Th sysTem Terra ObjecTives Provide The firsT consisTenT global snapshoT of numerous imporTanT EarTh surface and aTmospheric characTerisTics Improve The abiliTy To deTecT The human impacTs on climaTe by idenTifying indicaTors or fingerprinTs of human acTiviTy ThaT can be used To disTinguish Them from naTural variabiliTy Provide measuremenTs of The effecTs of clouds aerosols and greenhouse gases on The EarTh39s ToTal energy balance Provide esTimaTes of global TerresTrial and marine producTiviTy ThaT will enable more accuraTe calculaTions of global carbon sTorage exchange wiTh The aTmosphere and yearToyear variabiliTy Provide observaTions ThaT will improve predicTions of climaTe and of weaTher aT seasonal and inTerannual Time scales ConTribuTe To improved meThods of disasTer predicTion characTerizaTion and risk reducTion from wild fires volcanoes floods and droughTs Terra39s Global Perspective 39 MODIS 12 day global coverage in 36 wavelen fhs from 250 m To 1 km reso Llfion 39 MISR Stereo images at 9 look angles 39 ASTER Hiresolufion mulfispecfral images from 15 m To 90 m resolufion plus sfereo 39 MOPITT lobal measures of CH4 amp CO 39 CERES Measures Earfh39s shorfwave longwave and nef radian energy budget Launched December 18 1999 Ter r a Launch Anima rion Ter r a Deploymen r of Solar Panel Ter39r39a Or39biT amp Ground Track Movie MODer ater39esolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ODIS NASA Terra amp Aqua launches 1999 2002 705 km polar orbits descending 1030 am i ascending 130 pm Sensor Characteristics 36 spectral bands ranging from 041 to 143 85 Im crosstrack scan mirror with 2330 km swath width Spatial resolutions 250 00 m and 2 reflectance calibration accuracy onboard solar diffuser 5 solar diffuser stability monitor MODIS Scan SwaTh Movie Global LevelIE Composi re Image May 282001 R 065Im G 056Im B 047Im Cloud OpTicol Thickness M D King 5 Plo rnick M Gray E Moody e r ol NASA GSFC UMBC Level3 Mon rhly Augus r 2001 Cloud Top Pressure W P Menzel R Frey K S rr39abala L Gumley ef al NOAA NESDIS U WisconsinCIMSS Level3 Momth April 200 IDc Wu 1000 Precipi rable Wafer over39 Land amp Sunglin r B C 600 ef al Naval Research Labor a ror y Level3 Mon rhly Augus r 2001 lt1 cm 75 50 25 00 Aerosol Op rical Thickness Y J Kaufman D Tanr D A Chu L A Remer ef al NASA GSFC University of Lille Level3 Momth 52 pfe mber 2000 Fine mode Aerosol Op rical Thickness Y J Kaufman D Tanr D A Chu L A Remer ef al NASA GSFC University of Lille Level3 Momth 52 pfe mber 2000 Course mode Global Aerosol Op rical Pr oper39Ties Movie Firm Aerosol Fraction 0 o 025 Aerosol Optical Thickness MODIS Reveals A rmospher ic Mois rur e Defails As Never Seen Before MODIS Wafer Vapor 1 km GOES8 Wafer Vapor 4 x 8 km Four39 Panel Zoom of CloudFree Or ogr aphic Waves revealed in Water Vapor39 Imagery Every 100 Minutes MODIS Covers The Polar Regions Every 100 Minu res MODIS Covers The Polar Regions Winds from MODIS An Ar39c ric Example Cloud Tracked Winds Waler Vapor Winds from MODIS Water Vapor Winds 39 39 MODIS Defec rs Subvisible Cir r us True Color Image Subvisiblz Cirrus 138 pm Cznfr39al America April 4 2000 Surface Reflec rance of SouTh America MOD09 afmospher ically corrected radiance South America Surface Reflec rance of SouTh America MOD09 afmospher ically corrected radiance Brazil MODIS Land Cover Classification D o Waver 1 Evergreen Needieieaf Fares 2 Evergreen Bruadieaf Faresv 3 Deciduuus Needieieaf Faresv i 4 Deciduuus Bruadieaf Faresv 5 Mixed Furesis a ciasea snrabianas E7 Open snrabianas E Wuudy Savannas 9 Savannas as 11 Permanem Weiicmds 12 Crupicmds 13 Urban ana Emma 14 CrupicmdNmumWeg Masai 15 Snuw ana Iee E16 Barren ar Sparseiy Vegemied 17 Tundra Surface Albedo Surface albedo ecosystem MOD43 Sfrahler Schaaf 6139 al aggregation NH winter albado aggrngalion by ecosyslom type o evergtn needle on r closed shrub um m woody savanna grasslan ropland o spectral diffuse incidence albedo o quot quot15quot waveleng h um Ecosxs rem Color Scheme Pink Crops Green Trees Vellows BarrenDeserts Blues Savannas MODIS Snow Cover39 D K Hall V V Salomonson G A Riggs NASA GSFC Oc rober 16 2001 April 23 2002 Nigh r rime Sea Surface TemperaTure O B Brown P J Minne r r R H Evans UniversiTy of Miami Level3 Mon rhly May 2001 C 35 30 25 20 Chlorophle and Sea Surface TemperaTure SST Movie MODIS Sea Surface Tempera rur e off The Eas r Coas r of The US