ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE
ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE GEOG 2412
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Resource Management Challenges Common Property and Transboundary Tragedy of the Commons open access allows harvest benefits to individuals but impacts spread to all users Airclimate Ground water Oceanic fisheries Public Land Resources National Parks forests Wildlife prairie dogs elk wolves Exploitation of Renewable Resources Economicallyefficient harvest supply and demand Sustained yield yield that repeats annually or other time frame Typically means that harvest is of the growth increment Asset value defined by original cost or price of access to the resource over time Related concept carrying capacity longterm renewable species population maintenance or productivity of an ecosystem Maximum Sustained Yield human systems strive for gt SY Production yield is still guided by demand and supplywhich sets a price and can push for harvest above sustainable level liquidation Renewables Some Complications and Uncertainties Science may not know the sustained yield or carrying capacity Yield or carrying capacity not same every cycle so harvest should be adjustable but demand not easy to manage grazing water even wildlife Many renewabes wrapped up in other ecological values and serVIces Problem of market failures those aspects of resource use that market ignores pollution and other externalities social interest in conservation and strategicsecurity issues timber species etc Colorado River Flow at Lee Ferry Arizona MillionAcre Feet l wan Variability is big problem in managirwiatgwigr sustained yield of many renewable like water timber wildlife Especially where demand rises close to Sustained Yield Strrn Flaw BmEd Em Tree Ring Data Emllcler Cred HEar r dell f 39IFI l 1T5 Iquot 1quot l39ll 1am Managing Water Resources In theory renewable Water resources main uses Agriculture Domesticmunicipal Industrial Power generation cooling Managed in large systems of collection transfer storage and supply Water Resources Supply managed through acquisition of rights conveyance and storage of water supply to users Storage regularizes supply Demand managed by regulation law price rationing etc Technology and education can affect demand low flow fixtures Lowflow irrigation Lowdemand crops lawns etc Substitution Most waster systems also deal with Quality management Instream flow and ecological uses and services Historic yield appears to be about 15 million acre feet but variable Optimistic assessments have made the system over appropriated eg demand exceeds supply in the average year Dams are used to store from highflow years for use in lowflow years THE COLORADO RIVER BASIN Central Utah Project Diversions to Great basin Salt Lake Diversions to Front meange South Platte Missouri Miss entral Arizona Project diversions to Phoenix and Tucson r Diversions to Southern 39 California Required delivery to Mexico ColoradoBig Thomp507n Proied racin u and mm inundurias mm 3 Aquot er mums ma wAyER inaauu arr win at mm Cu mm no cm 2quot Wslarshods Providing Boulder Blinking mm Mn mum may mm mm mm wva am rum wwwrw ggwgnuwrwm n um mm Wm 5m Mam mm W I swine wanmm fwwuymmm Drinking Wiler Supply Cumin Usage 7 3 WW Water Resources Demand management In most mature natural resource systems unit of reduced demand typically as valuable or more so than unit of increased supply Regulation law price rationing education technology education Technology low flow fixtures Lowflow irrigation Lowdemand crops lawns etc Substitution for water Goal Change resource use behavior Regulation Economics pricing Technological innovation and diffusion Education example guilt pride etc nfrastructures stems Drip trickle irrigation waters crepe ef ciently y Credit Neva Scetia Agriculture and Fisheries Hurricane Flood Protection modify the event Earthquake Tsunami wildfire u Magnitude duration extent Natural Events System I Natural Hazard Impacts H Response Deaths injuries Human use economic loss System Populations A Reduce loss burden Agriculture Settlement Adapt reduce human Disaster aid Transportation vulnerabiilty warning systems insurance land use regulations etc Housing Land Use Long Term Reduction in Vulnerability of Human System The most obvious way to reduce vulnerability of the human use system is to change where we live and build In theory Land Use Planning and Regulation can mitigate exposure to hazards But this approach is not easily imparted in the American culturelegal system that protects property rights A major effort by state of 80 after Hurricane Hugo to restrict building along the shore was struck down by the Supreme Court has hurting property owners Still some Zoning Ordinances and Building Codes do detail what can be built where and how so could prevent building in floodplains along shore etc if they become more widespread and more enforced This is a social and economic question do we wantneed more restrictions on land use One thing for sure government itself can at least avoid putting schools hospitals etc in hazard zones 39I i l 7 Example AlquistPrinlo zone in Calif new building is restricted near faults Hurricane Flood Protection modify the event Earthquake Tsunami wildfire u Natural Events System Human use System Populations Agriculture Magnitude duration extent 1 Natural Hazard Impacts H Response Deaths injuries economic loss Reduce Eoss burden Settlement Transportation Housing Adapt reduce vulnerability incr resiliency Eisaster aid insurance Reduce the Loss Burden Disaster Aid and Insurance OK so bad things happen and people incur lossessociety often then steps in to help fix things through two main attempts tor educe the burden of loss on individuals and communities Disaster Aid and Relief is provided by government to help people