New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Accelerated Introductory Astronomy 2

by: Stephan Kuvalis

Accelerated Introductory Astronomy 2 ASTR 1040

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Astronomy > ASTR 1040 > Accelerated Introductory Astronomy 2
Stephan Kuvalis

GPA 3.89

Juri Toomre

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Juri Toomre
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Astronomy

This 118 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephan Kuvalis on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1040 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Juri Toomre in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/231958/astr-1040-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Astronomy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


Reviews for Accelerated Introductory Astronomy 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/29/15
Birth of Stars and Planets Birth of Stars Pielades Star Cluster Ben Brown and Planets Protopianetary om m Orton Thurs 7 February 08 Star and Planet Birth Look at how stars are formed out of big and cold molecular clouds Explore how young stars interact with their environments Considerthe formation ofplanets in new solar systems 8 art With cloud Molecular clouds Collapses under its STAR BIRTH within big cold clouds t s of cold interstellar gas i cold enough to form molecules T1030K Conservation of energy and angular momentum 1 Collapse due to gravity increases the temperature If thermal energy can escape via radiation glowing gas collapse continues 2 If thermal enemy is trapped or more energy is generated due to fusion collapse is slowed r Recurring theme in forming stars First collapse from veg lame cold cloud cold The cloud fragments into starsized masses Tem erature increases in each fragment as it conlinues lo collapse Collapse from Cloud to Protostar enough to contain molecules molecular clouds Ben Brown June 2006 Birth of Stars and Planets Dust 4 dark molecular cloud regions Star arm in 5mm AA T 39 Black Cloud E558 ESO Stellar nurseries start as cold places Giant Molecular Cloud Star Forming Core Accretion Disks Promestars Rotating Core Gravity Spin Magnetic Fields Disks Jets Collapsing cloud spins up forms star disk andjet Ben Brown June 2006 Collapse from large cold cloud Conservation of Angular Mo tum material spins faster Disks and Jets form around protostar Jets from young stellar objects YSOs Birth of Stars and Planets 3 9 4 As core temperatures reach millions of degrees fusion begins and stabilizes star joins main sequence 1 blue 0 a 100 redM Galaxy 000 Lun7 O 10000 solar luminosities A I Blue Lun7 M 0001 solar 39 luminosities 100 times more M stars but each is 10000 000 times fainter than an 0 star What color is the starlight from the star forming spiral arms in our galaxy A Blue Massive blue stars 39 8 Orange dominate the light 39 C Red Stellar nurseries yield lovely sights Hot new blue main sequence stars Pink hydrogen gas Black sooty dust Blue nebulae are reflections of starlight from massive blue stars Ben Brown June 2006 Birth of Stars and Planets Orinn Mulecular lauds c inn Nebula Carb an Mnnnxide mezsuremmu Eagle Nebula cold dark clouds are eroded by intense starlight Images from bble S ace Telescope The cosmlc Ferspecklve Textbook Spltzer Space Telescope The sum of stars and Planets Eso Very Large Telescope John Eal Travls Rector Davlde De Martlrl Slmulanons by Matthew sate u Exeter lstellarfomlanonj NEody shop uw lplanem fomlatlonl Than ks to n Bally Francisco Salas Kris Spi den Gwen Eccles Ben Brown June 2006 ASTR 1040 Accel Intro Astronomy 2 Stars amp Galaxies Spring 2008 Prof Juri Toomre 734 Kyle Augustson TR 11am Duane G131 M recita ons E126 9am 10am Lecture 1 I 5 Jan 08 Detailed course syllabus now being passed out zeuscooradoedua5171 0401270mre Prerequisites 1030 calculus Moderate amount algebra physl Course Information COURSE WEB PAGE zeuscoloradoeduastr1040toomre Required Text The Cosmic Persgective by Bennett et al 4 h ed 2006 Includes Access to textbook website mmiwmasteringastronomycom quotCDSM IC peaspsc39rw You will need your own account Most homeworks require it Course ASTR1040TOOM RE2008 How to succeed in this course GOT TO PUT IN THE TIME 4 credits at CU 9 6 to 10 hours outside of classroom no kidding Read sections BEFORE discussion in class secrets of memory Come see us during of ce hours Planetarium sessions Three class meetings will be at Fiske Planetarium on campus Observatory Nights Starting next Tues 22 en group A another in B SommersBausch telescopes Read all course information in your syllabus handout after class Three inclass midterm exams mlc short essay quantitative analysis 45 Homework observing assignments 20 Final exam 25 Clickers discussion contributions 10 There are no makeup exams or late turnins NeW iClickers radio frequency Reguired bring to each class and recitation Register clicker to your name in next class Used for reading quizzes inclass discussion questions feedback More on iclickers Credit starts ne Graded 100 answer 50 f0 Your grades av weekly CULeam Register in next Important classroom policies Working together on homework is encouraged BUT Your answers must be in your own words exact copies will be awarded split credit Note sources and whom you worked with on homeworks Using another person s clicker is cheating Students are expected to follow the CU Honor Code and behave with courtesy to the instructors and their classmates information 3 2233 Introduction Sizes and Sr Course Goas Course Overview What we shall study Vast range of SIZES and SCALES nding our way through the universe Light Electromagnetic Radiation aw i A What is light Our Nearest Star The Sun Star in middle 39 of its life on MS STARS of very many sizes and colors Evolution path and color brightness Depends on MASS STELLAR Birth and Life STAR DEA TH white dwarfs neutron stars and black holes 39139 31 39 39 OUR GALAXY 39 The Milky Way Exploring a Universe of GALAXIES O 39 Billion galaxies GALACTC evolution Galaxy collisions qua Dark matter dark energy and fate of universe BIG BANG beginning Speci c Topics for Today Thur Nature of astronomy as a science Scientific method we observe hypothesize test its predictions maybe fix it and try again Light as waves Special colors of light associated with each element Homework 1 passed out today Homework Set 1 PartA involves going to book website after login joining our class ASTR1040TOOMR52008 as in syllabus doing the Light amp Spectroscopy tutorial in Chap 5 while having your performance e recorded can repeat as often as wish Complete by Thur 24 Jan Most homeworks out Tues back next Tues Part8 involves completing the Energy Level Diagrams amp SpectraLines problem sheet passed out in class today Due next Thur in class no lates For next class meeting read How to Succeed in this course p xxviii Chagter 1 all Our Place in Universe Review Basic Astronomical terms p 4 Chagter 2 review all Motion of Stars Seasons Chag 3 sec 35 Science ofAstronomy Chag 4 review all Making Sense of Universe Begin reading Chag 5 carefully Lightand Matter You can get a copy of these slides after class from course webSIte can be helpful NIlEl q or UNIVERSALTY LAW 0 ewea OF LAWS 5M5 new MW my Emirsz w Wwa myi ATOMS BEHA VE THE SAME fzmmau 5mm w arm EVERYWHERE MME M 721m av W W9 h Pei 5W Mum at arms Ewmw keep testing We m4 swamu Mow mm mm am 1 ms GRAVITYACTS M EVERYWHERE w mm 3M rm mvm mu 7mm m m mm r am 4mm 73 an 2m SCIENTIFIC LAWS are l constantly being tested mm mm n 1 y quotmm mm M5 W14me m ALL Ev WE 257 Tr rummw Wm M E aw mmafgmw w Ame4V ELEMENTS Wax 3quot quotquotquot39 M39 K imam ASTRONOMY 5 W M FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS 39 a always bemg rested 7m fwPAMEMAL 72 15115 1 715 WMan PEATILE 2 Alman pf Mm of Wm 7H5 DIMM gwni FM 7775 DP Fm r w Mme COPERNCAN Mgwl PRINCPLE 42114 w Ar Mg 9 54 MM Mm n m FOUR 1 WWW Mmmr mum m FUNDAMENTAL mum quotMW mm Copermcus 1 FORC 147371543 Em m Emma u q a ELECWWMNEW mill xvmu w Mun nwv a work everywhere am mme MM mm W w 4 WEAK AILLEAA MM 41 a x EM Wmer mm W WWW mm H mm m quotM g we assume and rest Eu 3 SWNE wana w EM Mm w was AW Dark Matter Mysteries How do we see really far back in time Quasars and gravitational lensing both hel Begin looking at evidence for dark matter in galaxies and within galaxy clus ers Gravitational lensing helps us get information from very distant galaxies thus look very far back in time ASTR 1040 Accel Astro Star39s Galaxies Implications for models for our universe Complete detailed reading Chap 22 Dark Matter and Fate of Universe New and nal Homework Set 12 today 39 V W M 70W m We WWWm Last Observatory Night 5 tomorrow B30pm Lecmre 27 Tues 22 Apr 0 9 Course evaluation during next class M87 em cal With 39et Another example of central beaming engine Actlve galacllc nucleus beams ool ve narrow t 400 lgll year wlde msr Ufmaterlal ln core orelllpllcal galaxy Wlm tadl lets 7 looks llke supermasslve Elll at wurkl Accretlan msr snows gas Urbltlng a 2 7 bllllun solarrnass black hale 7 rst real gmuf Central bulge mass and BH mass ml Disk around black hole in NGC 7052 F E A E 0 n a m mquot l 10quot laquot loquot 10 nlnm m rmllml hnlgn calm llmx aps Do ALL galaxies have supermassive black holes As of early 2008 probably YES i Part of normal galaxy formation 7 More quasars seen in the distant early universe than now Black holes gradually grow but can run out of available fuel and become relatively invisible like in our Milky Way Thinking clicker looking back in time if we can detect light from a quasar and decide that its emission line spectrum is at redshiftZ 4 how muc igger as universe grown since that light left A 2 times bigger B 3 times bigger C 5 times bigger D 16times bigger Cosmological Redshifts from expansion of universe Definition of redshift 39 REMINDER Z redsh change in Wavelength normaf Wavelength observed Wavelength normaf Wavelength redsth always have 2 gt 0 redder light has larger Wavelengths Redshift is eransion factor 1 2 also measures how much unlverse has emanueu wavelength ofllghi ls also stretched distance between alaxies now distance between galaxies then rzeumwsrrc W mill37 Relativistic redshifts z ls blg 7 use relallllsllc formula 0 ge ve ocliy v NOW to Case for Dark Matter gt 90 of mass of universe is dark matter invisible missing matter Detectable ONLY via its gravitational forces on li39ght matter gas and stars Note this dark matter is NOT the same as black holes brownblack dwarfs or dust Individual galaxies show it mm mm Rotation curves motions of stars in the galaxy Reveal that dark matter extends beyond visible part of the galaxy mass is 10x stars and gas Flat rotation curve of galaxy High speeds far from luminous center means there is dark matter in the outer regions orbital velocity kms distance fmm Denier thousands of llghl years Spiral galaxy RO TA Tl ON OUR VES Discovered by Vera Rubin in the 1970 s Highly controversial until many rotation curves 1mmle confirme 3 E a NGC 7641 U66 2635 g 39f u quot59 5 quot 1 00 I NGC 9998 g m 39 o 39 I 100 50 drama lmm mute thousands if Ira wars 2 Hot Xray emitting gas in cluster 39nrm Hum u x m Gas between galaxies is also moving because of gravity of dark matter gets veg hot 1000 kmsec 100 million K emits xraysl Galaxy Clusters reveal dark matter in three ways 1 Galaxy velocities too large to be explained by gravity of visible galaxies Expected 100 kmsec for a typical cluster found 1000 kmseci Discovered in 1930 s by Fritz Zwicky they didn t believe him either Dark amp visible matter warps space acts like a lens and distorts and magnifies the view of more distant galaxies Can form circular arc segments image cl real image nl galaxy galaxy galaxy Medley of best HST gravitational lensing Gravitational lensing how it works Th a quotwee p0 ans in me sky 1 Gravitational lens drifts across your harbor View Boston Effects of gra vitational lensing on background galaxies Lensing by massive galaxy clusterAbell 1689 v 39 39 TheBeast 