May 8 2000 Sensor Characteristics Clouds and the Earth39s Radiant Energy System CERES NASA TRMM Terra 1 Aqua launches 1997 1999 2002 350 km orbit 35 inclination 705 km polar orbits descen ing 3 am 1 ascending 130 pm Spatial resolution 20 km 78 crosstrack scan and 360 azimuth biaxial scan 05 calibration accuracy onboard blackbodies 1 solar CERES Scan SwaTh Movie CERES Scan Swa rh on Aqua Movie 39 Study cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks 39 Develop an observational baseline of clear sky radiative fluxes 39 Document radiant input to atmospheric and oceanic energetics models 39 Validate general circulation models and 39 Enhance extended range numerical weather predictions Shor fwave and Longwave Radia fion as Defermined from Da ra of The Terra CERES March 2000 May 2001 Lungwcwe an em Radmhun emnved m space fr um e 0N cystem unhgm re ected back Shurvweve an mgm 5 m space Re ected Shorlwave iadmnan w 1 5 0quotan lan wave Radiclian wcltsm2gt 173 355 mu Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission amp Reflection Radiometer ASTER NASA amp MITI Terra 705 km polar orbit descending 1030 am Sensor Characteristics 14 spectral bands ranging from 056 t 113 Im 3 ti Itable subsystems for acquiring stereoscopic imagery over a swath width of 60 km Spatial resolution 15 m bands 1 2 3N 33 30 m bands 4 9 90mbands101 4 reflectance calibration accuracy VNIR a SWIR 2 K brightness temperature accuracy 370 K SWIR ASTER Scan SwaTh Movie Almmphc c Immmlsalm ASTER Spec rr39al Bands Snlnr Rcllcclrd Ilul mrml I m Mid I n39l rm ll I 5 lufrsn39ml m Ll Iquot M M M In ISJ 2w Wuwlmglh mlcmm 13M R 501 Tl It I S m am I W m ASTER Measurements Color IR Shortwave IR a r 1 Spectral reflectances of the Earth39s surface at 1530 m Surface Temperature and emissivities at 90 m Digital elevation maps from stereo images Surface composition and vegetation ma s cloud sea ice and polar ice products Observation of natural hazards volcanoes etc March 3 2000 ASTER Ji Par and Brazil ASTER Moun r ST Helens Movie Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer MISR NASA EOS Terra launchedin 1999 polar descending orbits of 705 km 1039 ssing Sensor Characteristics uses nine CCDbased pushbroom am rw viewing nadir and fore d aft to 70 swath width of 400 km four spectral bands for each camera 36 channels at 443 555 670 d 865 nm resolutions of 275 m 550 m or 11km Advantages high spectral stability 9 viewing angles helps determine aerosol byu dependence fixed I MISR Scan Fir e Anima rion from MISR muITiungle animation Saharan Dus r S ror39m near Canary Islands February 29 2000 70 Affward Parallax EffecT in MISR Images March 6 2000 MISR is being used To sTudy clouds and how They inTer39acT wiTh sunlighT Cycling Through The nine views of This scene of clouds over Florida noTice The displacemenT of The clouds This is due To a geomeTr ic effecT called parallax and noT Tr ue moTion Movie Ex rr39a rr39opical Cyclone in The Southern Ocean August 20 2001 L Hr in CloudTracked winds cloudTop heights MISR Imagery amp Aerosol OpTicaI Thickness Angola and Namibia Nadir 70 backward Mul riangle Ta 0558 pm Nadir 39 True color RGB 672 558 446 nm 70 backwardviewing camera True color RGB MulTiangle 672 nm Red nadir camera Green 70 forward Blue 70 backward Diner e r al 2001 Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere MOPITT NASA EOS Terra launchedin 199 polar descending orbits of 705 km 1039 ssin Sensor Characteristics Spectral bands 22232294 Im CH4 23232345 Im CO 45624673 Im CO Spatial resolution 22 km at nadir Swath 640 km MOPITT Scan SwaTh Movie MOPITT Measgre ents arbon onoxide March 2000 Measure and model tropospheric carbon monoxide and methane concentrations Obtain carbon monoxide profiles with 22 km x 3 km resolution Measure the methane column in the troposphere Generate global maps of carbon monoxide and methane distribution and provide increased knowledge of tropospheric chemistry Movie MOPITT CO PerspecTive The First Year of Terra Da ra Terra39s New Fea rures Array of five EarTh Science InsTrumenTs in space hardware sofTware and maneuvers To converT The remoTe sensing signal inTo science ASTER Thermal channels for geology and environmenT sTereo looks 15 90 m resoluTions CERES Cloud radiaTive forcing beTTer angular sampling MISR MulTiangle views of clouds and land BRDF 2751100 m resoluTions 39 MODIS 250 m daily coverage for