recover and rebuild Hazard Insurance is a mostly private sector system where a pool of payments is used to compensate those ratepayers who incur a loss It works out that federal and state governments find it necessary to subsidize Flood and earthquake insurance because private companies find it uneconomical to offer it to their customers In both cases one might ask whether relief and insurance actually encourages risktaking Rebuilding houses on the shore or in fireprone forests etc A similar argument can be made for public protection structures like dams levees and seawalls they may give a sense of security and entice more development in floodplains Then they fail no system is perfect some Eillfure is inevitable and losses are then larger This is caHed the Levee ect Method of Choice of Adjustment From the Burton et al reading Expected Utilitv risks vs benefits and costs objective costs and benefits Subjective Expected Utilitv perceived costs and benefits Bounded Rationality personal social cultural factors impingenonhazardrelated goals limited knowledge of adjustment etc The latter explains much of the illogical exposure to hazards we can observe Presidential Disaster Declarations a Jal1955ta Vember32000 39 t gm g gmm39ia V I l is z aeggmaig 39g39l g l aku g 39 i DjiL Fl E muquot PRESIDENTIAL DEGLAHATIDIIS MappedToal1162 WWW m a W mm mm rwmhzkerzorpnom itigatian Strategies fart1e New Millennium A big problem with hazard losses is repeat lossquot in areas that get flooded or stormed on frequently and rely on federal disaster relief Does this encourage exposure and vulnerability Some counties above have 20 disaster declarations in 35 years And in many situations hazardousness is increasing Eg The Worsening coastal storm hazard in US Developmentpopulation growth Miami Beach condos right Land degradation Sea level rise loss of coasdtal wetlands and barrier beaches in La below and below right Calllou Bay Lm Pello g 7 M lrlstemleres a 5 m uArIo NTL39HukEIcANE39EEMTzn The very active recordbreaking 2005 hurricane season also suggested that maybe the natural event system was also changing so that the physical events are becoming more intense and more frequent The science is still out on this trend but hurricanes do occur In 2004 Florida was hit by four significant hurricanes all in one season This is Hurricane Frances AuguthS September Hurricane Ivan Septemberz 17 Hurricane Rita as a Cat 5 Sept 2005 Dec 26 2004 Ts unami A 6983 dead and 42883 missing for a total of 229886 affected The earthquake was originally recorded as 90 Richter scale but has been upgraded to between 91 and 93 At this magnitude 39 e ever r rded o I o ra h I hqua al 0 report e longest duration of faulting ever observed lasting 0 a s It was large enough that it caused the entire inch or over a centimetrng It also triggered earthquakes in other locations as far away as Alaska The waves up to 30 m 100 ft The furthest recorded death due to the tsunami occurring at Port Elizabeth in South Africa 8000 km 5000 mi away from the epicentre 700 people killed had warning evacuated thousands closed a major US air base cooled global temps for few years Wrapup Discussion Our Relationship with Environment as Hazard Why should society bail out hazard zone occupantsrisk takers Can society REQUIRE hazard adjustment What about differential vulnerability at risk groups do they deserve public help Should New Orleans be rebuilt with how much public money with to what level of protection What is the logical or efficient relationship between mitigation and risk between human use and exposure AT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDICATORS VALUES AND PRACTlCE By Hubert WI Matesg Thomas M Farris and Anthony As Leiserawitz Sustainable development is Considering that the concept 0 sustainable developmlant is nnw enshrined on the masthead of Environment magazine featured on 320000 Web pages and enmeshed in the aspirations of countless rorams laces and institutions it shauld be 035 ta Kates Sustainable Development The Brundtland Commission s brief definition of sustainable development as the ability to make development sustainable to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is surely the standard definition when judged by its widespread use and frequency of citation More from Brundtland Commission The concept of sustainable development does imply limits not absolute limits but limitations imposed by the present state of technology and social organization on environmental resources and by the ability of the biosphere to absorb the effects of human activities Figure I De nitians m sustainable develupment WHAT IS TO BE SUETHNED MAWHE Earth Bindiuars ty Mame UEFE ETJFFDHT Emsysm sewwees H EDIJIDBi Emmmmen CUMBHMFW mamas Emups Planets FDFI HOW LONG 35 years Now and in the futurequot FU E39A39ET LINKED BY 12mm M sty Bu And Ur WHAT IS TU HE DEVELDFED PEOPLE DEWd sunNa Lifa mmy Eduzmman Equity Equal nppnrmnily EECFHBIW Wallm Prnductkva sensors Cmmp m SEC IETY muons 5min capital Stains FIEWm Other Ways to define Sustainability Goals as stated in various reports assessments UN Millennial Declaration Indicators what can we measure access to freshwater etc Values Practice what are we accomplishing and howKates focuses on the emergence of a Sustainability Science to understand socioecological systems and their structure processes and trends lane 1 uennmons msuslalnablz zvehpmelmmpllully ur explmuy atlan by xelukd indjmnr inmativas mm mm hurlmm m m Mm mmm m mm quotmm mqu m mm mum 5 mm minm wwwmrx spam mm mm mon quotWWW am DWM mm mmnm Wampum v w s mam 5quotme mm m asquot W mm Wm H am 1 an Ammwmw mr may We 1 man WWW L mm mmnwwum mmmwmm and Ham 7 m Mummrmm 1 451mm w mmva m mmnmgef Maryannquot 5 mm 55 mm vmwmm Sammy mmummu mm mm m mamm my mum39s m m m awn am 7 w m w MM mm magnum angus mmmwn So What Is Sustainable