NATURAL HAZARDS GEOG 3402
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Geography
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeremy Steuber on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3402 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/231907/geog-3402-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.
Reviews for NATURAL HAZARDS
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/29/15
HAZARD RESFUMSE JIND CHDIECE Ian Burton Gilbert White and Robert Kates Whether or rwtn Bengali sherman bL39I39t 39n39i like his iIIigi 5II39in Muquot fag ul39 iiw liming ujiulm39m hi5 minum u iIh39n lim39i can usually h illui39nmaligu l by examining vimx ejlcymynl Hi Im situatiinm Thu5439 1 an thy maps in which puiqzilv 11 wijiigrnm and dum nluw a hamrd 4392 musicier hum thug might daal with it and 3 alumiv amung thv mtiuns that sum In them avinilahlrs In mmng inward EITI underlilanding uf hazan l raptIrma and uhiicc m must drc m H11 hamrd itsc and what is meant by It39EP39UH Et39 tu hamni and b39r39 uh im iJl respimsu Thus i mucupts elf TL f39nl 39l39lTIbL39 q l1l LJIII39I IiEL39 PTEI39n39iIllllf I1 bih ih fl 39l39 ill39l39xlil 39lnquot39i l39llquot Hut I39lpl39t l l39nfil wii39l39i hazan es 7H nk ax l i l39lt 395 EXTREME EVENTS IN MATURE AND RETUFIAL HAZARDS A IJiIEiIL dibtlru iiun Ihm hi bu made Elihugin L Ialllnimi 6139 Drills in new 11m i39y39hic39h are mt nutcssarihr hnmrdmis tn pL39 pIL and the charac III39I ul hazard Hem5 The natural wants system thus array of wind warn139 and mirth priamssw functiune Eargdv nndcqwn dcn rlv uh I1 lllTLill39l mii39nli39i39iws iiian iv cm lelgud HF vcnurl l39ic inquiry m in nw1 right 11quot rrlLilmwia39lngmhi hillLll ljlln39k gl39 t and gii39alc igisle s run VL39l L39ly fur i111Hi1 laurpmr Mtg 119qu ul that lk ia Hyhlum ttmfg ansu quothe mgrrij as LJ39539IquotIquotJ HB hidependent at natural LW rZ 39IEL Interitc an ul tliu lwn mama ream him It alum creams hazards ir nL gntiw l39quot5L39llrI39E This d l39inz mn i5 diagrammed in Figure ELI l n ENYS BV PRINCIPAL CAUSAL AGEm EXTREM sgsmvmm BIOLOGICAL anquot oraiogzcai Geoumpivgc Floral Faunal 3 ram 1 and Avalanche rock Fungal dgtsease Samenal vIraL snow examples and pmmzoav Avaimshesnuw disease Aways tom examples kanhquaxo Dumh eim Wheat stem rust In uenza Malaria Erosion mm 39 Typhus Eubnnic lague ivy m m and mare and n festahon beam evusmr examples Venereal disease ables eads Hoot and momh hveamphykes disease Hanls orm alsr hyacvmh Tobaccn mosalc vev H931 wave smmng sand ouson IVy Iniesta on Red tide examples Lancan smKe Tsunar39n dam Rabbits Valamc emmm Termnes LDCUSKS Grasshoppevs Venomous ammal nae Temperamm m cm Tornado e ll focus on Geophyscal events upl a cyclone as hazards Measuring Hazards Maqnitude or intensity speed of Wind height of flood depth of snow shaking of earthquake Frequency Simple frequency how often event occurs in given time frame probability chance in or fraction of one of occurrence in some time frame return period average time between occurrences of given magnitude Duration Areal extent Speed of onset Spatial dispersion Temporal spacing random vs cyclical clumpy etc Snowstorms get new rating scale Ey Handolph E Schmld l rmrrr z39a I m i i L lllNG l ON Sizimiists are launching a marw war of rat ing snuwstm rns a smile wi 1 vi categories ul intensity that won39t be 1194 as a waning tool but Will allow storms in be com paused with others Tll39L Northeast Summill im pact Scale will lJii 112ml this win tar to raw snnwslorrru in lhr Northeast immediately a nr they strike the National Ocean ic and Ahmsplieric inn said Monday lilac thff SwimSimpson for hurricanes marl the Fujiiln smile for tornadoes the new scale has ve lewls of linenssky Hut mum than being based only on weather factors like wind or storm surge it also in cludes the impact on people Unlike the hurricane Kale which in used in rearms to warn swirl r areas of the lllt tz d for evacuation the purpose of the snowstonn stain is m the impact of u storm right afterilomns There are no plans to try and use