clouds and vegeTaTion change 7 solar channels for land and aerosol 137 um Cirrus clouds 094 um wafer vapor fire channels and air TemperaTure profiles af 1 km MOPITT Global CO and CH4 Web Shes Check Them ouf 5 5 Terranasagov E earth observatory W 3 quot R I If J mum v mm Mmgm zar fhobszr vafor39ynasagov VISIBLE EARTH US363 HE J seamhable mm Hume and mum at m m bums mm Mp visiblezar fhnasagov MODIS Granule Flyby of The Himalayas MODO9 A rmospherically Cor39r39ec red Radiance Movie Trrw39ml Cwlmgs rm OE SST ldmll 2U SST 2 Global MW 0 SST Reynolds Climatology 03282005 v V r Hurricanes What makes a hurricane gt First warm water at least 82 degrees in fact gt Several weeks after the Sun shines brightest on the tropics in late June in the northern hemisphere the waters reach their warmest gt Here orange and red indicate the necessary 82 degree and warmer water sea surface temperatures SSTs taken by the Advanced Microwave Scanning RadiometerEOS AMSRE aboard the Aqua satellite from beginning in June 2002 gt Next add a disturbance generally easterly waves off of Africa formed from winds resulting from the clash between the hot Sahara Desert and the cooler Gulf of Guinea gt These waves provide the initial energy and spin required for a hurricane to develop as imaged by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES operated by NOAA on Sept 115 2001 Credit NASA Hurricanes gt With the right mix of winds and SSTs an ordinary cluster of tropical thunderstorms can explode into a tropical storm Winds converge forming the familiar circular pattern of clouds Warm rising air in the storms draws water vapor up from the ocean The vapor condenses in clouds and releases heat warming the eye evaporating more surface water and feeding the hurricane39s heat engine continuing the cycle Data from Hurricane Erin Sept 10 15 2001 a wind speeddirection from Seawinds instrument on QuikScat satellite NASA b cloud structure from Visible and Infrared Scanner VIRS on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM satellite NASANASDA c rainfall rates green in excess of2 inches per hour Microwave lmager TMI and Precipitation Radar PR on TRMM NASANASDA d eye warmth red Convection And Moisture EXperiment CAMEX NASA e GOES NASANOAA Hurricanes Hurricanes essentially act as engines drawing energy up from warm tropical ocean waters to power the intense winds powerful thunderstorms and immense ocean surges Water vapor from the warm ocean surface evaporates forming towering convective clouds that surround the eyewall and rainband regions ofthe storm As the water vapor cools and condenses from a gas back to a liquid state it releases latent heat The released heat warms the surrounding air making it lighter and promoting more clouds Because the hurricanespeed winds surrounding the clear eye are often absent from the center of a hurricane the heaviest rain clouds are pushed out to form a ring around the center leaving a relatively fair weather eye Hurricanes AMSR data showing mostly cool waters AMSR data showing mostly cool waters off the African coast 332003 off the African coast 732003 Hurricanes GOES data showing disturbances of GOES data showing more disturbances of the coast of Africa coast 962001 the coast of Africa coast 962001 Hurricanes erimg Em MODES was IR and 1mm mimfmlill 94022ng Hurricanes meqm Em MODES was IR mud 1mm mimfmz l SAWZZWQ Hurricanes HEMmm Em MODES ms IR and mm mmfmlili a wmmm Mm22m Hurricanes Hmrthm Em MOMS ms IR and QESFIR maaw Hurricanes Humime Hummbllg em QESJER WZAW Review httpcires nnlnrarln prln fpffpnl 39 095093 Notice that all ofthe labs and example exams from last year are available Door codes and logins No lab today Overview of today s lecture Definitions Applications Analog vs Digital System Classi cation Electromagnetic Radiation Some Images What is remote sensing the acquisition and measurement of datainformation on some propertyies of a phenomenon object or material by a recording device not in physical intimate contact with the featuress under surveillance techniques involve amassing knowledge pertinent to environments by measuring force fields electromagnetic radiation or acoustic energy employing cameras radiometers and scanners lasers radio frequency receivers radar systems sonar thermal devices seismographs magnetometers gravimeters scintillometers and other instrumenm Sourc e NASA tutorial on