Development Since the Brundtland Commission first defined sustainable development dozens if not hundreds of scholars and practitioners have articulated and promoted their own alternative definition yet a clear fixed and immutable meaning remains elusive This has led some observers to call sustainable development an oxymoron fundamentally contradictory and irreconcilable Critique is nonetheless a vital part of the conscious evolution of sustainable development a concept that in the end represents diverse local to global efforts to imaqine and enact a positive vision of a world in which basic human needs are met without destrovinq or irrevocablv deqradinq the natural systems on which we all depend Final exam Monday 130 pm Here s a quick run down of the detailed material subject to Exam 3 All lectures starting with Nov 9 Natural Hazards lecture Global warming basic causes ecological and social impacts human response mitigation and adaptation Sustainability Science These Readings Hazard Response and Choice Burton et al pp 34 52 quotVulnerability to Climate Changequot Smith et al Executive Summary Introduction 191 and Conclusions 198 Perspectives on Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference Yamin et al What is Sustainable development Kates et al 1 Why do climatologists expect a warmer earth to be a wetter earth a warmer temperatures melt ice caps and the water flows everywhere b warmer average temperatures increase overall evaporation which drives a stronger hydrological cycle c warmer temperatures mean that sea level falls 2 TF Frequency of natural events tends to be inversely related to magnitude 3 TF In a normal distribution of the magnitudes of a natural event recorded over time the mean is also the most frequent magnitude of that event 4 TF In the US land use regulation has emerged as a widespread successful human adjustment that has reduced losses to natural hazards 5 The levee effect is o a the measure of a levee s ability to hold back floods of a certain height b a measure of the inevitable leakage thru a levee of minor flood waters c the protection provided by a levee d the perceived safety behind a levee that then encourages further development Professionalization Etiquette MidTerm Comments 1 HomeWork Products Stapled edited completed 2 Class Preparation Check the web site before class 3 Writing Assignments Because fragments aren t sentences 1 Emails Salutations Expectations Punctuations 2 Lectures Dr Travis is an academic professional and his expert knowledge is often delivered via his lectures Please recognize that it is both distracting and disrespectful to pack up prior to the end of any meeting 3 Responsibility i keep appointments ii eXpect changes arrive prepared The UN Millennial Ecosystem Assessment The Millennial Ecosystems Assessment is a UN project to measure the status of the world s ecosystems changes caused by human and natural forces and the effects of those changes on human well being Read more httpwwwmillenniu ssessmentorqlenAboutOverview QILX We focus on just a small part of this huge effort and document Direct and Indirect Drivers of Ecological Change Chap 3 Summary Biodiversity Chap 4 sections Main Messages 43 44 and 46 Synthesis Chap 28 Finish Discussion of Direct Drivers Chap 3 Land cover change biggest driver Deforestation low latitudes reforestation higher latitudes Urbanization pop urbanized urban growth sprawl urbanrural interactions Agricultural spread and intensification m m A w m as mimmxamp r latitudes w wt m n 3 mw xymw 1 ngh dlverSIty In Iowe Direct Drivers Overexploitation Example Harvest levels Fishing reducing ocean species Habitat Change loss and degradation Example Freshwater hydrologic regime change dams etc changes riverine ecology Nutrient loading nitrogen and phosphorous can over fertilize aquatic habitats displacing species and depleting dissolved oxygen Climate Change varied effects Invasive species introduced plants and animals purposeful and inadvertent Outcompete and displace natives or alter habitats so much that natives can t adapt cum Imam ammo D Pre an dimibuum t MA Chap 4 Biodiversity Main Findings Overview Estimates on the of species Knowledge about species Species in decline Homogenization Biomes and changes MA Chap 4 Biodiversity Main Findings of species estimates Most estimates of the total number of species on Earth lie between 5 million and 30 million Of this total roughly 2 million species have been formally described the remainder are unknown or unnamed MA Chap 4 Biodiversity Main Findings Knowledge about species Between 12 and 52 of species within wellstudied higher taxa are threatened with extinction according to the IUCN Red List Less than 10 of named species have been assessed in terms of their conservation status MA Chap 4 Biodiversity Main Findings Species in decline Among a range of higher taxa the majority of species are currently in decline Studies of amphibians globally African mammals birds in intensively managed agricultural lands British butterflies Caribbean corals waterbirds and fishery species show the majority of species to be declining in range or number Those species that are increasing have benefited from management interventions such as protection in reserves or elimination of threats such as overexploitation or are species that tend to thrive in humandominated landscapes MA Chap 4 Biodiversity Main Findings Species in decline The main causes of species extinction are changing from a historical trend of introductions and overexploitation affecting island species to presentday habitat loss and degradation affecting continental species While the vast majority of recorded extinctions since 1500 have occurred on oceanic islands continental extinctions are now as common as island extinctions Why are Island Species so senste Proclivity to endangerment includes