it as a warning tool staid Jay Lawrimum of the National Climatic llata Canter which is rmmnslble fur calculat ing the 553112 The scale ranks storms rum 1 Notable 2 Signi cant 1 Ma jnr rt Crippling and 5 Extreme Developed by I aul Karin a winter storms expert at like Weather Channel and Louis Ur oellini dimctor of the NW Natural Centers for Environ mania l39redicliuu in Camp Springs Md the rating39 Elms m lhe timber of inches of swwhciam ma aomd and 1hr numhir at people a ected The mile was cliewluprd for Line Northeast because of the t cnnumic and in ammation im pacl such slum have on the whole 390va Intensity or magnitude is measured in various ways wind speed central pressure ground movement as of gthe acceleration of gravity etc But some officials think the public needs simpler categorical measures so they create simple scales like the Snowstorm scale above the SafirSimpson hurricane scale and the Fujita tornado intensity scale In my view intelligent people can deal with more direct measures and these scales lack specificity 2 Meanl57 2 NH m 25 m 115 l3 145 m 175 19 ms 22 235 25 Annual Pncipitz nn in Frequency is measured and analyzed in other ways A typical starting point is a histogram of events that plots frequency number of occurrences against magnitude with magnitude arrayed into classes Annual precipitation for a place above 8510 in 10115 11513 etc At t O L 8 E 39O G E a 5 4 5 O 3 3 039 e 2 LL 0 A it 939 Y 5 Mean 0 29 06 Q Median 99 g J K Mode L Some measure of intensity of observed events rainfall or snowfall wind speed height of flood etc A histogram can be turned into a smoothed distribution by transforming it into a normalized distribution like fitting a curve to student grades with certain key characteristics eg the mean median and mode are the same and the height and shape of the curve defines probability of different intensities You normalize the events by calculating the mean and plotting not raw values but deviations plus or minus from the mean Because you are fitting a theoretical distribution you can extrapolate to events not observed in the actual record especially those in the tails or lowprobability parts of the distribution Generally magnitude is inversely related to frequency So events at the extremes or tails of a normalized distribution of natural events both low and high or pos and neg on the xaxis occur less frequently y axis Probability can be offered as frequency probability in one year or return interval Here probability in one year of a hurricane strike 439 rum htipm39 quot 39 Pensacola I in 3 397 l in 139quot Apalachicola Florida Hurricane Strike Prehebilit in anyr given year Key West in 3 Mike Muzplur Florida M011th 1993 W Statewide Snowpack Aprii 1 Percent ofAverage mambmm The previous graph was a histogram of internsity plotted against frequency this is intensity snow depth as of average plotted in a time series years which reveals the temporal pattern in this case seemingly random over time eg not clumped These times series of rainfall in Switzerland top appears relatively random over time but the rainfall in the SubSaharan Africa the Sahel bottom does show strong JAN 01001 0000 mm 398 o Anomalie des Precipitations 3 E o o N o o Pr cipitations estivales en Suisse19012004 Standardized JJASD mean Sahel rainfall 1898 2000 clumping of extremes over time especially in the second half of the record Id 0 l II 1890 Slandam39ized with wiper to 898 1993 I I I I I I I I 1903 10 20 30 40 I I I I 1950 60 7O 80 90 FREQUENBV Frgmwl I m Characteristic profiles for 39 hazards can illustrate ammoquot mu 5m differences in monitoring i 5 eg immediate for 3 earthquakes longterm for droughts and warning I E systems I l l SPEED or oNsn Slow EL ZZWJ 39 as i l SPATIAL DISYERSIDN amuse k mm Concemramd I TEMPORALSPACING Regular Random FIGURE 24 HAZA EVENY PROFILES FOR CHAHACTERISTIC DROUGHT BLIZZARD EARTHQUAKE 39 F uruiiie iui Ilalulul 39 39 make comparisons belween events by charactetimics independent of their human impact
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'