remote s ens ing http rstgsfc nas agovIntronicktutor I1htrnl Shorter definition Remote sensing is the collection of information about an object or system without coming into direct physical contact with it That information is nearly always carried by electromagnetic radiation EMR Why do we do remote sensing Unobtrusive Automated Useful for extreme conditions Offers excellent spatial and temporal coverage Often costeffective Extends our senses Breakup of the Larsen B Ice Shelf MODIS imagely from January 31 2002 March 6 2002 H Courtesy of Ted Scambos NSIDC Montana Fires August 23 Fires superimposed on MODIS 250m surface reflectance product MODIS thermal bands are used to map the location and strength of active fires and burned area extent Vegetation maps also provide information about fire dynamics Smoke plumes can be tracked for health monitoring Arches quotSpentm 39 Nam h 1 39 quot GGOI 0 IC Park Map From AVIRIS Mapping with AVI RIS Kmf Ferron Sandsmne Member uf Jem Moab Tongue 111139 39EW Wlngaie Sandsan Manoos Shale Kml Lower Mancos Shale Hematite Goelhile meh Brushy Basin 4 Member 01 Halloysue Goelhile Halluysile r Hematite Hallnysilc JRquot Navajn 39 Sa ndslone 4 Km Cednr Muunmin Qa2m1uvium r V6 7 TX Morrison gt r 39 39 39 l 39 39 Hemame Na Monlmorlllunue or Qeas Sand 1e Slickmck Member I Jmt mweu Member GW39I Na R Tmlmorlllmllle of Enuada v quotson Deposiu Jam Mnlh Tongue or Emd Mapping the 1996 Oregon A Floods RADARSAT image 13 Feb RADARSAT ima e 14 eb Columbia River near Portland showing ood damaged areas Just past peak ood stage r5me1rerEm l 1 Ground Coaurag i 39 Arkansas River Ni ailing and Wasre Rock Area I I I I I I I I 391 I g and Wasre 5i Rock Area 3 dville Colorado AVIRIS 1995 Data wayzec1ar amp Livo Tricorder 34 Product Highiy Acidic ral Assemblages Low pH water Jarosite I Jarosite Goethite Mix Acidic to Neutral ral Assemblages I Goethite Hematite 1 Hematite 2 Fe hydroxide Mineral Drainage Assembia es Assemblage 1 Assemblage 2 Assemblage 3 0m Minerals Black Slag Fe2 Minerals 1 Fe2 Minerals 2 Chlorite 2km Mining Waste in Leadvme CO AVIRIS image showing distribution and types of acid generating minerals Lambert Glacier Antarctica m ovem ent Vasecny Inyew u bun uuu Image comesy CSA NASA Ohio State Univ JPL ASF Wetlands of the Gulf Multispectral and multiangular Views of coastal wetlands off the coast of Louisiana Some Remote Sensing Platforms Groundbased Airborne Satellite Analog vs Digital What is analog data Film Benefits of analog data Easy to view High spatial resolution Often very cost effective Compact photograph vs hard drive CDs or tape Drawbacks of analog data Dif cult to transmit remotely Dif cult to edit after acquisition Limited response to light visible and near infrared wavelengths only Degradation over time can limit archive capabilities Benefits of digital data Wide variety of detectors Electromagnetic and other types Large amplitude range Data easily transmitted remotely Data easily edited by computer after acquisition Longterm archive Drawbacks of digital data Storage requirements can be large Requires sophisticated equipment and analysis techniques to use Reduced spatial resolution in most cases Applications Summary Remotely gathering information carried by Quantitative analysis of digital information Image interpretation from hard copy is history Additional computational and analytical skills are required Global change issues can be addressed Highly interdisciplinary mm 1 car Image Provided Courtesy 01 the Canada Centre for Remme Sensing In CCR SICCY Remote Sensing Systems Active Sensor illuminates the subject from an artificial energy source Passive Sensor uses natural radiation from the Sun or other emitted signal Imaging Sensor creates a picture by scanning across linear array of detectors while the array moves through space Nonimaging Sensor measures along a transect or at a point rumvu Inn Iluluml mlmnun udium 30 E m 1 I n gt 39 O z 0 11 m lt I quot1 E m REMOTE SENSING DATA TYPES Visible infrared thermal and microwave are most common 4 5 7 m 19quot 10392 3 Hf 10 I 195vm gtlt g S Visible D Some Common Units of Length 1pm10 5m 1nm10 9m 1Angstrom10quot0m Mosmzmr mANsmssloN as w GHz 1 en 02wquot Dum vown um mmm Kacm 1m 3 mum M DIR manmm chaowwaamns uv NEAF R m1 4 K Kquot x 5 L p an an n y oz pm yrum IOum Imm mm 10cm Im wwzmam mom A W Summarizing Remote Sensing Systems