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by: Stephan Kuvalis


Stephan Kuvalis

GPA 3.89

Rosalba Perna

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Rosalba Perna
Class Notes
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephan Kuvalis on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 2030 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Rosalba Perna in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/231952/astr-2030-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Astronomy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
GAMMARAY BURSTS witnessing the birth of a new Black Hole in the Universe looking for signs of nuclear tests TYPICAL GAMMAERAY BURST IIIIIIIIIIIIII g g I I I I E 8 1 I I I I IEIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII III 11111111111111 I S 1 I Tme in Seconds properties of GRBs Q am Hi 18 0f Wham O mam 1110 T 1000 10000 1011000 5 0 Eggwa d g i bummm mm mime Sky Big issue of debate in the middle 1990 s WHERE ARE THEY COMING FROM Two possibilities a They are galactic ie they originate in the Milky Way b They are of extragalactic origin ie they come from other galaxies very far away Hints from the ISOTROPIC distribution in the sky BATSE GammarRay Bursts Galactic Coordinates GRBs do not appear to be correlated with the galactic disk as one might expect if they Vl ere of galactic origin The rst revolution 1997 discovery of the AFT ERGLOW longer wavelength radiation Xray optical infrared radio following the GRB Xray detection by BeppoSAX dutchitalian satellite This satellite was only able to trigger on long bursts Distant galaxies are now being routinely identified as the GRB hosts absorption from intervening galaxies is often detected April 3 2003 GB 3030329 I May 1 2003 GRB030329 i I g Imaga 50 GRBs are COSMOLOGICAL Vary M g WHEY EMERGEMC GEES are the mast energetic 0591mm we witm in the Unhwm Wm fr mug 39r r Jittm39um mmwmg mmlkzz g mm D comm mmmcg D an Wm mar Long GRBs are produced by the collapse of a massive star into a Black Hole Numerical simulations of collapsing Star by A MacFadyen Star has angular momentum Jets are produced Luminosity I powered by d accretion disk I formed from fallback material I from the envelope of the collapsing star Until the ehd of 2004 rhest cf What was kncWh arid discussed in the prevlcus slides referred t0 the class of lehgadhratlcn Gamma ray bursts Since the BeppcaSAX satellite did net trigger ch short bursts there was no aftergch detection for any at these lt was still debated Whether they cchld he of galactic origin or very hearhy galaxies r quotV x Ll x Q q Yquotgtquot OILX 6 L LVL S x quotV quot5 f HQ mg lealh Latheht the hallhe New dedicated mission since November 2004 SWIW Kan 1 x a quotL a f39 quot lx T xquot Vu m n L E 39f x w w gm 7 quot dy lkr 1 n1 LC LE H u m m LMQSJL dlnwa ll my y quotquotw V 0 V V A L a 5 quot 9 7 DEN IEN 71 390 V IQJL Q 7 quot a a Til 139 quot1 L 9amp1de 1131 LUV dd U JL diamu yCg LUO SWUJQDLT IAL IQ Uifd lt3 Since the launch of Swift First detection of afterglow of short burst and detection of host galaxy gt short bursts are also extragalactic but typically lower distances so far than for long GRBS Also energies are a factor of 10 or more lower than for long GRBs associated with galaxies which have a low starfonnation rate contrary to the case of long GRBs associated with regions of high starfonnation rate Several pieces of evidence seem to indicate that 4 Image from ttpwwwae esaesQOOTESespgrEgrlizl tm Stay tuned as more observations come in Should We be afraid of GRBS a distance of several hundred light years But not very likely to happen EX RCIMENT 4 TESTS OT gzswmzm RELSZVJJQVCVI Y quot Mercury s Precession gravitationafLensing gravitationaf Redg tft gravitationaf Waves MERCURY S PRECESSION The theory of General relativity was able to precisely account for the observed precession of Mercury s orbit HERCURY39S ORBIT Newtonian gravity General relativistic gravity amount of precession not on scale Imagefmm WWgramtywa PJmewm artist s View of Mercury s precession MERCURY S PRECESSION If Mercury were the only planet orbiting the Sun according to Newton s gravity law its orbit would be a perfect ellipses However because of the gravitational in uence of other planets Newton s law of gravity predicts that Mercury s orbit should slowly preceed around the Sun Careful observations of Mercury s orbit during the 1900 s showed that it does indeed preeced but not quite