9 9 galaxies Red arc at the bottom 4 8 Have not gotten the other 2 s yet I C Lower velocities in A mean that there Clicker on galaxy clusters C s less mass overall In that cluster This Two galaxy clusters are studied ClusterA has probably means fewer galaxies Less typical velocities for its galaxies of 300 kmsec mass also means a cooler intracluster gas Cluster B has 1000 kmsec Which is most likely temperature t I A ClusterA has more galaxies than cluster B I B ClusterA is more massive than cluster B I C Gas between galaxies in clusterA will have lower temperature than gas in cluster B I D Cluster B galaxies are more likely to be spirals How much dark matter overall What is Dark Matter I Two flavors for Dark Matter I All cluster methods generally agree I Possibility 1 MACHOS I About 10 times as much dark matter as Massive Compact Halo Objects normal matter overall in the universe Stuff We ve studied already very faint actual things baryonic matter Note Our solar system has much more light ma e quot395quot da k ma e he s BMquotM39sny 7 Brown dwarfs black holes black dwarfs etc measurable VII hm May be oating through the galaxy halo unnoticed Possibility 2 WIMPs MA CH0 Searches 0 Use ravitational 39 a Weaklynteracting Massive Particles 675ng z Nonbaryonic 9 subatomic particle When a MACHO 39 39 floats in front of a M C Neutrinos probably not they move too fast Ladrazzs Star and cannot be collected into stable galaxy halos an htens Other unknown particles 7 Focusing effect Slower particles Cold Dark Matter of compact massive object h A COSMOLOGY NATURE OFTHE UNIVERSE x an hi um 1 day runs 7 MACHO hunt quot fZi 39 in V 397 1 Models ofour an 39 quot 39 39 Lilq r universe results 2ng are UNA5122 W EXW kem 25 Dark matter has ME A MACHOs are detected by 32 F LAT big influence on quotkm open vs quotacre mi62 r t apus 2 H n brightenn98 151 g NMsz In closed C 05 GE LMctudagmnsi lquot 39 quotgls a Nquot x But not 43923 Mums 3531i enough to a quotaw WE quot52mmquot 7 n explain all 3 u w a 1 mgr W mm 12mm 0 dark matter so m m If enough mass gravity eventually Wins ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Stars amp Galaxies Stellar winds from hot star Pro Jur Toomre 7734 Kyle Augustson Lecture 16 Thur 6 Mar 08 zeuscoloradoeduastr1040toomre Today s Bizarre Events Revisit supergiants and then planetary nebulae Look at properties of white dwarfs as end of life cycle for low mass stars Turn to evolution of massive stars through giant and supergiant phases fusion occurs in successive layers of onion End life as supernova explosion leaving behind either neutron star or black hole Review Sheet 2 Second MidTerm Mon 17 Mar Review Thur 13 Mar 79pm Observatory 4 Wed 12 Mar 810pm Read 182 Neutron Stars and 183 Black Holes Clicker Poll of Advice How do you take notes or listen during lectures A get most of it byjust listening B write down some notes then go back to book to look things up C listen take some notes then get copies of lecture slides from course website D I enjoy talking with my buddies and they tell me later ifl missed anything 5 Red Supergiant Doubleshell burning of H and He Phase could be very short if amp burning is erratic unstable then lasts only a few MY and blows off outer shells El 5 60 SOMEWT AriMme law He mm H mm Evinu LAW 539va Hm WW5 ame REVSIT mm sous LJM to Lg T sow 400016 1 10050020 He 3mm flich H tutuN SHELL lam j a 530W VIIf 7b aw4w mce Mr Will My KnownK if ENVEWE 7 musm mmquot quotmm 72mg Sun in its far future 5 B Y Thermal pulses in red supergiant blow off outer shells Life track in HR diagram of solarmass Lar Many meanders but MS phase longest red giant phases shorter nally white dwarf left to cool slowly EVOLUTION TRACK 0F 1 Ma 37792 blow lovez shell 575 FLANka Namm lt NEEULA VISIBLE R61 Wm Red Giant95 102 a le protostar Emu m 6 Puwmw NEEULA W 6 Planetary Nebula mm mm yam M Outer shells of red superglant EX WM quotPU ed Off Great pictures m Ifer f W e we Show an mm emerges WH7E Phi92F Discussion ShaQes of Planetary Nebulae NGC 7027 Spirograph What is likely to account for the vast range of shapes many beautiful of these ejecta Planetary nebulae in many shapes probably rotation and magnetic elds 7 7 White Dwarf Inert C core He amp H shells electron degeneracy pressure holds it up Very dense size of Earth max mass of 14 MSW Evoth 33 Z WHTE DWARF We 1 Ma 57275 CAZXoN 6022 NEVER HOT ENOVd39H To 302M Vinny gt W 1 5y 15 MAINE 57 mmr mag 11 summon N Swen45 M 1m INEET He Wear 0 quot57w 77777 7W 4 x H7 0quot l V MlLLaN x Wm lJ Nam 39quot quot ZADur HYi ommc Eamumm Ebemw 95mm Flaw25 vr mm ENEMY JPN228 None Raw2amp2 MM WEXCEE 11 Mg quottwtommg LJMIT 39 N 02 Eur Lbwat Film Life after brief planetary nebula stage Hot central core emerges as WHITE DWARF Ring Nebula EVOLUTION TRACK 0F 1 M STAR Sizes of white dwarfs 9 roMgm 1 gush Final stage NEB ULA M Eath white dwarf white dwarf NZ UZA VII3L5 2511 COOmg HeSHEl L w white dwarf 590 H2 L snooze 2ls Lo E quot FltELL 500m 102 But If WD has RG Ir binary comQanion ms ym 1 much fun can MS 103 begin I More massive white dwarfs are SMALLER lt TEMP Overvrew reminder Life track of lowmass star Luminosity Kimnlara natu39a solar units 4 rrlcrl when m h hu 39l burrquot 39 hydroxnmnmg mu Ccuhlu slml ummg IIfJ39E Now consider evolution of rmlmm hummg 5 3 7 rwdrmgmmnmg shell massive stars h LI m bur ma Cairn after MS has 39Jvrs l I lnEI l helium 4 quot hyaroynWrnmg she 10 subgan rm grant com Msmz EVOLUTION OF MAmv mes Mgt 2M9 MASSV5 5771733 50 WHAT IS DFFEBENT 39 Successive 5 m WWW t m w EMAw Evolution of wow 2 quot0 ME 0 mm W gnome WWW CAN mew MORE Emma co my core 8 Shell 0 4 NM NM massrve stars 3 WWW WW MUCH fusion burning Ne w Eliz a a my 39 Mm LE 31 mm mm u 1 Of or or Ne 8 Si AW MAW yEauENCE H 07125 3102ng ENa an lac 9 2 k 3 remove Piratemv EVEN Clock runs faster 97W mm M r Wm a With may mm gum m ma 7 Wm 39 rm in Calif can burn heavier 2 2517 mm I H mm tumm Ha ha ca ture n elements mazr He oaks fwww mmww p p 6 W or H e 260 WWW MAW MOP m we mum 3 Hoe20AM 3mm rm rims N0 Pif w rzacv w A new 0 WONT I If m 8M 39 Hg was r M712Mu 0 First 4 stegs pretty F M HEWMm Smmvtmrsr 0F famlllan but m Mg stars make many gm MEANDWELL mm hellum ash mug 72mmquot 3H2 c shallow HR loops H 9 He quotorW rainwmzrm s y m 4 60 WW II He mm MAMAc mam 0 MWquot WE WWW H Commas 7b rm In WELL quot NA C gum1 NW C 012 J va Wink J SL Mag w my 359746 1751mm MAW was n mks M ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Star39s amp Galaxies dio Prof Jun39 7270mre TA Kyle Augusson Lecture 17 Tues 11 Mar 08 I 4 Inre Today in BizarreLand Turn to evolution of massive stars through giant and supergiantphases fusion occurs 39n successive layers of onion End life as supernova explosion leaving behind either neutron star or black hole Pulsars fast s inning neutron stars with fierce magnetic fields gradually slow down Synchrotron radiation makes the light seen as pulses and thus r b nebula pulsar shines and pulses brightly in many wavelengths Read 182 Neutron Stars and 183 Black Holes Recall Second MidTerm Mon 17 Mar Review Thur 13 Mar7 9pm Observatogy4 Wed 12 Mar 8 10pm signup Binary Systems The Algol Paradox Algo is a bina system consisting of a 3 7 solar mass main sequence star and a 0 8 solar mass red giant Why is this strange A A 37 star should have become a red giant before a 08 solar mass star B Binary stars usually have the same mass C 08 solar mass stars usually never become red giants Clicker Puzzle Algol Binary System A Binary stars can ha ve different masses but usually ARE formed at the same time More massive star should have had a shorter main sequence lifetime What happened Binar Mass Exchan e The 08 solar mass star once was more massive 0 with a 15 mass companion As it became a red giant it swelled and poured material onto its companion Ios 22 The red giant 08 is now less massivet an i s companion 3 7 Future when the other star Becomes red giant it may pourgas bac Overview reminder Life track of lowmass star I mxu i m 41x 7 mm mm 7 nmmmmmw mu mm is mm m in mi u m JOOJ unmipr m Clicker Paths in HR Diagram Star moves upwards and to the right on the HR diagram What is probably happening in the core A Core hasjust started to burn a new element B Inner core is contracting and heating up shell burning is increasing C All nuclear burning is slowing down D The inner core temperature is cooling HR diagram shifts Core is contracting and heating shell burning is increasing Moving upwards on HR diagram means more luminosity 9 more nuclear fusion This is usually due to the inner core heating due to gravitational collapse potential 9 thermal 9 faster burning Upward and to the right in HR Giant phases in life track of lowmass star Klannlurv nahu a I 1 Incrl carbon 07 r Du NJ socr 7 htldrcqmmmm 5hrquot L J 4 lmllum rmmm 7 hyrjrr grgnlermmg weir hclum bum nq 2Hquot CC IL mm dvru39l A Il39lEll helium 39 quot7 womentuning shell subgunll hm Ql l LOH 105 Luminosity solar units Now consider evolution of massive stars after MS 10394 Evolution of gmassive stars Clock runs faster can burn heavier elements First 4 steps pretty familiar but m helium ash EVOLUTION OF MAQ lrE mes Mgt 2M9 50 WHAT I DFPEBEAT Crook39an Kw MUCH more CAN mew Make Emma do my rm rm Campus Ev 711w MUCH MM Luigi 31 mm WINDS 1 MAW yihuavce H 07125 mum cNa cm SW Mun M l Mil we H HELL ZUZNAK mazr He Jo26 fwwvr mmmwr 2 259 cum I 3 Hacime mum Lao13m No Pf u mcy w Hg was i M712M W N0 HELIUM FLAIH 628 Helium unbearm 3H2 c k lle mat sumw mm H ZNNW 7b rm m msu NW C 012 Iwerwm MM Emu46 051mm MAW M Wfihuf Successive core amp shell fusion burning of C 0 Ne Si all with alpha capture or He stars make many shallow HR loops Ar 291166 or ummwr MEMi MASSV6 577mg 5 CAQEON mam IAIer Mew EMAw W 9 Wm C ammu Exmmvs Film OK at Aum Ma quot mm mm No C H5 o My u 3 A EXFLDPE A WNDVA TYIEI i on 02 3 remove Piratemv EVEN Maw SVHP um Elam galew IN Erma 7D Phrase Fe 4 Rw in C4 6 Home RPMcuss Ev mew MAW Loaf m we mum 1 If M 8M0 I Smmvs mm of Caz AND mm KAI17w x SC I r rr Wm He ONION 12w mum W 0F sumw mau NA C Mm g 39 rm r J St 11mm was Fc mks ML Many layers of onion in massive star nonhumlng hydrogen hydrogen a uslnn helium Iuainn BINlCDI39I fusion inert iron can Core structure from successive burning stages lesser elements on outside heavier on inside Fusion by heliumca ture alphaparticles 120 9 3quot 9 He bums 0 0 Ne Mg Si 60 20Ne 360 ZONE 8 24 8p 8n 10p10n 12p 12m he i He quot He 0 Helium nucleus 2 protons is absorbed energy is released 0 Elements are created going up periodic table in steps of 2 Creation of elements from Hecapture evidence l hydrogen i IL nullum w mien Gall D A L H 733m 39mm Even numbers lth fww I m favored 4 1quot Mm Mr Mncke H H m L a nltmgun u 10 mmquot kirkV3 u A rgama animalca mall gar hydrogen alum borylllum m 12 lllhlvm I atomic number number ol protons Mixture of elements in our near universe follows the pattern of Hecapture fusion reactions up to iron 0 Even heavier elements are made by nucleosvnthesis during supernova explosion A feW of many other fusion reactions also I26 9 feasible in highmass stars 160 788i 288i 3 s i 56Fe 143 14m 16 15n 26p 30n be w h Highmass zigs and zags in HR diagram Elements of higher mass fusion burn successively releasing energy to support the star against gravity Reactions may change too fast for outer layers to respond so last zigzags are small 3 7 DOG OLIL39JEI 6000 survace lemperatuve mew 150 EO PBSI W W3 FEASme BIG Evolutionary m SWINGS 5533 T 2 L IANTS ECross the L pulsational instability strip Ctheids 251220 K lt 7EMP 4mm quot Raw 0F THUMB OWE WW MoiE To Lew M Home 32mm IN H K PM m SHELL Mum 12 MW M er MOVE 717 PM HT or supergiant Fierce hot pulsed ejecta Hubble S T Wildest of all ETA CARINAE Supermassive star 100 MSW late in life giant outburst 150 yr ago Violent bipolar ejecta disk at equator Red Giant or 86 with intense brightening Light Echo from pulse Star V838 mm 29 mm Decembzl w 2m Evolution of V838 Light Echo H87 Onionshell fusion burning stops with IRON Fe 26 protons hydmgan uranium I man pa nuclear plmlcla FUSION FISSION alomic mass