Platform ground airborne satellite Media digital or analogue Illumination passive or active Detector configuration imaging single point sounding Spectral range visible infrared microwave Energy Transfer Energy is the ability to do workquot Energy transfer Conduction transfer of kinetic energy by contact between atoms or molecules Convection transfer of kinetic energy by physically moving the mass that contains the energy Radiation propagation via wavesparticles through a vacuum or through a medium Electromagnetic Radiation EMR is the source for most types of remote sensing Sun and Earth are both passive sources of EM radiation Lasers and radar are active sources Generated by transformation of energy from other forms Radioactive decay of radioactive substances ChemicalLaser molecular excitation Electrical E and magnetic field B are orthogonal to each other H Wavelength A Ni Direction of each field is perpendicularto the direction of wave propagation Electromagnetic Waves Described by Wavelen th WM Pmpagaum g T 39 Amplitude Amplitude Frequency vs Wavelength The product of wavelength and frequency is a constant v 7LC 7 distance of separation between two successive wave peaks v number of wave peaks passing in a given time c speed of light in a vacuum 300000 kms391 Electromagnetic Radiation Its harmonic wave form can be described according to the Maxwell equations Ex 2 EO cosat kz Where E is the electric field 03 angular frequency 21w v 07 7 wavelengt c speed of light in a vacuum 300000 kmsquot k wavenumber ZnA z distance 1 time Polarization E and B elds are perpendicular to each other but their orientation can change If both remain in their respective planes the radiation is called plane polarized If they rotate around the axis of propagation the radiation is called circularly polarized or elliptically polarized If their orientation changes randomly it is called randomly polarized or unpolarized Electrical E and magnetic field B are orthogonal to each other H Wavelength A Ni Direction of each field is perpendicularto the direction of wave propagation Plane polarized light can be either vertically polarized E0 is perpendicular to the plane of incidence horizontally polarized E0 is parallel to the plane of incidence Solar radiation is unpolarized random but can become polarized by reflection scattering etc Lasers and radars produce polarized radiation 0 l UHWW 5 Film um The Pidret FmAnalogy meidmsummmdwmm V I I 39m mmmk wmm mmmurmmmmsmmuw I mmynhumemwmk venical polarization V electric vector is perpendicular to the plane of incidence horizontal polarization H electric vector is parallel to the plane of incidence radiation from the sun is unpolarized at random man made sources laser radar have polarized radiation Example polarization filter El EV Side Looking Air born Radar Image of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico No Clouds Imaging Vertical or Horizontal tion Polarlza Laser Altimeter Profile from lCESat Upper Image is from RADARSAT Graph shows the elevation changes along the black and red lines as the Byrd Glacier penetrates the Ross lce Shelf lCESat Laser Altimeter Elevation m 5n um 50 2m 259 am Distance km lCESat LIDAR Cloud Height Profile Lower Image is over the Atlantic Ocean near Africa Red Line is the satellite path First direct satellite measurements of cloud heights and aerosols at multiple heights 4 l Terra and Aqua MODIS Images SeaWinds Scatterometer aboard QuickScat Wind speeds derived from surface a a roughness Unaffected by clounds Nonimaging composite m awnm 1 n w Aerial Photograph Boulder r 1929 Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTR Grand Canyon Simulated true color Upper center is a forest fire 14 Channels from 052 um to 1165 um Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer AMSR Sea surface temp and precipitation Twin instrument Was lost when the Midorill satellite failed 6 GHz 1OGHz 18GHz 37GHz 89GHz Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MODIS False color image of dust plume after the I fires in southern CA in October 2003 36 spectral ranges from 4 um to 14 um GOES8 Sounder Band 4 sees middle and upper tropospheric temp pattern Band 11 sees mid IR CHHNNELS FIVFIILFIELE x 5 LIA C02 1 1 UM trop Moisture 3 L ii i I 3 HHTER VHFCIR 7 l Band 14 sees 2 3332 151 lower trop Temp 60 N g as


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