Isolation Small numbers in geographically small areas Lack of adaptations for coping with introduced exotic species especially predators Island Speciesll l i 39 C o Mammals n77 A Blrds n1as k Amphib n5 n235 u 2004 gure 424 Locallons u Hawaiian Natives Disappear Scientists announced on November 30 2004 that the po39ouli a native Hawaiian honeycreeper will soon be just a memory kept alive by photos data and stuffed specimens One ofthe three po39ouli birds known to still exist died in captivity due to avian malaria spread by mosquitoes a species not native to Hawaii 39 S mu m i Molokai mmquot h Maui Hawaii Brown Tree Snake possible threat Hawaii s natives A brown tree snake Eating a hil ll Even continental species can suffer from an island effect meaning isolated and small remaining habitat and population Florida Panther Range Present Range Hizio rk Range MA Chap 4 Biodiversity Main Findings Homogenization Homoqenization the process whereby species assemblages become increasingly dominated by a small number of widespread humanadapted species represents further losses in biodiversity that are often missed when only considering changes in absolute numbers of species The many species that are declining as a result of human activities tend to be replaced by a much smaller number of expanding species that thrive in human altered environments Anthropogenic Homogenization Exotic species Homogenization pgziotjozls MA Chap 4 Biodiversity Main Findings Biomes and changes The majority of biomes have been greatly modified by humans Between 20 and 50 of 9 of the 14 biomes have been transformed to croplands Tropical dry forests are the most reduced by cultivation with almost half of the biome s native habitats replaced with cultivated lands Three other biomes temperate grasslands temperate broadleaf forests and Mediterranean forests have experienced 35 or more conversion Biomes least reduced by cultivation include deserts boreal forests and tundra Ooeanic Antarctic Biome TMF Trupica and sub tmpica moist broadleaf crests TDF Trunica and subtropica dry broad eaf crests a submpma caniferuus inres s 0 m 4 a E n E m huplca grasslands savannas and shmb ands Temperale grass ands savannas and shrumands FG Handed urasslands and savannas 39 MG39 Montana grass ands and snrumands T Tundra MF Mediterranean forests wnm ands and scrub i D Desens and xenc shrub ands I M Mangroves Lakes Rock and ice x Bioaeoaraohlc rea m Bunne TMF Tropical and subtrepisal moist bro adleat forests TDF Trepical and suetrepieal dry breadleaf forests TCF Tropical and suntropical coniferous faresis TeEiF Temperate breedieaf and mixed ferests TeGF Temperate eeniferous ferests BF Bdreel ferestsitaiga TG Trepical and subtrepisal grasslands ssvannas and shrulbIands TeG Temperate grasslands savannes and slhrublands FG Flooded grasslands and savannas MG Montane grasslands and shrublands T Tundra MF Mediterranean ferests weddlands and scrub D Deserts and xerle shrublands M Mangroves Lakes Rack and ice Natural Resources We ll begin Theme 3 with look at natural resources management principles see the eReserve reading for some basic intro Resources material goodsservices we derive from the environment Technology economics and culture define natural resources soil uranium even naturalness defined at different times by different societies Nonrenewable Stock vs renewable Private vs Public common property Natural Resource Yields Soils depth and fertility erosion rates inchesyear Water volume and flow acre feetyear cu feetsec Minerals mass tonsgrade Energy BTUs mass tons of coal volume of gas oil Farmland crop yield mass per unit area bushels or kilos Forests board feetcubic meterslinear feet year Rangeland forage yield massareayear Wildlife population Fisheries population Parks Preserves Wildlands Open space usually measured as land are protected acres Outdoor recreation user days people visiting part of a day Biodiversity number of species VohuneamefeetorcuMc metersyear Flow cu feet or meters per second Volume board feet cubic feet or linear feet 2X48 Growth increment per year fff3ffferquot s e fff a f a i 692 mu Yield of elk in Yellowstone National Park the population at any give time also measure births deaths and age and sex distributions to predict the future like most renewables is variable over time harsh winters more or less hunting harvest natural cycles in food supply or longterm trends in environment Often management seeks a certain yield or trend Exploitation of Stock Resources Economicallyefficient depletion rates for stock resources Asset value defined by original cost or price of access to the resource over time Production yield is guided by demand and supplywhich sets a price Liquidate at efficient rate when asset value now measured as price exceeds production costs f supplies produce too much price declines not enough price increases oil is good example and some producers coordinate to try to affect price eg OPEC Stock Resources Some Complications and Uncertainties Can be very hard to measure reserves just how much oil is left economically recoverable reserves vs total reserves made uncertain over time due to potential for enhanced extraction recovery regulationpolicy and substitution see peak oil The socalled many actor problem individual ownerproducers of Oil Silver whatever may liqUIdate or conserve for nonmarket reasons Problem of market failures those aspects of resource use that market ignores pollution and other externalities social interest In conservation and strategicsecurity issues uranium Many of these complications also apply to renewables OIL AND GAS LIQUIDS 2004 Scenario mu am 195m 195m mu 195m 199m 2mm mm mm 2mm mm mm IUSVAE EumpE lR usswa Doom EM East lHeaWEtc Deepwam EIPu ay NGL The Growing Gap I Pas k Discovery lFLnure Dimwew 39I39Productian Northern Alaska I 38 petroleum diacoveries 15 