inumm ul mums and nmmns lron does NOTreease energy when it fuses l Actual mass nuclear particle nynmgen when it fuses l 39n a F a E g Iron does NO T 3 release ene Q 23 C E m39 um mum FISSION 00 V50 Cgttgt 250 aw number a melons and cmtoni My WW TWO Parrgame Several fates for massive star wm mm W Winofwsmy NEEULA lt 14 M0 L5 7 WHITE DwAkf LA1 ampere F HEMm ELEMENT W04 1 Strong Winds shrink 0 to star may end as WHITE DWARF 2 EMT 5 C0125 gum 77gt new N0 Mo wu ma 625201 aw 36 26mm M gt 14 M0 W 2 Or core burns to Fe eventually sudden CORE COLLAPSE Comm CANAJIIT Ea mire 31 MM Pef NEMm 17ng a NEUTRON me Egt SUPERNO VA 0392 Emac HOLE Core Collapse SUPERNO VA f Exploding remnant of massive star disperses heavy elements through the galaxy Inside may be a neutron star a remnant core of pure neutrons Crab Nebula M1 first seen as SUPERNOVA on 4 July 1054 from China visible in daytime veer raw 6mmquot Mmzf r ro For new CANNOT Sum 5 0 NB R frn39nuc Core collapse massive star SUPERNO VA 1 imamr Difmn v Far SEA o aw 0 1 4H 39 0780M Rapid disassembly 2 quotImam em 95cmquot of elements In core Pkmzz 9 neutrons ag a m 5 Eltrawmr 7 MEwa neutrinos S MEMO r firm ESCAPE WW 7 rm M A N 39 Infant Hf a pressure stiffens collapsing core push of neutrinos ENmtu quotmumr AQ AJNJT may j39 Emu Swim WEE wanm s P ms39 FLAEJ mm 5ng 9envelope bounces wva Eff L Naming esHELL BLOWS OFF Fhfum amt Hubble V SNR Crab Nebula M1 4 July 1054 Observing Supernovae 0 About 1 per century per galaxy none in Milky Way since 1604 Kepler 1572 Brahe 1054 Crab 1004 brightest Bright explosion visible g for weeksmonths some 3 39 visible in daytime Remnant visible for 10000 years as huge bubbles and veils longer in radio quotWquot Was Crab SN recorded In Chaco W39mwwquot mmww Sm Flow of Exfmnvfw and nothing recorded In Europe 00 3L emOVa M W Wm W exglosmn creates mummy quotEmu MMSZWW Petroglyph from elements heavier NUCLSDSYWDS MW Chaco Canyon than Iron MW was I I 7 PM HEMY HAWK vow Man 0 Correct posrtlon Fm ME swamp nmm relative to new magic of fquot 39 Mi w mm 139 11mm Mr quot70 quot for crab nucleosynthesis e Supernova but frcu m W I Uquot mmquot some doubt mm 417 am me warm 39f r 9 dug SN shells and L ud er f X42quot Check this on what is left at 1 Nomm I M1312 your SkyGazer center 5 35 g somare L2777721 39 EmmaJ SN murmrr Hows Wm t wt fm aw i MW Wm Neuneou swag m Favorite Postcard Size of Neutron Stars N t t auwmmmmaa 2354 7 1 9U for S ars mm m2 Imam mm m Ms M mm m I Km 0 Structure determined by M mam 5W gravity vs neutron More massive m w u degeneracy gressure smaller In srze 375456255 Mm mums amnmm 1 wow u e mampm Size 10 km More Star With a massive smaller l crystal crust mm mm Idea of neutron stars rst suggested in 1930s Landau ZWicki Baade Oppenheimer but seemed like Crushing gravity at its surface so not a nice neighbor or place to visit as tourist try hquot wequot new Iquot WM Big Apple instead 39 w a tv 1 r gWIld dream 39 mg m W5 3 my Neutron star over NYC Observing the First Pulsar BIG discovery M 13 I 1 7 INGtEpENTS NEUTEonz WITH sec erlo M quota l 1 p 1 1 l 1 l l l 39 t quotfquot Pulsar 1 BAPD SPA gearMW 73 rotating 2 FIE865 MMNEWC ap 5 neUtron Star MAENE fCFIELD Nm Aunts wrry 57w 0 RomION AXS 97mm 85mm of MN msm Amt KY KenMimi 5045 0 Jocelyn Bell Cambridge UK graduate student in 1967 Anthony HeWish discovered pulsars by accident Fierce magnetic elds sizzling electrons WX SZN W fast rotation Q 6amp6 BEAM 9 nest lighthouse 2 mam 39 quotLia771w EFFECTquot 0 Little Green Men LGM Just WHAT could ca use signal AS BEAM Man511 flaw 5W5 I Mr Thomas Gold 1968 WMl 39l Pulsars and Neutron Stars magnum f quot04d Pulsars are lighthouses in our Ga axyl Why pulsars spin so fast Vast shrinking conserves angular momentum Collapse to a neutron star increases both rotation and magnetic Newy collapsed neutron stars can rotate hundreds to thousands of times per second Mzsterz resolved When pulsar discovered in Crab Nebula known to be supernova remnant Messier 1 or M1 39 The Crab pulsar also pulses in visual light TOEQWc rOBZIs C lr gt roa3sm l q a w gm ll ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Stars amp Galaxies 93f Jurr oomrme Kyle Lecture 9 Tue 12 Feb 08 zeuscooraabeatIastr10417Doornre Today Revisit helioseismology ranulat 39 G ion convection near surface Solar magnetism and operation of dynamo Discuss today Effects of solaractivity Read in detail Chap 15 Surveying the Stars HW 4 due in class no new HW this week Review xam 1 in recitation Mon R Thur Feb 14 7pm9pm Sheet 1 still available for MidTerm 8 Feb eview Session by Kyle in Duane G125 this Helioseismology Millions of sound waves availableto probe solar interior ome Waves noodle ust below the surface Others almost make it o the center ll excited by turbulent E a a s 2 u s s fSlr Oscillations Each oscillation mode has a distinctive measurable lone Se siliie to now Wiin depth Tests models of iriside temperature Observed from SOHO and GONG Solar Interior Models Theory vs Helioseismology mm iadius Interior Differential Rotation Pro le i39IHz b 5 Big Surgrises Fast equator slow pole 77 Over most of convection Tacholirie of siiong sneai at iis base Radiative zone ioiaies uniformiy So how are solar magnetic elds built 480 39 TACHOCLNE 460 TWO MAGNETIC DYNAMOS 44o E Global magnetic c 420 k v fields burt In TA CHOCLINE a 400 Smallscale elds 380 built in nearsurface CZ BOTTOM 50 shear layer 360 v 050 060 070 080 090 100 1 SSW Flows Changing as Cycle Progresse 22 v39lyr EJEJ L39l ILI1EI Ululn 7 113 Elm 7 dd my CH 391 39JE w a h 394 39 a bw mg JW nuth 4 g n quot a z wih A l I quotH V W quot quot 39I 39 at M wk b o 39 laxlilurlt a i nu quotm 2371 Jun 3111 349 704 v n1 5 E39 I ugh 1 97 III I fizz II If AdzMAJ t aMNf i i Van Mxrr xn N Q ax r x J t BK CR m a 5 x x 1923 a r F was is g c 110 F rr 1 a w 1 139 3311 quotms v y u Solar Subsurface Weather SSIIO Global View Near Hide Furs da uchizy OEGM FarSide Imaging a Helioseismology 0bs3920m 0331th Earthside Clicker Doppler shifts A 39 Star moving away from us at 001 the speed of light emits a spectral line with a wavelength of 600 nanometers nm What is the observed wavelength of that line 606nm 6006nm 594nm V C 5964 nm 600nm FHDOFDFD W GRANULA TION VISIBLEAT SURFACE Smallest scale of solar convection Rolling and boiling at the surface M minWW l warnam of man new 2er Granulation turbulent con vection d Magnetism SUNSPOTS amid field of GRANULES 1 Mm 5050ng on m Reading Clicker Solar Maximum 7 I What observed features characterize the Sun at solar maximum D I A Sun becomes much brighter I B Sun emits light of longerwavelengths I C Sun rotates faster at the equator I D Many sunspots are visible on surface I E All ofthe above 5w Mm maps SURFACE M k gang ZSPIM39 5W FEATURES mm quotmm 3 W quotan M m mer SiltNor 3 4M Now back to a MW SOLAR FMkff mm mer W MAGNETSM Item r Irruumrr nmrr w um m w m mu Wm WM mu m View during solar eclipse Diverse Scales of Solar Magnetism SOFT XRAY GLOBAL VIEW Magnetic elds are built in convection zone Convection Zone ROTATING SHELL OF TURBULENT a PLASMA Differential Rotation an Mag etic Dynamo go HANDlNHAND How differential rotation can stretch Theoretical Solar Cycle and change global magnetic elds 7 EMERGNG LOOP PHOTOSPHERE ROTATON Baa2 S2 EONVECTOv 5 QT 639 ZONE 2 quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot 39 ibEiiquotquotquotquotquotquot BUOVANCV 4 OVAW047 TACHQCLWE 3 7 True but only one element in story RADAWE W73 lVTEROR Electric and magnetic elds U 7 View of so ar magnetism Demonstration of TESLA COIL chromosphere and Wild happenings AIR NEARBY becomes IONZED forming PLASMA CHANNELS amp low corona SOHO ElT 171 A Sunspot in White Light Finest closeup Zoomin on evolving sunspot 1 lveerpyicesiol Sglaf Aotivitvr Global View of Evolving Solar Magnetism Sunspots show Zeeman splitting 1000 Gauss magnetic fields in sunspots wavelength e B demo But what really is a magnetic field TRACE so may lmage Arcade of magneth loops on solar llmb ASTR 1040 Accel Asfro Star39s amp Galaxies Prof Juli Towne TA Kyle Augusson Lecture 25 77iur 17 Apr 08 i 4 4 Mann W0 mre Today s Ride to the Wild Side Today discuss active galaxies quasars starburst galaxies radio galaxies All from Chap 21 Galaxy Evolution Start overview reading Chap 22 Dark Matter Dark Energy Fate of Universe Third Mid Term Exam in recitation Mon April 21 Review tonight 79pm G125 What physics is in such a galaxy simulation x N F43 4 Messages from galaxy interactions In dense clusters galaxy collisions grazing or even headon must have been common With successive passages spiral galaxies can tumble together to form a big elliptical Vastly increased star birth from shocking the gas and dust star burst galaxies Start ragid feeding of supermassive black hole lurking at center of most galaxies quasars Milky Way forms about 1 new star per year Starburst galaxies form 100 s of stars per year I M82 Cigar composite HISTiCyhandrafSpitz V Vigorous star birth The Antennae Starburst galaxy in fine detail NGC 3310 HS T Big open twosided spiral structure gt tidal interaction Reading clicker the boss galaxy Which of the following is N O T a feature of a central dominant galaxy A A They are often spiral galaxies B They are found in clusters of galaxies C They often have multiple galactic nuclei near their centers D They are thought to form by the merger of several smaller galaxies Quasars Quasistellar Radio Source QSOs Nuclei so bright that the rest of the galaxy is not easily seen First discovered as radio sources then found to have high redshifts far far away WHAT n 13 mag lose QUASARS Pmm run 11m mg my what are they 1 m m at was iuwlai may a an 30 273 in km manA M7 raw fan1 M mm i may redshift Z 016 W W mm mm mm H mama a H 1000 times brighter 2 fizzxf sitm than Milky Way 70m WM yawInn in L It If yazlrLE hm tr m m y L M mu king s rumiwa 5531445quot I 3592 l k Quasar 3C 273 spectrum H H H 3c 273 5 f red comparison spectrum l lllllllIIIIll llllll H5 Hy His 388 9 nm 5016 mm 603 0 nm Tricky to identify hydrogen emission lines very big red shift Cosmological Bng Redshifts from expansion of universe Alternative de nition of redshift 39 Z redshift change in wavelength normal wavelength 1 Z observed wavelength normal wavelength redshifts always have Z gt 0 redder light has larger wavelengths or Cow or we Prawe 975m mime awm mmm 824M EM va Quasar W 6F Hrmv Iomztv A a For ALra Wow spectra a WW mm m 3 am AT meJ Maud airMr 52mm Redshifts from emission lines 439 Agromw iv mm W aw gamut Mute MK w Many absorption 1 a 52m EMApa Haw lines forest Vowm mm 0F WV mt MxEI J E 20 Ly u g Keck HIRES Spectrum of 950 142596039 E 15 E m Lyman Alpha Foresf a s o t i L t t t H i 4200 4400 4500 4000 5000 5200 WAVELENGTH A Receding quasar Iquot Rececmg wuh ex1ended QSO a 4 quasar t u 5 QSO forest 5225 amp Ejected cfouds E US observing To 53 Intervenan galaxies Building the Lyman Forest in quasar spectra Absorption by hydrogen in many intervening clouds Quasars reveal Protogalactic Clouds Looking for gas between the galaxies Cold invisible too dim even at 21 cm But guasars provide the 39 way to detect 39 them Simulation of universe MODEL OF RAD0 GALAXIES OUASAES sewers W t WHOLE BEAM t 7 WWW zw quotLEMh EAM39 5w W galaXies M SUMMhrrsE max lime 0F Mm 103 Accretion disk M0 supermassive BH 6750 I m7va A VEJZY beams on aXis AmtE 63me swanma A ii Ema mm mmvs 47m L 2 ImamE mg My Mum If REAF6 MM 1 Jo Mg PE yam gm wow Mmm MN mm A64th Dim Central Engine Accretion disk around super massive black hole 0 Disk itself may or may not be obscured by dust If bright nucleus is visible looks like a guasar if not then a radio galaxy artist s conception Flying toward supermassive black hole Radio galaxies Central elliptical galaxy huge lobes of emission compact central source radiation Iwnux EADID ALAXEI may EwmmL at mw ELWCAL QALAXIEI Fizyr Mama m me 1940 IMo mm meltv arm i521 Vitv Mica lMArEv Alak M7 VM K9910 Jbvfm OPIEAJ Hugs ame Lam 11 My Mummy JEV a mamwar W fouls Elwin EmmaJ Wimp gm I712 Marmara EVAcuan tag47w 1 W E Imam 22an MW 37 gmmw L If QI4NJ39 5be awhrr DI265 Mir W A Few