ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE
ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE GEOG 2412
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeremy Steuber on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 2412 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/231913/geog-2412-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Geography at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Dams are the most obvious human intervention in the hydrological cycle speci cally in freshwater runoff and storage on the continents Glen Canyon Dam UtAz Unregulated Flow versus GP 2021 Blissouri River at Gavins Point Long Term Daily Discharge 18981997 Discharge lick lrl lr39l 3r1 4V1 51 6 1 quotMl Xrl 91 lOrl llr39l 121 Dale A common often purposeful effect of dams is to alterthe rhythm of runoff below the dam downstream typically reducing natural baseline maxima peaks and raising natural baseline minima as in this hydrograph for the Missouri River An unintended effect on settlement on hydro cycle Runoff from rain storms is increased by impervious surfaces roads roofs even in subdivisions with lots of lawns which are kept wet by their owners and thus don t absorb much rain Cities are forced to build large stormwater conveyance systems downstream to manage the extra runoff caused by urbanization these are floodways on Boulder Ck along East Pearl St Biogeochemical Cycles or Nutrient cycling We ve taken up energyradiation balance and the hydrological cycle Next we go into bio geochemical cycles in which nutrients like carbon nitrogen and phosphorus are moved around earth systems These elements cycle among the lithosphere or geosphere in some diagrams the hydrosphere biosphere and atmosphere They do so in solid gaseous and liquid form in varying amounts and over different rates of time eg it take along time for carbon to be stored as coal Here are the two main human 39 infameniiona lanai use change resui ing in e vega az ion and burning of fossil fuels and use a carbon rich sedimentary rocks in cement procreation Let s first take up the global carbon cycle This diagram traces carbon fluxes in gigatons of carbonGtC per year and storages in GtC thru the solid earth atmosphere oceans and biosphere mostly vegetation but also animals The Main storages of carbon in earth systems Gaseous in atmosphere and in solution in oceans key is C02 in air Fixed in biomass wood50 carbon Fixed in sedimentary layers eg limestone coal etc in lithosphere stored in solution in deep oceans The Main fluxes of carbon are From air to biosphere oceans lithosphere photosynthesis fixes C into biomass plants absorption by oceans and storage in deep cold ocean water Fixed into the bodiesshells of ocean organism like phytoplankton which can photosynthesize and then fall to the ocean floor and slowly become sedimentary layers in the solid earth From biosphere oceans lithosphere to atmosphere Respiration vegetation releasing carbon as it grows Outgassing volcanoes and other gases seeping out of the earth s crust Release from oceans ocean spray can move carbon back into atmosphere upwelling can bring Crich water up into contact with air Human caused anthropogenic burning and decay of biomass forest clearing and burning of fossil carbon like coal and oil Result of anthropogenic flux increase is a net increase in atmospheric storage the basis for concerns over enhanced greenhouse effect Carhnn cycle Amsu me 711 quotEwanmun Emu m N am Mumnn mun m 39 f k a m ved vimt I Wand l 54mm ISn Hm Extraction and burning of fossi carbon also increases net ux to from solid earth to atmos Inet is stiil the opposit Jefation and a fnresmL an In Iuc C u back Summary Human Interventions in Carbon Cycle Devegetation clearing forests settlement that clears vegetation vegetation then decays oxidizes releasing carbon as C02 Extraction and burning of sedimentary carbon fossil fuels increases flux to atmosphere Sequestering of carbon in various ways incidental and purposeful we may increase vegetation in some cases re vegetation and aforestation and some cropping system put more organic matter C into soils and we may preserve biomass wood used in construction that othenNise might have decayed and oxidized carbon into the atmosphere
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