BBQ and 55 TCFG momerahle commercial production Arctic Ocean F Point Barrow 39 Jr 1 7 1M AREA r in P i I i q PRUDHUE RAY f I k 39 393 I w thillaclcenme River delta Mackenzie mm delta 43 mlro39eum discoveries quot3 EECquot and I TEFG 39ocwor no commercial p39oduclion nl39 Pranks Range Will DER39MFSS AREA l lnuwn pelrjlgaumi accumulations ANWE 19 million acres iDDE area a 15 mil ion acres Wilderness Area 8 million acres l quotFHA 23 million aClEs lm39 l PS Externalities as depleted we go further and further for supply and often into sensitive environments where the externality of ecological impact may be large or is at least arguable And Where the Oil Is IL Geog ra phy the Persian Cull y Noarln sag and geo pol iti cs ca n still matte r Exploitation of Renewable Resources Economicallyefficient harvest supply and demand Sustained yield yield that repeats annually or other time frame Typically means that harvest is of the growth increment Asset value defined by original cost or price of access to the resource over time Related concept carrying capacity longterm renewable species population maintenance or productivity of an ecosystem Maximum Sustained Yield human systems strive for gt SY Production yield is still guided by demand and supplywhich sets a price and can push for harvest above sustainable level liquidation back to Lowenthal Dust Bowl Doubts pp 123124 Lowenthal briefly takes on notions of stability natural balance etc Equilibrium models of nature dominated our thinking in easrly 1900s and early ecology and lead to notions of climax stable and diverse ecosystems as long as humans didn t interfere too much In a modern form of Social DanNinism some ecologists argued that the same notions applied to human societies But he points out that most scientific ecologists have moved beyond the equilibrium concept to more messy alternatives that inculcated the full complexity of nature even if lay people and environmentalists hold tight to balance ideals After World War II came rapidly growing global impact of human development and resurgent awareness of that impact Lowenthal uses the 1955 Princeton University conference and book Man s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth 1950s to explore an apparent contradiction The conference focused on growing human transformation of earth our next theme and is cited by some as first major scientific assessment of larger env problems BUT His close analysis of what participants said at Man s Role uncovers continued intellectual ambivalence and lots of techno optimism Large problems showing up but still a strong sense that we could fix the problems Mans Role participants seem schizoidsee quotes on p125 left column we ll go over them in class Eg he quotes leading climatologist CW Thornwaite on the atmosphere he poohpoohs global warming in 1955 overall a sense was afoot that earth s systems were big enough to absorb the human impact Conf participants also felt that the same technology that brought us nuclear weapons and seemed to the public to be threatening could be our technological savior Lowenthal we ll stop top of p 126 His Man s Role psychoanalysis convinces him of big gap between perceptions of scholarstechnologists and a public more and more concerned freaked by nuclear bombs air pollution etc We stop here but he goes on to examine 1960s 70 and 80s beliefs and attitudes aa Dunlap et a and rise of a fractious public environmentalism Principles of Collective Perceptions Dunlap is mostly about individual perceptions and beliefs Lowenthal is more about collective beliefs Let s briefly consider collective perceptions to wrap up principles of Theme 1 Myths Ideologies and Cultural Constructs formulated over long periods through various discourses writing art newseditorial political discussions talkinghead commentators etc Eg nature is nurturing ruthless the mountains don t care resilient balanced a model for human society etc Principles of Collective Perceptions Also institutionalized perceptions especially professional standards and practices forestry range management water resources engineering weed and pest management etc Anthropologist Mary Douglas How Institutions Think I ll post the ref on Further Reading page Affected by institutional culture observable thru and measured by Professional documentation textbooks manuals standards etc Institutional formal statements assessments IPCC etc Actual practice eg Corps of Engineers work on New Orleans dikes Leiserowitz Kates and Paris Do Attitudes Support Sustainable Dev Findings from global surveys of attitudes and behaviors ala DEVELOPMENT Development is good Money buys you happiness Pessimism reigns fewerjobs bad working conditions disease poor health care care for elderly and unemployed 70 said they would pay 1 more in taxes to support dev aid 81 support foreign aid But they know little about it overestimate current aid Leiserowitz Kates and Paris Do Attitudes Support Sustainable Dev YES Findings from global surveys of attitudes and behaviors ala ENVIRONMENT 70 We should coexist with nature not dominate 19 said master it more in LDCs Large majorities now reject the dominion ethic as basis for humannature relationship Figure 3 American US enwronmental values wa Parcanl ol re nements 25 1 1 o 39J A B c D Environmental values lsomewnal aglee slmngly aglee A39 Humans ale not panaf name a a H Nanne nas value wnnm nsell legalaless ul any value numans place an ll SOURCE A Leisewwnz 2005 E Figure 4 Percent of global public calling environmental issues a very serious proh em mu m 72 vs 7o E 59 3959 57 6 C 3 55 3 so 46 E U B CD ED D o g 3991 05 0 C323 9 anewe erred 00 Se 5 quot33 23 06 Co 539 90 O a 52 92 Q9 939 9 05 839 0 e o Leiserowitz Kates and Paris Do Attitudes Support Sustainable Dev Reported behaviors 2030 report buying products with environmental impacts in mind 