PAW k MAZWLr mm was WWW WW Molai LuM w amp Prototypical radio galaxy Giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 With dust lane from spiral galaxy Centaurus A Cen A radio source color lobes Remains of Spiral galaxy as dust lane Cen A dust lane nucleus quot3 39 V 39 quot 139quot lFi zoom in r Cygnus Arradio jets Synchrotron radiation from particles moving outward Spinning accretion disk drags along magnetic elds Jet as fine thread big lobes at end central hot spot Cygnus A revisited manor Ilgm yeals Vislble gaiaxy i P no spot VLA imaging Radio tails many shapes P51252772 a new ax539 Mawurn mr mama RA 4 may Wm m M Memoquot m4 mm Clicker what makes the light What is most likely source of light from bright nuclei radio visible Xrays in active galaxies A Thermal radiation from a massive star cluster B Emission lines from hot gas C 21 cm from hydrogen D Synchrotron radiation from a black hole Typical properties 1 of active galaxies HRH Mmm mm m hm aw 1km mummy L Emma mum w my u MW 15604 Emmw ma aw Madam 1m 14 mt mu 3 sum mmv me owlME gnaw a m m mm a mm mm synchrotron emission l source very 4 Wm Walnut mm mrnuwn ouumimuzlnnr small In size in m 5 5mm mm 2mm Ensunmir mamn 6 vaAW Emiler we am mm y armu MM m Mimi mar Nev4AA aPirrm mums 7 Mn 2273er mm In 9mm mama K m Mm m39 Distant galaxies with active nuclei HST Galaxies With odd stuff going on in their cores Nuclei as brg ht as rest of galax 5mm 1 5mm m m 4m mm am PM Mitt r9er 2 Epochs for active galaxiesquot ssvrcnr EMAer m s z 5 a w use 01 s a 5 H mm smru on lt a 2 As gvmnr or a a lt 41 m Illan 2 maer no Wm mma39 Most quasars 7 mm when ammung ww 94m um um WWSS m mu swag wasyowg a 4 u mums um m as WWI Mar Cosmological Redshifts from expansion of universe De nition of redshift Z REMINDER redshi t change in Wavelength normaf Wavelength observed Wavelength normaf Wavelength redsth always have 2 gt 0 redder light has larger Wavelengths Redshift is exgansion factor 1 2 also measures how much universe has egganded and wavelength oflight rs effectively stretched a 1 Z distance between alaxies now distance between galaxies then le rs org 7 use reanursnc formula 0 ge ve ocrty v WWW M M m a 6 MM Wm all Aim lh wri it 5 M ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Star39s amp Galaxies M1 C Ia b supernova optical Prof Jun39 7270mre 771 Kyle Augusb on Lecture 18 777ur 13 Mar 08 quot 39 re pulses and thus spinup pulsar Today in BizarreLand Massive stars end life with supernova explosion leaving behind either neutron star or black hole Pulsars fast spinning neutron stars with erce magnetic elds gradually slow down Synchrotron radiation makes the light seen as Crab nebula pulsar shines and pulses brightly in many wavelengths Joys of nearest supernova SN 1987A How mass transfer from binary companion can Things to do Respond to discussion next Thur on we are made of star stuff and how does it come about Read 184 Black Holes carefully for Tues lecture overview read Chap 19 Our Galaxy Report on Observatory 4 last night Progress with Planet Finder Evening Review tonight 79pm prepare for Second MidTerm Exam on Mon 17 Mar crib sheet competition More massive smaller in size crystal crust l ldea of neutron StaS wild dreaming NEWPON sue N67 WWW 4 M mm 1 mus 2351 a immw m2 39FEVEW w mm mm mmMguJ Amwmvc g mm lmmw m1 PW 52 mi 377w aw rim A oermi Favorite Postcard Size of Neutron Stars r Structure determined by avit vs neutron degeneracy pressure Size 10 km More massive smaller ll Crushing gravity atits neighbor or place to Visit as tourist try Big Apple instead Neutron sta r over NYC l Observing the First Pulsar BIG discove 13 sec period rll mumy m runmull ocelzn Bell 39 Cambridge UK graduate student in 19 Anthony Hewish discovered pulsars by acciden Little Green Men LGM 7 Just WHAT could cause sg39 nal r g r 39 r I l frAUVrchA NLLJUV er M Lflyrj w PUL SARS EREMWDER MeterEms NEUTRON 7712 WITH 1 u 1 BAPp SPA pmmw Pulsar W E rotating 2 FEECE MMNETC FIELD j neutron star MAENE fC Flew Mar ALKNEP wml 57w 0 RomION AXS 97mm 85mm of 4011 was Amt KY KenMimi CONE Fierce magnetic elds sizzling electrons manna SYNCHROTRON fast rotation d M 5 RADIATION amp nest lighthouse quotmm f quotLKHTHDUEE A BEAM Mamequot new SW P89 I am utmost 10 Km Thomas Gold 1968 MM 4 t Pulsars and Neutron Stars n In r p rotation all Pulsars are lighthouses in our Galaxy SwotRamon Kepler0N WNan PrFF kErT 7km 7712mm Ema 4m 242mm lN How IWNJ Y Ink5r Wm mam THEMAL S YNMWXDN SPEatuM radiation 539va kamvz WWW beaming from neutron star and many other energetic places quasars scream from electrons spiralling along magnetic elds like in particle accelerators ap91ml 0N 25m mm Amine ZAPo Mm of 17m PamN m Emmiemu z mmenmzw mam Wm Imamm More aming5 Mystery resolved when pulsar discovered in Crab Nebula known to be supernova remnant Messier 1 or M1 The Crab pulsar also pulses in visual light 7033 SECTU3933 sec 5 13 MEET 033 sect l 033 sec I a I39 3 as I Q Spinning Bowling Ball Demo Neutron Star in the Lab Sound on the Web Fast electrons in Synchrotron Radiation strong magnetic axonta elds 9 neutron 39 stars black holes a Sm two 1 Different shape from thermal radiation emits at all wavelengths strongest in radio Visible vs X ra y emission Thermal light from stars 9 Visible and IR Synchrotron light from neutron stars Xray and radio Visible Light vs Radio Thermal vs Synchrotron Elliptical galaxy visible Same galaxy radio Back to famous friend SN Crab Nebula M1 4 July 1054 Crab 3 pulse patterns CRAB PULsAlz Fm Mamav m 1m Pamrim 752101 0 03 5 KZMLHJEQ 08M 30 mar 5m rsaw Page W W WSSLE2 x m at Room 6103 NEHLA Wm gemMr PULSE Panama 0 Fume DIMN 1547 I mum ye may WM VlSlbe swwwr POWJ N my lm ENE WW l 9 radio a PM quotoN39roz mu W quot lm M975 w mng a W m m aw BE imam 7 mm 7 7742 Crab Nebula SNR Chandra Xray View of Crab center Crab pulsar at work Nov Chandra X ray 00 Apr 01 l HST Visible FULSARS Earmic NEUTRON 57m Stow pow Gradual slowmg M 7045 FEio p EEITNC LONEEZ down Of M lfETIC new MAY 4m WEAKEN pulsar rotation 9 W WSWmam ROM Pm 7329 a M w m mm wanm Ma 41 MIKE Energy emitted rem mum ii it A v wax Ww v r ww w lt39 w w a TIME e W 3 in pulses comes from rotational a 2 kinetic ener W 15 LIFETIME of rum 2 75309 Listen to pulsars Wwiifzmw from our website J 2 174 2107M 2 L n met Clicker review red giants The main source of energy for a star as it grows in size to become a red giant is A gravitational contraction B hydrogen fusion in a she C helium fusion in the core B H around core D hydrogen fusion in the core Story of SN 1987A in LMC Large 39 Magellanic Cloud LMC 10 000 tiles with Spitzer composite IR 24 Feb 1987 SN in LMC 160000 ly away AFTER SN 1987A ChairMi quotr H 20 year birthday Supernova SN 1987A Inner debris of the Supernova 1987A SN 1987A n g SN 1987A Brightening knots 1994 gt 2006 Making a millisecond pulsars spin it up Inlalllng matter times per second ms Accretion disk forms extremely hot X raz Bursterquot if He fusion neulron star Black Widow millisecond pulsar evaporating companion star in cocoon has spun it up Chandra X ray Image SUNRNWA kwmn ENE ExP NDw 92527 HF Exle KMI 139 mg 7 numbers game a mo m M m M man rum wwu mu Mimimww Cassiopeia A SN in 1680 Flamsteed Cass A Viewed with Spitzer IR Kepler s SNR 1604 quotpromoquot Type la SN We are made of star stuff Discussion topic Respond next Thur How has this occurred what processes in stellar evolution are involved Stellar gravezardquot is very much alive J Mass transfer in binaries adds jazz all can play l 40 000 9 Temperature 3000 Compact Companions in Binary Systems Mass transfer from red giant spirals onto accretion disk Inner parts M955 520mm mm mm mks mm 5 NW mom Stages in mass exchange Here constder two masstve stars W clock runs fast LINK ACCZerON DISlt5 LiaAm my WNWE2250 w ZAARV Mass transfer H 7mm W Op wAvr MWONAL Mo w 9 accretion disk 0 WWW W am Harm2p marow or 10sz N 31mm disk gets m radiates brightly 39 ens Hem w A 7 mm m makes neutron stars 7 Bap47a Vmrs W and black holes Visible X quot39 White Dwarfs in Binary Systems Again mass transfer from red giant companion spirals onto an accretion disk But too much mass can take White dwarf M the edge ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Stars amp Gal 39 Hal J39uri Toome TA Kyle Auglsl son Lecture 4 771m 24 Jan 08 zeusooraabeatIastrli7417Doomre Topics for Today Twinkle and absorption by our atmosphere What light gets through what does not Telescopes in space and why Radio and xray telescopes do it differently Read Chap 14 OurStar the Sun Homework Set 1 due today Respond to next discussion Q on CULearn What are pros and cons ofa lunar observatory Clicker Q Radio Waves D You are listening to a radio station broadcasting at a FM frequency of97 Mhz Which is true A The radio waves from the station have a wavelength of 97 million meters B The radio wavesquot received by your radio are not light waves but rather a special kind of sound wave C The radio station broadcasts it signal with a power of 97 million watts D The radio waves are causing electrons in your radio39s antenna to move up and down 97 million times per second D C A f Radios You are listening to a radio station broadcasting at a frequency of 97 Mhz Which is true D The radio waves are causing electrons in your radio39s antenna to move up and down 97 million times per second Wavelength Speed of light frequency 30 x 1070 cm sec 7 95 107 sec 7 312 cm Imaging with our Eyes pupil allows light to enter the eye lens focuses light to create an image r ina detects the light and generates signals sent to brain lens If i ow new m mm Bending of Light to Focus Form an Image Telescopes and cameras work much like our eyes Reflection and refraction bending of light layh mama yids m39 an my rm mm glass Your digital camera CCD detector ch wave peril vmng in far we slower speed of light in glass lmnqmy my PM directml 11m my glass Optical Telescopes of Two Types Eyeplece Lens Largest Refractor Eyepiece lens 1 Objemive Lena 39 A objective mirrnr Focus REFRACTOR LENS Telescope tube Diagonal mll l m Yerkes 40 REFLECTOR MIRROR Modern 8 m Telescope Re ector Modern Re ectors nml lccm GEMNI 8 m Mauna Kea Hl 65m MMT Mt Hopkins AZ 83 m SUBARU Mauna Kea H Different FOCUS arrangements to get image an Gauguin Focus Nomaninn Focus Nmmymlcam Focus Keck 10 m Twins Segmented Reflectors Twrn Keck 10 m TELESCOPES Mauna Kea HI Problems in Looking Through Our Atmosphere Many wavelengths are absorbed just don t make it through to surface Turbulence in atmosghere distorts light stars appear to twinkle angular resolution is degraded Manmade light is reflected by air garticles yielding bright night sky this is light pollution Light Pollution 90 of Earth s population cannot see the Milky Way How many light bulbs does it take to screw up an astronomer An immediately curable gollution simply turn the lights off Stog uglight glare wastes billions of 35 in energy use low pressure sodiumquot Several famous observatories re now use ess LA Basin View from Mt Wilson Observatoiv 1908 and 1998 Quest for Good Weather and Seeing Mauna Kea Big Island of Hawaii 14000 elevation middle of the Pacific 1 V r Sitesin Arizona Chile Canary islands Europe Dry high dark and isolated Best on the planet Concept 07 quotAHQUar ReSOIU on Two Properties ofAny Telescope Ability to separate two objects 1 Resolution Angle between two objects decreases as your distance to Pig3 smallest angle which can be seen them increases e 122 l2 R Smallest angle at which you can distinguish two objects is your angular resolution 2 LightCollecting Area think of telescope as a photon bucketquot its area A 11 R2 Z is light wavelength R is mirror or lens radius Kyle Will discuss RESOLUTION in recitation Adaptive Optics AO detwinke stars Wavefronts of star light are deformed by atmosphere DISCUSSION TOPIC Can distort shape of mirror very fast to correct for distortions by atmosphere hot new technology quot JUST WHY DO BIG OPTICAL TELESCOPES USE MIRRORS REFLECTORS ANDM LENSES REFRACTORS 7 Why big aperture telescopes are re ectors Can suggort mirror from back notjust at