what Newton s law predicted The theory of General Relativity was able to perfectly account for the observed discrepancy GRAVITATIONAL DEFLECTION OF LIGHT During the eclipses the beam of light from the star is deflected by the gravi tational field of the Sun Consequently h l W PDEHIDII for the observer on Earth the position of the star appears to have shifted from f f durlng the eclipse its true position Reel pesl en I same as the observed pusitinrn 1when there 395 no eclipse ufI The Sun during an eclipse First observational test of the prediction of General Relativity a E Manama w mm my am m m m m sec quot339 5 mm E f l i r mama amiinaieum hm mm 5am mm to gain may 33am 5 7 2L lFmi Mm m cmnakaw mm mm 39 W55 ammm 3 E 39 1 me mm mm mm mm mm mg m may t 39 lg unpztz a mp3 1 m2quot 397 Wquot39 39 aiw39 3 I a m 2 l a nu quota um 3913 u w quot 3 Ti 39 t 7 39 a l I S39 153 521 39 Iangal 3Aa allA 1 if 23 m r v u u UL l 39 quotnu 4a a I 39 u u a f if ang I mage from littpcfaIiarvan eJucaste s The general phenomenon of light de ection by massive bodies Source image 1 m i Sourceyw Source image 2 The observer sees MULTIPLE IMAGES of the source depending on the geometry the images can be pointlike arcs rings etc TWO images of a distant quasar I mage credit R Ef s eZ I Smaif witi HST W S S 75 61 Source behind the lens EINSTEIN RING I mage credit L King witi HSTW S STSd The arches are the result of gravitational lensing I mage credit P Watarajan witi HST W S S TS 61 bedi ardms due t0 gravitatmm Emsng the Ems h r its a giant ga axy c ustm that y0u can S66 at th central M 116 image I mage credit W Coffey witi HST MM575cm i9 Gravitational Micm ensing 1mm ems em o the Magi ri ggm 1m Eta Tai ei Ztsigi 39 Whm pmsmm MEWS v 2 v p p 39 between the star and Earth the ghfg rays j fgm thf 39 mums t0 b6 d ecmd 0n thaw way m rm ObSEIFV quot its sma star plighth than 116 wpathm batwwn 116 magw 0f 1716 murws its m0 sma K b6 msdwda and What 116 QbSELIWQH 8668 Image marlt WISmg its an mem mcmaw m rm brightmss 0f 116 WWW m m a J l E L m If thee Hens mmes m fmm f thccz mama them the mume brightmss varies with mam This ph n m n m g0 s umdm the name 0f WCROZLENSING GR AVITATIONAL REDSHIFTTIME DILATION An atom emitting radiation at a particular frequency acts like an atomic clock Sun more massive than Ealth 4v stronger gravity 4 Compareidentical atomic lines from Sun and Bath Frequency of lines observed more redshifted for Sun than for Earth light movmg may 5va a star loses energy Image credit ZAntyj GRAVITATIONAL WAVES Image credit K Q ome eZ T Camaian Ripples of spacetime curvature that propagate at the speed of light A prediction of General Relativity a perturbation of the spacetime curvature that propagates from the disturbance point Analogy dropping a stone perturliation in a pond spacetime produces waves in the water spacetime n39ppl s that propagate Sources of gravitational waves include Symmetric radial pulsation Pulsations of Black Hole horizons WWW 5y 4 Watson 0 An imploding star Merger of two compact objects ie neutron stars black holes Two massive stars orbiting each other closely and rapidly Emission of gravitational waves as a result of the collision of two black holes from Ei Seinfef et a WCS U inois A brick under the effect of a gravitational wave If a brick were close to tWO merging black holes it would be squeezed and stretched by as much as its size humans would be killed For merging black holes in a far away galaxy at 1 billion years away the size Change due to the gravitational wave would be N 10 21 very small Grav fgm ma Wam mmmmg LHGCO Kip Thmme Wash mgmm LQUJISHEILHQL Schematic View of LIGO in g e 9 a n mil Wm MGQmS alasemma kma 3 mgt gmvim ma W V datwwr Similar Mm m that Qf rm Michdmna M ey xpe mmts l ramming 55 E mrmr JI 1in bah an 1h EHquot 39 39 3 n q i f mm M m39 quotWm vii f m l warm m if P A emm quothes hb 1 i i i i tg 5mg mlquot quotr 7 d 39 r u quot16 T b mar rec39f39m g i pw a mg 11 mm 1 77773 was 1quotquoter Tm While Timem mama33m mg T bw Canaan LIG will pm v de direct dem mm f gmv ta thma wams Hurllse aylor pulsar expe menmll confirmation THE DELAY Granada of gravitational waves it t 195 I930 1935 E AR i Y of E energy loss an inde eteetton newolwing quot quotWith lbttl i 0 around pulse Elaine that r the or 439 64 T Rate of energy loss found to be in precise agreement With predictions of General Relativity for energy loss due to gravitational wave emission


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