9Green Consumerism but 60 report recycling 54 want less emphasis on material wealthconsumerism 51 high income felt it a threat only 43 in lower income countries Technooptimism also varies between MDC and LDC see next graph Figure 7 Technological optimism regarding environmental problems Percent of respondents 7 5 Low GDP countries Medium GEiP countries High GDP countries Levels of development I Optimism P essimism Leiserowitz et al Conclusions Large support for sustainable development in theory Lots of contradictions in attitudes Lots of contradictions in behavior Barriers to actual behavior Strength of attitudes broad but shallow Individual capabilities structural laws technology infrastructure e c We ll come back to these to wrap up this theme Thursday Resource Management Challenges olnlnon ary values connnon Property Open Accessquot and Transboundary Tragedy er the Cmnrnnns epen access allnws harvest benenls m aeeme m n Baal eanamsmme bmwv qulhtlun mums V cl n rel gal lmalm 2rd quotquotquotgmwsyg ms WW ml quotin 5 quotquotquot Commons and Open Access Management cnallenges Creaan lnstltutlnns and mecnamsms fur mum llyragreed eenlml rGluun walel rOEEanlc nsnenes e Sel lmpused mmuallyragleed mles lndlvlduals seem maxlmlze nanESL lack N312 pvupem ls hast managed Bf nntml causes depletan r Nagullallun and Cullabulallunilul MES UV Twlcal mm harvest and us rAllcll l IWnallHE lleawmsnlne lequlmlnns Wm pmlnenl Theme 3 Pa Environment as Hazard Geography 2412 Lecture Notes Week 1 Introduction Models of Nature and Culture Ways of Thinking about Environment and Society Without getting too far into the philosophy of thought or science it is valuable to recognize at least two types of quotmodelsquot or statements of the relationship between society and nature quotDescriptivequot statements and models are conceptualizations that purport to state the reality of the relationship this is quothow things arequot71 would claim that this is the academic and objective approach quotPrescriptivequot models are normative statements of the way the relationship quotought to bequot So an environmentalist might argue that industrial society has come to dominate nature description but that society should seek more of a quotbalance with naturequot or make itself more subject to the limits of nature prescription Some academic models are also prescriptive economists might argue for the correct value of a natural resource Ways of thinking about nature and society Anthropological exceptionalism Part vs Apart 39 Determinism39 Natural limits models neo environmental determinism Dominion models humans have dominated and should shape nature technology trumps limits Interactive models human and cultural ecology nature offers options people adapt and transform nature F quot v 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 humans should develop meet needs and desires but must mitigate environmental problems with large social and ecological costs Anthropological exceptionalism Part vs Apart An overarching question that you take up in recitation discussion is whether we see humans as part of or apart from the natural worlds This class is based on this basic duality so I can hardly reject it Humans are exceptional in the anima world in their relationship to the rest of nature and we ll spend the whole semester exploring that Still if you d like to explore the argument that humans are more part of than apart from nature then you get to do that in recitation Determinism39 Natural limits models neo environmental determinism One classical stream of thought was quotenvironmental determinismquot which saw the environment as determining the structure of societythat people and cultures developed in certain environments and those environments in uenced or even determined many of the characteristics of those cultures This idea was taken a bit far around the turn of the last century by for example the geographers Ratzel in Europe and Semple in the Us into theories that postulated that forms of government production consumption systems and even personal traits were determined by the climate and ecosystem in which cultures or nation states developed This was patently illogical especially when any historian will tell you that pretty much all cultures traded between regions and that different types of regimes arose in physicallysimilar areas We could phrase modern environmentalism as Neo environmental determinism this term has been used to describe the reemergence of a strong sense that nature does place limits on social development I witnessed this myself in the first quotEarth Daysquot and gasoline shortages of the early 1970s A series of events eroded the postWorld War II sense of wellbeing among the industrialized countriespollution oil shortages famines etc plus all the other stuff going on race relations cold war Vietnam After a couple of decades of rapid growth in production consumption and wealth there suddenly seemed to be problems caused by limits on natural resources We saw famines on TV Biafra Bangladesh Ethiopia and had to wait in lines at gas stations because it seemed the world was running out of oil though we all knew that this was mostly the effect of a political economic struggle between the consumer states and the producer state namely the Organization of Oil producing Countries OPEC A series of books and arguments also raised the concern that we had run into fixed quotenvironmental limitsquot on our economy and on human growth Biologist Paul Ehrlich wrote in 1968 the Population Bomb a book predicting that rapid population growth was already running into fixed limits on food and other natural resources and that we would outstrip the world s carrying capacity for human population in the next decade or two that is by about 1990 We ll return to these arguments later but the point here is