edges as with lenses biggest 1 m lens 10 m diam mirror Mirror needs only one good optical surface to be ground not four as with achromatic 2 elem lens Can recoat mirror surface easily with highly reflective aluminum even silver Lens has to be optically pure and uniform but mirror can be made of anything that holds its shape fuzed quartz zero expan pyroceramics even beryllium Instruments in the Focal Plane How astronomers use light collected by a telescope 1 Imaging use camera to take pictures images photometry a measure amount and color with filters of light from object 2 Spectroscopy use spectrograph to separate light in detail into its different wavelengths colors 3 Timing measure how amount of light changes with time sometimes in a fraction of a second Imaging Digital With 0003 Filters are placed in front 3 of camera to allow only certain colors to be imaged Single color images are superimposed to form true color images Spectroscopy analyzing the light mum mu Spectrograph reflects l si wary mmm light off a grating finely f nurum 7 ruled smooth surface ragtimeum mmm y a ll Int Light by interference 513M disperses into colors seen This sgectrum is 33 53 mm recorded by digital CCD quot LOuillmlinw mm minmi detector mm xxmwm emotional luvw Mimi gammy 651 anyquot 3e new 7 coco miwmzrvcr mum rsm mailquot won 1 mm ranl raw rm mum Which RADIATION GOOD ets through our TMOSPHERE 7 39 5f quotquotquot i m Mvummu 7 39im wad7 a in a ma Mama Lousy Em Fur XK AYJ mama um mp Atmospheric Absorption of Light Earth s atmosphere absorbs most types of light not entirely bad or we would be dead Only visible radio and some IR and UV light get through to the ground sea r 39 39 val To observe other wavelengths must put telescopes in space So what gets through our atmosphere RADO WAVES mostly get through Thus radio telescopes are built on the ground Weather is not an issue radio waves come right through the clouds Infrared Telescopes INFRAREDcan be Absorption is in speci c Combination ofground absorbed by molecules like H20 02 co etc wavebands leaving windows where we can see above the atmosphere based airplane balloon rockets satellite UV Xrays and Gammarays These all have enou h ener to ionize electrons out of atoms or break apart mo ecu es 9 Heavily absorbed by the atmosphere Space or high altitude balloon rocket observatories are 393 necessa Clicker Q galaxy B REDSHIFTED ln observing a distant galaxy the H alpha spectral line of hydrggen usually in the visible is now in the IR portion of the spectrum What can you conclude A Galaxy is made purey of hydrogen B Galaxy is moving away from us C Galaxy is moving towards us D Galaxy has very weak gravity Hubble Space Telesmpe HST aptcal ur Chandra Xiay Observatun SIRTF Space Infrared Telescope Facility now SPITZER Launched August 03 Trails behind Earth to get away from Earth s thermal w 085m aperture T 55 K Cooled with Iiguid helium 25 years worth I VISIBLE and UV WS b E atmusphere S transparentbutturbutent seemg Hubble Space Telescope HST HST Small 25 meters diffractionrlimited Luvv mm accessmre by smma rerurmsmng means rung Name 1 aammuw Casts 5 mumn qurZEI year Dr 7 an we mare than gruund scape How do you point a space telescope in orbit 7 1 Squirt from ets to change direction hydrazine 2 Torque by electric currents in big coils while flying through Earth s magnetic eld 3 Torque by electric motors spinning up or down reaction wheels ANGULAR MOMENTUM DEMONS TRA TlON Next t Our Nearest Star Chap 14 ASTR 1040 Accel As Hal J39uri Toomre TA Kyle Aug Lecture 5 Trur 31 Jan 08 zeuscooraabeotIastr10417Doomre Stars 3 Galaxies Today How does the Sun shine Examine pp chain energy source fusion of H to He Workings of solar thermostat to maintain stable energy production in core Read S41 42 Building blocks of universe 39 osons quarks leptons discuss in recitation on Monday Discussion today Lunar observatory e d 0 next discussion by Tues on the solar interior planetarium next Thur Reading Clicker Q A What are the solar layers in going from deep inside to outside A core radiation zone convection zone photosphere chromosphere corona B core radiation zone convection zone corona chromosphere photosphere core corona radiation zone convection zone photosphere chromosp ere Big System V W of Sun core radiative zone convection zone photosphere chromosphere corona olar Wind Pull of gra vity Push of pressure gradient Dvessum 9am SPHERICAL nature of gravity makes it ROUND High PRESSURE needed at CENTER KIOVWMVVNAL NW Emlr Imw M View rm Nam HEW w q m Mm w W PRESSURE in vs GRAVITY 5mm WJELWQ mu we39re HEW MMmzwwmv 3 f mmm m mm WM HOT CENTER g m A M quotmy Sun is a big ball of plasma Hydrogen and helium are ionized by the high temperature throughout most of star Such electricalbIconducting GAS is called a PLASMA Movement of plasma has currents flowing builds magnetic fields and electric fields HOW to get high central pressure In gases plasmas eguation of statequot is roughly PRESSURE DENSITY X TEMPERATURE 1 Making the CENTER HOT yields hg39 h pressure that keeps star from collapsing 2 If really hot NUCLEAR BURNING can supply the energy that always leaks away from hot places Fusion or ssion as star s energy source Ilssmn e lt Need hg39 h temperatures to make fusion happen m mm mm swam mmm mmm mnqu m Hv el High temperature gives high speeds a 17 a Plenty ofH forfusion almost no heavy WWm Wm JeI for ssion H converted to He murhrzgsmvmmm mm mm ML aw m m Mums Th rind NUCLEAR A BURNING 4 near center n 7937 ProtonProton PP Chain Th ermonuclear FUSION I Murmur 33 Q Sun s energy budget simply put Helium has atomic mass 3 97 times that of hydrogen NOT exactly 4 times Tiny amount of the protons mass is lost to y E mC2 a little mass makes a lot of energy Rates are fast enough that 4 million tons of mass are converted into energy each second ProtonProton PP Chain hquot m7 hi iquot W a 5 21 3917quot if quot 3 9quotl m i W 39W m w gt52 a Sb 0 39 Burn 600 million tons of H every sec making 596 million tons of He and 4 million tons goes into ENERGY Collision of electron With positron antimatter t annihilate two gammarays emit e NuCear vs chemical burning Nuclearp p buming 1kg of H becomes 0993 kg He 7grams releases 63x 1074 joules Same energy released by chemically burning 20 000 tons of coal ll 2 unit trains Sun s luminosity vs 40 Wi39ghtbub L 38 1025 joulessec watts Wyoming unit coal trains Unit train 100110 hopper cars each 100 T ofcoal mile Ion tinday 26000 trains in 1999 gnaw mi Wm Clicker Q nuclei 3 The atomic nucleus PPN two protons plus a neutron A Is an isotope of hydrogen B Is an isotope of helium C Is an isotope of lithium Solar Thermostat Why doesn t the Sun go into a runaway reaction What is it 0 B An isotope of helium FUSIOn rate Is VERY senSItIve to temperature tight feedback loop CRUCIAL Helium is the element with TWO protons no more no less A If energy generation fusion rate speeds up 1 Pressure in core will increase lifting the gas Helium usually has 2 neutrons PPNN againstgravity core eanndsl bUt Wlth a Slngle neUtron 395 Hel um393 2 Gravitational energy is created from thermal PPN energy 9 the gas cools 3 Energy generation fusion rate slows down More on solar thermostat Protonproton chain summary Input 6 protons B However ifener eneration dro s gyg p Output 1 helium 1 Core pressure drops 2 pretons 2 Solar core starts to collapse 2 POSitronS 9 gm 3 Temperature rises 2 neutrinos 4 Fusion rates go up again more gamma rays 4 hydrogens a 1 helium 2 neutrinos Sun is remarkably stable only small 30 gamma rays energy increase in fusion rate over billions of years 00 WE SEE THE GAMMARAYS NEUTRINOS Observatory on the Moon j Pros and cons Lunar Observatory No atmosphere all 0 What are the advantages pros radial390 99 s W 0119 39 very pensvs to be there and operate facility On surface only half the sky visible butrotates Lots of dust to stir up Exposure to highenergy particles micrometeors Work in space suits live in habitats orrobotic No lightradio pollution Moon is solid ground 0 Where would you position it No environmentaistsi PreeXisting crater as almost radio dish If on farside away from Earth noise but Sun 7 0 Could it be cost effective 39 May favor Po a reg0 quotCould it be costeffective 0 And the disadvantages cons ASTR 1040 Accel Intro Astronomy 2 Stars amp Galaxies Prof Jur Toomre TA Kyle Augustson Lecture 2 Thur 7 7 Jan 08 zeus colorado eduastr1040toomre Reading overlap with 1030 How to Succeed in this course p xxviii Chapter 1 all OurPace in Universe Review Basic Astronomical terms p 4 Chapter 2 review all Motion of Stars Seasons Chap 3 sec 35 Science of Astronomy Chap 4 review all Making Sense of Universe Read Chap 5 carefully Light and Matter Begin reading Chap 6 Telescopes for Tues class You can get copy of all slides after class from course website can be helpful Some organizational stuff 1 Register your icickers in real time now 2 Signup for one of two nights in opening phase of observatory projects first night this Tues Jan 22 7pm 3 Reorganize to equalize participation in our Monday recitation sections both occur in E126 9am and 10am 4 Submit your response to Discussion Q 1 on CULearn course site by Tues class time Topics for Today Nature of astronomy as a science Light as waves Coupling of atoms and light Yields spectral lines that are fingerprints unigue to each atom Kirchoff s Laws about emission and absorption features in spectra Fume 77765 0F Fame w AAmee FOUR 1 GRAVITY WEAKEJT Zurpomwem UNA525E EFORCES 2 ELEM90W GNErc EM at work everywhere we assume and test 3 SWONG NUCLEAR 10 x EM Karelw w AilCLEO 0F A PM 4 WEAK NUCLEAR lLOOO x 5M onw m ATvMc Nuctc u E quotE gmmn ELE C TRO EC XL 2A1 X nvs UV VLF3L6Il MICKOWAVE RADIO RADIATION lt quotL H7quot gt used for most Acr LIKE WAVES AND Pactcue Worms PHOTOVs PHO TONS Mlth Maren quotQUANTA quanta 0F amt ENE 67 particles of light QUQWM AIM 0F LHT Mog r EVD p f WHEN MHT Micem om Arm 7 SPEcTQAL bNEI W z tA P at E u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u quotE gPROPERTES Warez es OF WAVES I WAVELENGTH A r UghCY f AW 1 Awmwe A 976617 c WAveoeNmi x F aueucv gpggp A x f C 0W6 oxenz P ot ar PWACWOA awnW eaacnw Mrerzwz 26WC oV Flam W Pof Pc K mFr ELECTKOMA GNETC SPECTRUM 23 eeeeee 9V lt ENEMY ev l I I l l l I I I l l I I I I l l I I I l l l I I I l l I I I l l II I 156 1tl4 l 32 l 139 l 10l2 l 104 l 1016 l 107 3 E M 5 Frequencyigz f I ngauavcy H2 l l l I l I l l l l l 102 to 3 10 5 I l 10 1012 10 0 108 1067 SPEC UM WWW quotquot 0 WAVEZL N TH T Oim 1 108 106 Eh lA l 102 1 quot393 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I h Radio waves 4 3 4 M owa es gt ltX gt lt l f red quot Gamma raysgt lt NAM VlSlble spectrum 1 color Blue Green Yellow Orange Reel 4000 A To wavefingth 103900 463900 5000 5730 000 7056 E A6 10 86m 5726 of ATOM Quantum QUANTUM MECHANIC Mechanics PHOTON z Pumar x mam ENEM Y GOA 79517 E x energy of f photons varies mch mums 0 gt MORE ENERKY S Ho TEyz WAV L Nmr UV X EAVJ MORE FAA65200 gEM LIGHT gAs WAVES Wa Veenhs Axf c ELECTKOMAavenc ADATOA A A WA ve Wowmom p IZECWOA of 72319 I Moll WAVELEMG W xmoualcy mac quotLiamquot 2scIE a CA V oPA AWOA Wee 0F ALL EM WillE If We J AME C 5 A Commur x 300 000 kmJ ec 3 x 1010 CmJ ec i39ll39h Its waw rrr aih minaret m It int1 Electromagnetic Spectrum I39m if a we nana gmvm I m1 it my Emarum rz rmm l 1rmmruwlrn39l H Li gammarays Xrays ultraviolet visible infrared radio What does a lecture cost you also a clicker tryout About 6 each great buy About 24 each kind of expensive Close to 100 each ouch Nearly 200 each but what a steal Priceless but hopefully a pleasure W905 So how can we estimate the cost Real cost of lectures so use them well Breaking a problem down to simple elements 0W390F39l occer WHAT 1906 A lecmze curryou AND M A oP Ifir No m r 14K M of m Ema55 376 quot54 7007010 XSK Livqu tan lionm E SAW Nofa utp E WHb IN SCHoaL quot 30 K L 7 MINIMUM l l CofroF 29ng M00 N 40K 39I la Mr04AM F W5 63007 10 CoutJEr y ACat quotCorryquot 3 44 CotME 7 Gw r lbw 44 73mm LemF Ar 50 MW 5309 PW m b f mow Am ax6w 77m 696 came JeffON quotComquot you 91 1 p DID 7 M7 722770N ouu 7764 300 0L 0w it 5 9 2 kar M gt Ll050 protons gneuuons electrons and quarks Building blocks for everything ch LEW Formvew aware l mu Aup momma near12m 007a J Heu xl 0F NEfATNEI Y CWrEp Lama HYDKOEEN 0N5 Pram4 No patnew 0N ma a arr acecnew CAN 5 m we 0 MAM PW 022mg Mm verour amazes HEMM 7W0 OF EACH A650 507bf6r wl l MPf oN L MEMONJ CAlchJ 57K of EACH Meta inwr WM JMALL 10 4 x3 Nucleus and its electron cloud Wmmmimmdmme Mm Wu EliII Hgllum PHI Guml W J Ili39fimsl tumbler M 1 1quotrin2 Wigwam 23quot lmu rumbanquot 33Wquot H1355 WSW 39 EVENquot TUBES iL ef 391 SITEWt WEEE Fru t I U E m39mnhl 22539 Maugham le gm rrn j mum Elm alum a El n gammmnj E r h 393 3530 1 1 ohm 1 IE Finisrug Ei l l 39ti39r fEil Illa Drowns 1 whimrm EEi DWI3M 1quot gnE lMWEI Mamnit m In 39 at a 99mm W the mama Wm Eli WEE1t mum at Atoms Involve Big Empty Spaces Tm n39a39illicjm39i mam amid quotM ENE 15 ENE EEFIEIEEE THE M LL21 ll 1 3 a rE EILl if l jm31ITEEE S f39 ll 39 marl WE ot the 31mquot m1 mma s 3quot aillquot marl al at EEE mam gr m f If 9 1 I If I39 339 f III Iraquot I f If i r r w I III ng 39 m f E if 57 H HJEIEUS E l39lt im Iquot 1f Til warm i Itl lzflsawutj grel llrr intmi mm HEU39Ii39Eal FIGHTERS gray Elam IllEEEWTZE39I39E 35E quotifl l39IL JI39L39 LJLILquot ir39 an 3me around 11139 HWIEEE mace Poss845 0237 F02 awcyzw N HYDROGEN A7DM TQANSITONS Ufa9L EMT 02 Assam Pumpv 5EE 6EE Pkoron SPECTRAL Nucuzus LN s Popping from W one orbt to 5mm 5 6 another involves 0 0 particular ONLV uarn39 0F camAI come Emma CAN 6 Agfolef 02 EMITTEP PH 0 TONS Emu CHEMICAL away Her 17 own moms NUMgaz AND PAW 0F Eczema warm gt UNIQUE PW 0F 60692 9766722170 war Me was A chaaneu like DNA prints ENERGY LEVEL AND sremzAL Lues ENERGY LEVELS lN V oa ErJ A7DM CONTNUUM F255 ELECTEuAs a JagWON of electrons W I 1 11 IR 2 E 1239 II39IFEIRAIIRED Z IN HYDROGEN 5 w W 3 T mum VISIBLE LEW ENEES Y gawm rr Xcm Z LetEl Each transition UV involves photons mm of speci c color a r we WM may G BWND o LEVEL like fingerprints 5m crow We Mm EACH WAXTron 0F ELECTEoN w 50625 momcar one 9 66me LINE EMSsioJ memo of PHoTOJ Inj l l ljr l Hydrogen s 539quot quot 339quot Energy Diagram A ll 1 rf m 5 t jul39 quoti a 513 H EE mE I Emission 41 1 431 U 1134 391 531251 am rm rim rm Absorption s1 hill 1 aim dill Eif fi 2 39Im mm m I r39l ll Below is an energy level diagram for hydrogen with one electron The capital letters represent individual atoms undergoing the indicated electronics transitions jumping up or down between orbits continuum LEVELIll 335879 Ionization Limit 3 B i F 1209 eV 2 1020 eV l 1 A c l D E l 000 eV Ground Level Ezhf cAf Where E is photon energy all f is photou frequency sec 1 Hz h Planck s constant 414 x 10 15 all see c speed of light 3 x 1010 cmsec 1 A l x 10 8 cm A lambda is photon wavelength cm or A Using the Hydrogen atoni energy diagram given above the equations and the constants as listed calculate the wavelength in Angstroms A of the following transitions 6 Transition E Transition B Advice Read Appendix 03 Working with Units In what ways is an electron orbiting the nucleus of an atom different from a planet orbiting the Sun E A The central force is electromagnetic and charges attract not gravity B Not all orbits are allowed only certain sizes they are quantized C Because atomic orbits behave differently from regular orbits we call them orbitals D An electron can jump or make a transition from one orbital to another E All of the above SPECTEA lagercry mm A EAPIATNG EbbD HOVpl 02 C HWHvFeemZE 5A5 07nng 7HCz 9 CONTNana SF5C7ZUM WWW W 40w Peiwry BIZT39cNE I mm Kirchoff s C Warw laws 9 EmISSIon gt g LHTOF COA77AU01J SPECWM V h MOIH A chee ens 9 092K raw6 Agrozmov 5W Absorption Structure formation model Prof Jur Toomre TA Kyle Augustson Lecture 30 Thur 1 May 08 I u u mm a Ultimate Joys of Cosmology Look at early eras involved with the bigbang beginning Discuss development of largescale structure in the universe Final Exam comprehensive here on Monday 5 May 130400 pm read rules on review sheet 1 billion years 380 000 ears 3 minutes Evolution of Universe Models of universe and its fates OPEN Law CRITICAL FLA 77 Now i r r c it rm AOL it u Wear TIME mm gt11 q How can universe be accelerating Conjecture An unknown force at large scales begins to counteract pull of gravity Dark energy outweighs every other arm of massenergy 73 Barzons 4 4 Cold Dark Matter 23 With a FLAT universe and early inflation arkEnerg 0 13 y General Theory of Relatiw39tz was giant step forward but then Alarming ideas like 39 exga im universe Hubble 2 CMB big bang 3 1 Eart in 100 000 uniform inflation 4 white dwarf SN dark energy These could trouble even Einstein l Grand uni ed theories of physics predict that the very early universe 1032 seconds after the start may have had a phase transition releasing energy and causing D A The universe to vastly expand 39 inflation B Tiny fluctuations predicted by quantum mechanics to expand large enough to contribute to the uctuations we see in the cosmic background radiation now C Any curvature ofspace to be reduced D All of the above Some say the world Will end in re Some say With ice From What I ve tasted of desire I hold With those Who favor re But if I had to perish twice I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suf ce Robert Frost National Poet Laureat Now turn to the VERY Beginning Time Since Major Eyenls Big Bang Slncn Big Bang pm ms lhe cosmos l billion plquot 9mm YEquot 10quotquot Alan low p ion m mama and baconquot ynu microwave Indiumid Fusion ass J h I 397 9 mm normal mailer ls 39quot quot quot pmions neutrons 75 7mm E39s 39 A nhciiunmmutrinos 25 h lm by Nuclaosynthesls 39 o anllmatlur ma 55 39 39 39 mm lhllnl s moot quotsolids ulamamnrv rml liclas mix 39 am39 391 JD um Eu 3 Axumquot Ebclmmsgnotl and mi 10 quotand x3 mm lores laconic dlsllncL Elle mwe Equot L particle strong lure bccomu 104 ascends i distinct Innings BUT E Wm caning nuauon 0 10 a particle mm c d Planck Eu 7 neulmn matron 7 an moquot y r m l proton 7 r nnmim 7 r antlxwlmn quot 39 quot5 45 13 W THE COSWC FIREEALL WW 1 Wm M gnawMr 39 2 quotI ZanLPuEquot MW awmmu hHAxr BI 1 me HitM4 idea 73quot m 2 X Y Z 0472 am Mr mum mar limm AMmm Ar rrr 5 w FIREBALL amemm rem WW 1945 we r e Erma WW 7vquot 35a 3 ats 9151423 CBOLDl Wm g39 I W m w i M George Elwaz NW DECAY IL 39 7 r 2 9 NM LEEEA W44 lat l GAMOW ma w 9 2H r 1948 mm mm mm men n in an M a r v39r v me o OopslPure a 3H 4 yr 4H9 4 r HELIUM Rem A We HELIUM MW in try mm Mm 02mm 77 MM 737 K Hw orsv Making helium in rst 3 minutes Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Proton and Two deuterium Hydrogen 3 neutron fuse nuclei fuse fuses with to form a 0 make deuterium deuterium hydrogen 3 to create nucleus helium4 a photon Ia la y39 in at w 3 mar J JUST DO NOT MAKE EVERYTHING INTO HELIUM I m W wf W 31 3 Mm 7b MAHVMVM mam mum klmna mu 3m 39 39 Vii Maura was aumd Ima ma l W mm m mumm gr lm L393539J 3mi wm 39rrxa rmijh mm mm Am HOT rm mm mu BI Ban Lww P F39 x cm r r r 9 p F MW WM did the trick quotH Mu e z Mme 12513 Iawam ft e 3 Em Nam mm Immmu new rue d p 5 P i e A 11 new burn but an 517 n Pram3 52 W W hm rm am my rim m anu knew HEEva39h Matter and Antimatter Par cie creation gammaray phmcn EiEc39il39OFI Protons slightly I outnumber antiprotons l V 3 5 a i 0 At end of particle era gammaray phmcn ar liltlil39JCil r39l universe contains some matter Universe ratio today 1 billion Qhotons light 1 leftover Qroton Particle annihilation anllalemmn gammarlay gjholon i H and He ratio after 3 minutes 14 protons 2 neutrons JQOJOJJ 0 during syr 39 ii 900000 J JOJJJO Ki 11913 amp sanheSIS a a a a a a 1 helium 12 hydrogen I atomic mass 12 atomic mass 4 matter r w ff I eiccnun gammalav shown WWW qr Ewan MM 9112 3 Mum 991 1 3932 Smr During rst 3 minutes Makin the m g jam SM 15AM TIME g2 l 7UM 10 719 1 1039 um made depends on density of 2H HIGH mli gnnd g mum39rmm mm hm Sensitivity in making the light elements 10 deuterium 1 predicted 10 9 A 2 aquot deuIeIium E 8 mnasured 5 iO quot 5139 5 C a 9 F I helium3 g m henumg measured m g lrlhium7 Died39de 1042 predicted lithiumi 1015 measured 1 0 1 4 10 100 densin of ordinary matter percentage of critical density 39 ow Winu mm MW ordinary matter 7 m imam baryon5 MW p J1 005 main 1233 uuw m 013mm W r W merr 39439 mi EurMaw gr WWW Pam Am 7779 zrr 3 MNWE After rst minW m 1 m a 1 MW we 1 3 minutes 10 394 We luauPE 6ny 0 EtEMEvr 6mm Mor39r ENEMY W amvm W row a tam377ml RADIATION binMind PREVtie ram I7va lm MMrr w W m H w re quotM gt 380000 yr NWL Wuhan rNcuanEr m Mm MW 5 28 1 MilHa y Now lrznuw VA 3000 27 K MATTER cum o l of MAM mm m ERA magnifi mi 39 AilAri Fm 71m MAXer M Curranb 0F OHMEr After recombination Era Of Atoms r f m 1 Finally cool enough 39 880 s 39 l for electrons to combine With nuclei n to form atoms 380 000 yrs 39 39 1 113ch D Photons noW decoqued free to become CMB of future Universe becomes transparent to light 6030 K lt tempe razure Whatis Olber s paradox A If the universe was infinite any direction you looked you would eventually see a star UJ If the universe was infinitely old the starlight would have time to get here The sky should look bright at night because all directions would have starlight All of the above 0 D Era of Atoms and Galaxies About 1 billion years after Big Bang rst stars and galaxies start to form Z 10 7 Forming rst stars and galaxies Simulating largescale structure Evolve and rotate viewing Comoving frame in overview Simulation Dark matter structure now Dark matter cosmic web Forming galaxy clusters Galaxy clustering in ever deeper surveys Galaxies are always moving Hubble flow respond to local clustering i l 500 M ly across The Big Mysteries What will be the fate of the universe 7 What is the universe made of 7 What is the dark matter 7 Is the theory of inflation correct 7 What is the dark energy 7 Which of this if any should we believe7 Science is not about belief it s about exploration ASTR1040 Accel Astra Star39s h I 7 flu all 22 2 39 3 us ur Pro Jurl Toomre 734 Kyle Augustson Lecture 28 Thur 24 Apr 08 zeuscoloraa oeduastr1040toomre amp Galaxies Today s Cosmoogical Events Look at models for our universe and what prompted ideas about bigbang beginnings Cosmic Microwave Background Read 223 Structure Formation and 224 Fate of Universe in detail Overview read Chap 23 Beginning of Time Course evaluation at end of class So what was with this exam RESULTS FROM THIRD MIDTERM EXAM THIRD MIDTERM EXAM Grade boundaries based on 130x points If 111x130 85x or over A s 48x 99x130 76 or over B s 40 89x130 68 or over C s 12 Also plain and within these ranges Go through answer sheet and talk to us if do not understand our choices Keep exam answers for future review comp nal Reading clicker gravitational lens If you measure the redshifts of the yellowish and blue objects you ll nd A The yellow galaxies have similar redshifts all higher than the blue galaxies B The blue galaxies have the same redshift which is higher than the yellow galaxies C Yellow and blue galaxies have similar redshifts Lensing B The blue images are a single BACKGROUND galaxy being lensed by the foreground cluster yellow galaxies The blue galaxy is farther from us and thus will have a higher redshift COSmower NATURE OFTHE UNIVERSE REVSIT Models of our quotOPEN UNA5122 unlverse Mamw 4qu 9 526122 0F winWuquot 39 J Dark matter has big influence on mm open vs closed quotatom ml62 39r REALM Now 7mg 35 CJEMNCH39 HzCE Mam N mm enrrrv If enough mass gravity eventually wins 3 FLAT wmgmw my More on Predictions of GTR Georges Lemaitre P Belgian 1927 rediscovers Friedmann solutions told Hubble observing redshifts since 1924 that cosmic expansion suggests more distant galaxies should have greater redshifts Hubble publishes V HO d in 1929 Einstein visited Hubble in 1932 said CC biggest blunder REMINDER Redshift Is expansion factor 1 Z measures how much universe has expanded in 39 am i 1 2 distance between alaxies now distance between galaxies then Predictions of General Relativity Theory G TR Einstein in 1917 realized