that the quotlimitsquot school of thought argued that the relationship between nature and society was not as amenable to growth and development of modern society as our postWWII industrial success and in a sense the agricultural and industrial revolutions themselves seemed to indicate We were living on borrowed time The models are sharpened by two main seemingly simple arguments The Malthusian argument that people can breed faster than resources can be expanded and the tragedy of the Commons from biologist Garrett Hardin in his 1968 Science article by the same title that populations that overwhelm even their local carrying capacity can spoil the whole global commons and bring down the rest of us If the environmental doomsayers of the 1960s and 1970s seem quaint to you today we re still here living the good life and millions more people are living on earth and being fed you have to look no farther than the debate about Peak Oil to find similar arguments today Limits models are also implied in Al Gore s An Inconvenient Truth Which in a sense argues that the limit is not fossil fuel itselfiindeed there may be too much of it in the earth and if we actually use it at current rates we ll run into another limit our ability to survive the climate changes that result Dominion models humans have dominated and should shape nature technology trumps limits Human dominion models also have classical and modern strains There are several ways of conceptualizing the notion that humans dominate or should dominate nature These can be religious philosophical ethical etc I ll concentrate on just two 1 the study of human transformation of nature and the human will to transform nature Social systems in uence environment and as societies develop their ability and tendency to transform nature growsto the point now that we are transforming the entire biosphere This can be seen as a descriptive diagnostic view And 2 the no limits techno optimistic or cornucopian view that human technology and ingenuity can overcome environmental constraints you ll take this up in a recitation as well This is best stated in the work of Julian Simon in his book The Ultimate Resource 1981 Various proponents of this view like to point out the dire predictions of the doom and gloom crowd have not come to pass We ll look closely at this model when we take up natural resources in Week 8 Interactive models human and cultural ecology nature offers options people adapt and transform nature I I A 1 39 39 u I in r r J 39 J and other elds have developed sub fields of quotcultural ecology and quotpolitical ecologyquot as more nuanced conceptualizations that stress the interaction of nature and culture recognizing that yes indeed people are in uenced by their surroundings but that human processes of organizing labor differentiation governing and innovation are uid and not fixed by environmental factors We ll look more closely at how to operationalize an interactive model when we take up natural hazards in Week 10 P quot v 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 humans should develop meet needs and desires but must mitigate the inevitable environmental problems especially those with potentially with large social and ecological costs Indeed the mitigation should be built into human development We ll discuss this prescriptive notion under the heading of Sustainable Development and Sustainability Science in the last couple of weeks of class How any one person sees the relationship that we address in this class can depend on various factors that affect their point of view This might include religion culture background and even personality Another important factor is professionalizationithe act of taking on the paradigmatic views of a technical or scienti c profession EG someone trained as a forester sees the forests differently than others and probably has accepted a quotproductionistquot model the forest are like tree factories and indeed human intervention can increase their production we put out forest fires and manage the forest for greater productivity Groups also adopt notions of nature that may be informed by prescriptive or normative theory e g that nature tends toward quotbalancequot that nature is quotefficien quot or that nature is robust and cant take a lot of intervention from us these notions show up in the global warming debate Finally our own envi 39 quot and our 39 political and religious beliefs also affect how we see the relationship between people and nature A rancher who loses calves to wolves is less likely to see them as a quotkeystonequot predator vital to ecosystem health in the same way that a forester or a homeowner in the woods is not likely to see wildfire as an ecologically healthy process There is dissonance in believing that your actions you way of life are quotgoodquot while also accepting that the natural processes that hurt you or cost you money are also somehow good or quotrightquot In this manner you we as critical thinkers and consumers of information must recognize that some of the arguments we hear e g quotwolves kill for the fun of i quot quotwildfires destroy forestsquot have economic and political roots while they may also have some science behind them and are aimed at reducing this dissonance as well at persuading us to accept a certain view Sample questions are being posted on the web site examples Which of these best exemplifies Marsh s view as offered by Lowenthal a Marsh believed that humans inevitably destroy nature and ought to give up technology and growth and return to more primitive natural ways b Marsh emphasized that victory over nature required care for the global fabric efforts to reverse the illeffects of human impact c Marsh believed that North American pioneers should follow the examples he saw in the Mediterranean where careful nurturing of forests