GTR predicted universes in motion but preferred steady state added cosmological constant CC as repulsive force in spacetime to counteract attractive force of gravity Willem de Sitter A Dutch 1917 solves GTR equations with no CC and low density of matter 39 showed universe must expand Alexander Friedmann M Russian 1920 solves GTR with no CC but any density of matter 39 universes can expand forever or collapse again depending on mean matter density Various Friedmann GTR solutions Very opnn unlvclsc Opcn39 uulveme expands elem Distance 0 standard Presth galaxlos 39Omillntlng universe unlvcrsu 1 Big Bang B15 Crunch naughty mo billlan years Tlme Old language Open Marginaly Open Closed Oscillating Ver important diagram Average distance between galaxies 1 expansion factor E 1 1 z g 39 E 3 T g NOWis xed in time Z0 E r 3 Hubble constant NOW sets 39 Jo 39 n 39 39 m pull UNI bllllo jeh m Il ll t universe is expanding NOW Big Bang when distance zero 2 infinity Dark Matter and Fate of the Universe Expansion beglns V 95 We with Big Bang but what evidence I avenge alunne belween galaxies D n pas llme billion at yznu lumu Several different models for Past and Future Big shift in thinking Big Ban evidence Penzias amp Wilson in 1965 discovered Cosmic Microwave Background CMB radiation gt 2 73 K black body Photons created when hot universe was only 380000 yrs old as rst atoms formed Very uniform radiation from everywhere few parts In 100000 severely redshifted by expansion of universe COBE Mapping Steps Remove big Dipole asymmetry solar system moving at 600 kms few parts in 1000 Glow from dust in plane of Milky ay few parts in 100000 Cleaned up glow from cosmic photosphere when universe 380 000 yrs old few parts in 100 000 Light from beginning of time u This faint light looks light a solid glowing wall Thermal s ectrum at 3000 K if redshifted by factor 100 9 microwaves l Spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background CMB Wavelength em l a l I I I l I I 8 a nxias an Wilsnn 35 La K o FIHAS COBE saKeIIIKe DMR COBE salelllle I LBL e Ilaly Whlte Mln k Suulh Pole PrinDetun ground amp al onquot cyanogen opllcal 2723 K hlackbndy 3 Brig hmess L erg cm ze39Hi sr l 3 m o l on Frequency GHz tiny fraction of a 137 bllllon years HOT RESEARCH NOW Small temoerature flucluahons used lo lest models omnrverse one degree scale of bump 77gt flat unrveree wrm early Infanon Variations in CMB on small scales revawe we av tempera e Hucmanans Four models for fates of universe What is the fate of the Universe RecollaQse to gnaB giB crushing heat destruction of all matter Big Crunch Rebirth 7 Eternal eransion cold galaxies dimming star formation slowing Everything winds up as a brown dwarf black dwarf neutron star or black hole thh momma Clicker Queston the re te t or the universe today I A Recollapsing closed mam mumm 39 u u m7 ummuanguwn W I C Coasting r i Open C Coasting Age of universe is how far to left horizontal axis distance between galaxies 0 Doubleheader clicker llthere was reall ER dark matter in the universe which model would be the closest to reality um um honmum A Coasting N i r B Critical m 39 C Recollapsing Baryonic matter is only a few Qercent of the critical density Closest model would be the Coasting Model no or little deceleration from gravity Which is it 7 Is there enough dark matter to recollapse the universe Baryonic matter only few of critical density Dark matter only about 25 of what is needed Universe is between the coasting and critical models Universe will exgand forever or so it seems New twist in the new mileniurn White dwarf su rnovae standard candles 1 a Explosions bright enough to be seen very far away back in time Made especialy possible by HST ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Star39s amp Galaxies On Today s Radar Today we look at the challenge of measuring big distances to gure out how far away things are in universe leads to Hubble s law of expansion Reread 203 Hubble s Law Measuring GP 7232 Cosmic Evolution carefully Spiral Sb Overview read Chap 21 Galaxy Evolution for Tues lecture plus 213 Quasars in detail Review Set 3 for next MT Exam Mon 21 Apr ro Jur Toomre 734 Kyle Augustson Lecture 24 Thur 10 Apr 08 zeuscoloradoeduastr1040toomre Hubble next showed universe appeared to be expanding Vesto Slipher 1912 reported that most galaxies showed Doppler redshifts Edwin Hubble using new 100 telescope Clicker reading on galaxies How might you classify this galaxy A Sa started busily measuring galaxy redshifts B SBb Hubble 1929 announced that redshifts of C E galaxies appear to increase with distance from us D 80 This was startling suggests an EXPANDING UNIVERSE 086453 gqarmr tr Mimi a gamma M 2 W Hubble and Mitre I ocm Dimch MW Hubble s Law a recessmn of mm n2 m Exf riAPw mums galaxies aw 2 E E E E E 2 measured I l U H 4 I many redshifts 39 mom me pimg J of mail an Further away W W greater redshift In F Hubble s 1929 original Mm 50 109 m l I In Hi Iquot IL 39 mumWC Hubble guessed h 7mg w W by WW2quot J 5 l Scatter here from random Size and brightness I mquot 39 i 5quot I a ms 1 mum velocmes of nearby galaXIes underestimated a tum l E J unreliable distance estimates by factor 10 Wyn 25 m velocity Best current 3x104 values for 3 I expansion g y 0 Ho E 4 kmsMpc 9 G HUBBLE CONSTANT distance Okpg u39LJJ39J O 0 200 3130 109 5013 urjpdvuul Llustullcu lMuul Hubble 1929 plot extended only to 2 Mpc HO was 500 NlEKYE EVANDI 0M 7 Mfrs rams UK6 6Xf pmg Q n m I nIverse expandsg 39 39 bread 5 7915 Corw EXVLAW Airmsz VELOCIfY IMNCE LAW Ctrnan WAX5r MW 7 is Mavwc mm mm M may 1205 on AWE Clicker halo stars C Massive Otype stars are not found in the galactic halo because they are A too massive to be kicked into the halo from the disk B so massive that they settle into the thinner disk C too shortlived to have persisted from halo formation until today D too far away for us to see them Why no Ostars C Too short lived to be in the halo Halo stars were born billions of years ago the most massive stars don t live nearly that long lWl have disaggeared by now after having enriched the protogalaxy gas with heavy elements Mapping the universe need distances to galaxies Identify and calibrate properties of galaxies that could serve as STANDARD CANDLES beyond direct measure by trigonometric parallax 1 Make some measure of an object which identi es its luminosity like period in Cepheid 2 Use this luminosity and measure apparent brightness to infer distance to it DISTANCE MainSequence Fitting ESTMATE 1 Start with clusterA upper whose distance known via parallax w 39 rm Compare with other 1 143 cluster B lower V Get distance to B from brightness difference M S Fitting pinned to nearby M45 Hyades Cluster 51 ly away Cegheid variable stars DISTANCE ES TIMA TE 2 1 139 r x yg f brighter Cepheids have longer periods i 0 30 YOU enod days Cepheids variables as standard candles DISTANCE ES TIMATE 2 1 Measure geriod of variabili y 2 From period uminosity relation infer the luminosity 3 Compare with a arent brightness and thus determine distance 39 Cepheid variable in M100 HSD Number of Fuzzier Distance Estimators 0 A Apparent brightness of resolved red and blue sugergiants 0 B Size and brightness of H II regions emission nebulae or starbirth regions 0 C lntercompare distances so deduced for speci c galaxies overlapping rungs in distance ladder Distance ladder to measure universe mm V o W V x m wu gt k w I vi Kg r f 1 mm 7quot Imr 39quot 39quotquotquotquot 1M m 27 Different standard candles are useful for different distances muNV 39 n Measuring big distances to galaxies STANDARD CANDLES important ones in distance ladder or chain 1 Mainsequence tting 2 Cepheid variables 3 TullyFisher relation 4 White dwarf supernovae Brightness Luminosity Distance2 TullyFisher Relation DISTANCE ESTIMATE 3 Fast rotation speeds in spiral galaxies a more mass in galaxy a higher luminosity Measure rotation sgeds to infer luminosity Need bright edgeon spirals estimate tilt DISTANCE I Even brighter ESTIMATE 4 White dwarf supernovae Standard explosmn fusion of 14 solar masses of material Nearly the same amount of energy released Bright enough to be seen halfway across observable universe Useful for mapping the universe to the largest distances Supernovae in very distant galaXies The same galaxies alter supernova exulosxons Practical dif culty White dwarf SN Need to catch them N within a day or two g I of the explosion a Y hghl un cllm39sul limclvlumimquot umqu 5a About 1 per galaxy per century quotF Ham 1 Need to monitor thousands of 5 alaxies to catch a wper ear galaxy clusters are 21 a m m m 39 DISTANCE L White dwarf su ernovae ESTIMATE 4 mm Carbon fusion quot explosion mass transfer in binary takes white dwarf over the edge Roughly same brighter SN dim more slowl l amount of energy released calibrate SEND u CANDLESquot Mamram DI Wc quotE AmourE SZcmroml CWJ EE quot91M quot E u E WmWW M Distance T ladder mm mow mem M3 3M4 um CEVHEm wow 20 Migg Mpc 0 la in W ver Z a H t g mamm 46145 KMrd WWW 3 7ij S an ar g ken MW 50 M2 my candles A 9 we 6 30 We 25 gt No MMMLM 39 i V 40 m LZoMg 40M 12 H1 Ram goo Mg any J 20 SUWA maxim to E9 3 By TW FIIHQ 25mm VELOCITY Ho X DISTANCE recession 3x10quot velocity E 2x10 1 K 1 HUBBL g3 CONS TANT O 71 4 kmSeCMpc DEBHVCF39IIUISWHCGlMDCP DISTANCE Use Hubble s Law itself to ESTIMATE 5 estimate vast distances D Measure velocity then D V HO Example using Ho 70 kmsec Wpc and nding that v 700 kmsec D 700 kmsec 70 kmsecMpc 10 Mpc 32 million light years Use Hubble s Law for distances Measuring distances to remote galaXIes IS diffcult REFERENCE but measuring Do Shifts 350 460 4amp0 410 I 460 I 450 I 550 velocmes IS eaSIer wavelength rim from spectra we I v w v r 1wm 5wquot I DISTANT GALAXY Use Hubble s Law to estimate biggest astref shquot i a distances really 380 400 420 440 460 450 500 wavelengm um LOOKBACK TIME Knowing distances reveals largescale galaxy clustering Find clusters superclusters 39 sheets and voids like bubble bath AS WE 0014 00mm WE Loo MafiaIr Ar A Mm Elm52 E Telescopes are lookback time machines Rama Today we see Andromeda as she was 25 M years ago f S 7 Jif Say ll lakes 40 Lookback time in expanding universe 0 m TlME million years for lighl lo gel from galaxyA is us in Milky Way WW Vel during lra vel m sgacelime Dom A WW mm and MW have changed posilions expansion Thus quotdislancequot is a fuzzy cancel 7 Pawnquot W 395 72333 wwnwa mew beller w DIS TANOE39 Balloon analogy for On an expanding expanding universe halloon no galax expansion no e 99 Expansion happens a into a h39 her dimension 2D surface into a 3D a space ur 3D space expanding through a 41quot dimension ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Star39s Galaxies 0 Jun 739 A la Lecture 5 Tue 29 Jan 08 zeuscooraobedtrastr10417Doornre Topics for Today Further remarks about telescopes Overview of how Sun is put together th is a star spherical and doe collapse Gravitational equilibration th does it shine What is the energy source Fusion ofH to He New HW 3 Set out today HW 2 due Discussion question for Thur class Pros and cons ofa lunar observatom where to position it on the Moon respond CULeam Understanding Clicker Q B Which wavelength regions CA with groundbased telescopes A All light with wavelengths longer than ultraviolet N be studied B Radio visible and very limited portions of infrared and ultraviole C All lightwith wavelengths shorter than are D Infrared visible and ultraviolet What light gets through Atmosphere protects us from most high energy photons But many very hot objects shine brightest in such UV Xray and gammaray photons And cool starforming regions are brightest in IR HST Sharpness of Images HST Resolution El D5 arcsecorids D Compare With be5t eelng gr0 t atEI 5 arcsecorids B am ypical 2 arcseco A Prefix or HST image l5 C undrhased on swallow a Seeing 5 ri name W Veran A202th Zm m Rm paired by astronauts sening miledlve z r 5 id X Raz Telescoges do it their own way Xray photons can pass right through a mirror Such photons can only be re ected at shallow angles