and grasslands had supported human settlement for thousands of years Which of these models of nature and society relationships were supported by early geographers Ellen Semple and Friedrich Ratzel a Anthropological exceptionalism b Environmental Determinism c Nature and society interaction human and cultural ecology d Precautionary modelssustainable development New Ecological Paradigm Riley Dunlap et al The NEP explores the current state of our understanding of nature and our relation to it Dunlap et al had several goals in survey Recognize and capture shift from obvious point problems like Iocla air and water pollution to env problems that are Geographically disperse Less directly observable Ambiguous in origin Need to measure awareness over environmental Issues From traditional concerns like air pollution to global dispersed more ambiguous issues like global deforestation and global warming which survey responders can t experience directly 4 otomslxtlan I 391 Global and Herrispheric Annual Terrpereiure Anomalies Northern Hemisphere 39remperaiure Anomaly quot0 Hemisphere lean 1880 1900 mo 1940 Ban 1990 moo Source 5 g Johee I J ceborn md K a Brine mverer oi East An he Norwid1 UK a E Per er Mel algae Breekneil Berkshire UK Also need to capture sense of future problems limits and crises like global warming which are very uncertain and distant we ll see this graph again and discuss it in detail in our synthesis of the class themes 6 I I I I I Scenanos A1B A1T A2 B1 B2 l892a TAR method 391 Bars show the range in 2100 I I I I I I I 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 pmduced by Years several model Temperature change C 00 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 2000 The range of temperature resulting from alternative GHG emission scenarios Riley Dunlap et al Dunlap et al had several problems Are they measuring a unitary construct Is it meaningful Does it tap foundational beliefs primitive beliefs Does pro NEP attitudes lead to pro environmental behaviors Does NEP predict Example of a fundamental notion Our assessment of nature s basic operating code is it inherently forgiving and stable or unbalance and inherently unstable Can we perturb it a lot or only a little 3 Humans are severely abusing the environment 8 The balance of nature is strong enough to cope with the impacts of modern industrial na ons 13 The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset Dunalp conclusions They do find support for NEP among younger more educated liberal groups Less among more rural conservative and people employed in primary industries eg farming logging etc Thus it predicts in the sense it supports other surveys Trend There is little longitudinal data but increases in NEP support in WA and KY studies My sense both aspects of survey ability to predict behavior and whether there s authentic trend to fundamental NEP ness need more analysis back to Lowenthal Dust Bowl Doubts pp 123124 Lowenthal briefly takes on notions of stability natural balance etc Equilibrium models of nature dominated our thinking and lead to notions of climax stable and diverse ecosystems as long as humans didn t interfere too much In a modern form of Social DanNinism some ecologists argued that the same notions applied to human societies But he points out that most scientific ecologists had already dropped the concept for more messy alternatives that inculcated the full complexity of nature Then After World War II came rapidly growing global Impact of human development and resurgent awareness of that Impact Lowenthal uses the 1955 Princeton University conference and book Man s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth 1950s to explore an apparent contradiction The conference focused on growing human transformation of earth our next theme and is cited by some as first major scientific assessment of larger env problems BUT But his close analysis of what participants said at Man s Role uncovers continued intellectual ambivalence and lots of techno optimism Large problems showing up but still a strong sense that we could fix the problems Mans Role participants seem schizoidsee quotes on p125 left column we ll go over them in class Cites oceans and even leading climatologist CW Thornwaite on the atmosphere he poohpoohs global warming in 1955 overall a sense that earth s systems were big enough to absorb the human impact That the same technology that brought us Hiroshima and seemed to the public to be threatening could be our technological savior Lowenthal we ll stop top of p 126 His Man s Role psychoanalysis convince shim of big gap between perceptions of scholarstechnologists and a public more and more concerned freaked by nuclear bombs air pollution etc We stop here but he goes on to examine 1960s 70 and 80s beliefs and attitudes aa Dunlap et a and rise of a fractious public environmentalism Principles of Collective Perceptions Dunlap is mostly about individual perceptions and beliefs Lowenthal is more about collective beliefs Let s briefly consider collective perceptions to wrap up Theme 1 Myths Ideologies and Cultural Constructs formulated over long periods through various discourses writing art newseditorial political discussions talkinghead commentators etc Eg nature is nurturing ruthless the mountains don t care resilient balanced a model for human society etc Principles of Collective Perceptions Also institutionalized perceptions especially professional standards and practices forestry range management water resources engineering weed and pest management etc Affected by institutional culture observable thru and measured by Professional documentation textbooks manuals standards etc Institutional formal statements assessments IPCC etc Actual practice eg Corps of Engineers work on New Orleans dikes
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