like mrhing stonesquot off water surface Iw Chandra X Raz Observatog gtiw lam Bigger View of Chandra s X ra y Imaging grazing reflections Nonvisible Light X ray UV IR Radio Most light is invisible to human eye Special detectors can record such light Digital images built using falsecolor coding Chandra eray image of center of or MW Way Ga Green Bankl39elescope 100m Radio Interferometry many small look big Two or more radio dishes observe the same object Signals from each interfere with ea i h other x W Can construct image whose angular resolution is like that from a huge dish V Very Large Array VLA NM lll i LA 7 Large Aperture Synthesis 339 LBA in Owens Valley CA ALMA39Atacama Large mmsubmm M Array 0395 mm Very high desert Chile altiplano 5000 m km max separation 0 005quot best resolution Readin Clicker g Q B Light year What really is a light year 7 A yearthat has less calories DISTANCE travelled ifmoving at the 39 B Distance tra veiled by light in a year speed Of light 300 000 I msec 39 C Time before some politicians tell the 1lightyear 946 trillion km 946 10 km truth as in it will be many light years before the truth Is knownquot Light travel time from surface of Sun to us is I D Travel time for light to get to us from about 8 minutes the Sun Ne Rout NeareSt 3597931 74 Big 93 about the Sun and any star Whyis a starROUND 7 What keeps a starfrom collagsing in ward 7 What keeps it shining 7 Why does it rotate and have varying magnetic fields 7 The 5m A owe Lam IECmnwp Smk rm m2 54 0t 702 mm 0 3 es New mm burnsH EM E J39 MWquot 350mbva to He 1 Mg mum hl wmmwn z me mu irrw wvszA cityX 7 7 ivyom am y zsz HEMM z39 z z m m 5949 Man 39 Big System View of S un core radiative zone convection zone wigg Convection Zone and Radiative lnterior mm 14 rm WWW um um if mam Mm mama x mm new my r lost below tne 1 SURFACE a my a g to 55 a photosphere mm 5am ghotosghere 3 quota Vast range MENquot mr E3 1 9 Deep snett 30 in temperature WWquot quotMW CORE 153 or very turbulent and oenstty WM 39 WW 1 mnveclton a Drives strong I a differential rotatron out w are r w enrornognere a ma M mm law we A TMOSF HERE corona rm rw Donw W ner mm Wu norm mum m gramrram rm EWwa T 39Howrzmz mm mwwquot Pull of gra vity Push of pressure gradient V Name gt Emmy SPHERICAL nature of gravity 39 39 HM m mm makes it ROUND W mm Hexturn PRESSURE vs GRAVITY if quotA NEUEWN 12quot 5355916 rune X f mmmwm Mammrutnw w val rr HOT CENTER 159331quot mm A mm ms High PRESSURE needed at CENTER HOW to get high central pressure In gases plasmas equation of statequot is roughly PRESSURE DENSITY X TEMPERATURE Sun is a big ball of plasma Hydrogen and helium are ionized by he high temperature throughout most of star Such electricalbIconducting GAS is called a PLASMA 1 Making the CENTER HOT yields hig h pressure that keeps star from collapsing 2 If really hot NUCLEAR BURNING can supply the l s Movement of plasma has currents flowing builds magnetic fields and electric fields energy that always leaks away from hot p ace Fusion or ssion as star s energy source lxxsmn mm a 2 lt a a High temperature WW gives high speeds a a Plenty ofH forfusion almost no heavy A mem wmm JeI for ssion H converted to He mawmsmvwmm Need hg39 h temperatures to make fusion happen um i we mm mm 116mm may 7m sz m W W W IrvI r MEN r421 33 NUCLEAR my I e H 11 ia a it 397 173 BURNING near center 5 c 119 o 1H2 We o 2 1 Hans W Bethe V mmw man 4 1 r M 7937 ProtonProton PP Chain Th ermonuclear FUSION 3 39 WW b o in ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Star s amp Galaxies Hal l39uri Toomre TA Kyle Auglst son Lecture 15 Tua39 4 Mar 08 zeusooraabeotIastr10417Doomre Today Discuss how a star may be born getting to the MS Look at postMS evolution of a lowmass star Consider red giant R6 I phase with H shell burning Helium ash goes off in shrinking degenerate core horizontal branch star with He core burn39n Double shell burning H and He yields sugegiant R6 ll blows off glanetam nebula Read 181 about white dwarfs formed at end of evolution of lowmass stars Homework Set It 6 due today new HW 7 out Become a Learning Assistant 0 Session Tomorrow Wed March 5 68pm MCD Biology Interactive Cl ssroom If you ve ever considered teaching this is a great way to gain experience or try it out You ll work closely with faculty preparing for classes each week 39 1OIhrfor 10 hrsweek 1 SODsemester All majors welcome many science mat classes across the campus are using LAs Clicker starbirth What has stuck The vast majority of stars in a newly formed starclusterare 7 less massive than the Sun very highmass type 0 and B stars red giants UOUJgt aboutthe same mass as Sun Grand design spiral M51 Whirlpool Disk starsgas rotate through traffic jamsquot star birth Emission nebulae around star birth regions in dark clouds of obscuring dust and gas Gra vitational collapse of molecular clouds Battle between 1 gravity pulling inwards building clumps 2 pressure of heated gas pushing outwards to resist further collapse amp Need big clouds amp cooling Simulation of iant cloud collapse and birth of stars Stages in building the PROTOS TAR MW Too much angularmomentum jet it away promunu Disk gt m 0 m Actual edgeon disk and jet Hubble ST Often protostar is still hidden in cocoon of dust and jets are episodic HerbigHaro objects Collapse of molecular cloud makes many small stars fewer massive O amp B stars of stag relalw39e number Stellar i39 aSS hut 7 What happens to nuclear fusion when the hydrogen in a star s core runs low E 0 A It stops 0 B It shifts from the core to a shell around the core 0 C Other elements start to fuse 0 D The star goes out of balance and becomes a red giant 0 E BandD Star Birth Cauldron NGC 604 in M33 Triangulum EVOLUTION Tknck 0F 1 M9 STAB Overview of EJECT what w1ll happen Warm Nam R Wm RG11 m H 104 MS 9 an He Red Giant l e Hem252M514 a w LLg Hero25 5on HorIz Branch 9 1 HSIELL 512W 102 Red Giant ll G I r or Supergiant I 1 W M lt m u CONS082 SUN A AN EXAMPLE 1 LOW39MaSS Lad MAleENCE 17mm 5N EURNNf N COKE Star on MS quotW Lam errfmm L037 Mommy gjggy H burning in core 1W F P CHAN OWL ch ENVELWE Longest phase Mm Passer 10000 MY1OBY a W if solar mass km W WWW WW WWW v Maw magch Pilaf ENDf Mr lNE r Ho Cokf cgmmuey amazon Hl lE 72w umw mm 2mm um 72 Z 1850 QANTSYAZ my llsr H SHELL 202mm mm Scam 2 Subgiant to Red Giant X i C 7 L 100 1000L9 rst visit 39 3 4 H burning in shell makes much more energy An a Wm A cu5mm 39SIJELL EIIENWKSWES Vast expansion 492 HIMNorm mum RG phase lasts SHELL WEEKw Exrw l Em it my Emma 75435 500 MY 1m swears 1m mam PEWJNEZY Huge convective He COKE A NamMm W4 43 envelope W WW SIZE 40 a MS a subgiant ared giant cXpJnGrg CHOKOSDI VEVE atmosphere MS red giant Contracting core in red giant gradually becomes electron degenerate What does that mean MS 9 I I m redgvam subgiant 9 ma red giant W Ems WW I OOPS39 W TEMP l Thermostat quot WEWZE a 64 5mm COOLX pawn quotT g IS miss1ng In WWWAr Ma Kr degenerate gas HEAT 95mm GAS 7W t w P E UZE chmwc gt N0 WEEwomr F iWum FU oN J m rr lN 0025 NOWAL CA mew uxe M 7 Could get 279461459 CA quotTHEan futAmy quot exciting MW 3 quot my if a 7 gt Examvs EVaL4 PEKENEZACV Peggy25 Complex Coma shatems arcms m Lime 9mm as de W gt MW B95117 Tauwen CoNFHEMM Degeneracy pressure EXAMu 1 MCOMFEEJI IELW of Haypr I mpr W 2 022 0F owrMars s zerg ED IAJr fiu o Wm PW iF Dada62mg ELEC o lr 3 newton W 016 PVLJAE DEfmmie NEWJZGNS39 El Degeneracy pressure analogy Limited quantum I mechanical states exclusion principle see 844 23 We A5 MEET MBAgm 2 Cole 0PM war 3 amwr viser Lagma WLIV 20 l 1 MILLW K W S NCE peamama Ear WM zm My He core burning b DUCEJ39 removes electron HEWM WW degeneracy WWWAWEer mega4 35m my am off mm EMEtd aucatmw 9 He core burning o gvr Mr mm m 75W My mum with thermostat W W a He EVENw w C025 ammua New horizontal 176mm Iv 0F EXFMW branch star 0 M We W mm W a o E am Emma W 753 4 Ho EoATAL 32mm smiam He C025 EVENING 0515 y ummmm iM Helium flash 9 He fusion to C He CORE Emamic He c in core 5 MM horizontal branch H SHELL wech 4 Horizontal 421mm branch star He core burning H shell burning Liege 1quotquot 10W 739 0 5 5 Short phase m lasts 50 MY W 3 6 A 2an 1 4H2 Zyr2 Wei 39 73 l 41 4 339 nwmnm W5 Tri leal ha 8 4 Z 352m ex i fUSIon 52 H11 39 C6231 OEigy E K X 0 quot 3 He a c 2 lt 2 R DIlIl LuMNan W626 new snow W fv NIA be M mes il Nf39ELL ML C0122 oarvans 7 Word El 5 360 30758 WW AriMch law He mm H mm marw guns Henriv 1E3639 l39 if 5 MU SWMV i39iEllum H I HR diagram of Superglant W globular cluster mums Doubleshell L quot1000 10 LlJ glblumlg HOf T sow 400016 an e u Discussmn E a 5quot 0 grj iume What does It Phase could be He mm tell us Why is very short if E if it useful burning is erratic 45 unstable then lasts only WW J a few MY and a 5mm Vim 7b aw4w mce Mr blows off outer W M owW If WWW sheis a quotI m WWquot quotmm mm quot insm1me M m EVOLUTDN TRACK 0F 1 Ma 37792 ewrw Sun In Its quot Life track in far fUture blow lovez shell 5 5 5 B y HR diagram mime New lt a of solarmass NEsLILA Sta r VISIBLE RG11 R G mam m 7 Heine 10 mnng 4 F E Manx meanders I 361 My 2 g E but MS phase Lg Red G ant 10 l I 5 longest red giant 0 E E phases shorter PowG prOtOStar Thermal pulses in 2 39 nally white dwarf 1 3V Mix2w 1 red supergiant blow left to 000 80Wy W 2mg ZAMS off outer shells ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Stars amp Galaxies Crab Nebula Supernova Remnant Pro Jur Toomre TA Kyle Augustson Lecture 13 Tues 26 Feb 08 zeus colorado eduastr1040t00mre Today Show that CN O cycle in massive stars yields very short lifetimes on main sequence MS Test ideas of lifetimes by seeing peeloff from MS as evident in star clusters Discuss nature of spiral galaxies and star birth Homework 5 due today new HW 6 passed out Finish detailed reading of Chap 16 Star Birth Class meets in Fiske Planetarium this Thursday go there directly City of Stars bring clickers Term project on ExtraSolar Planets using Planet Finder now distributed recitation in G116 on Mon When does a star leave the main sequence 0 A After a feW million years 0 B After a feW billion years 0 C It depends on its mass 0 D When the hydrogen fuel in its core is used up 0 E CandD Binary stars show Higher on MS high er MA 88 But how long does a star 4 10 live there 1000 IEDDI 3000 40000 Tem erature 3000 a 1 REMINDER as Wm 43 CNO A 3 4 39 55 I C a 239 l e quotas a 9 35 39 1 39 P 39 n9 39 39 Can provide 3 Q 3 vast luminosity 50 Q quotN for massive 39 stars on MS Key ml rueufr39m lilfSr39t39d r w rarrur39a ral g m h 1 THE MAN 56006NCE W 57425 AWNNa ymomv m CORE RANGE OF Parsing 51 gm M1076 0mm Nor MAN Igoreves 9m 51m PW Emma IF91L Main Sequence range of stellar SW If rWm ww mg mg properties Mass am 1m M0 TEMWEE A mme 2000 22000 K L range is RADus 001 a 100 g biggest Lounorm 00001 1000 L9 LuMwonry M65938 Ranu Mar 0397 tonmy Observed MASS LUMINOSITY relation for main sequence But Why such a steeQ variation With mass BIGGER CRUSH OF GRA VI TY needs 9 HIGHER central PRESSURE or temperature 9 FASTER BURNING CNOfusioncycle comes Into play MASS LUMINOSITY RELATION MAIN SEouche STARS mm mm moo L 129wu manan 1 a 57m 2030 WM Mm WieldNED Mamv onM 37va 9912 MAW J Ed0 NcE I ran A JEQUENCE N mule MAI Ivar guanov How long can stars burn H in their cores More massive star have very TIME To Ewev ur HYDKDGEN INCOEE o 0 quotLIFE ON MAIN SEQUENCE quot 077 lm CaMPA a 717 SUN an ETOTAL MA haunmn I a M WWW Mus g M4 MM lggzrm mm 3 are N EWML x M BotWij gt Mam15 rm Have J Hn r LIIEr 39 MAS M0 LIFETIME MILLW YEW Short lives of massive stars on MS Rockstar analogy More massive hotter more luminous stars burn through the available fuel faster leading to early burnout CN O fusion cycle is the way massive stars do it short lives I 5522 quotLIFE EXPECWCYquot 0N MAIN smug c5 1 CoilWK My 1 MB A exams A 107 3 707m MASSMNCDEE We a1 gEstImatIng 077 m e mm 12007 2 TWL WWO SUPLy Sahel 2 57am 01 x 0007 x Mac Four ster 1 3 19 Wear 1 In our estmate quot3quot 3 alga um AT 12m luumnygyl 1 3 1 3 Simple play L0 3 X a quotFr with numbers 4 Wm M m r oveuce I just be bold Mammy x LIFEI IME Tom emery aumrr Lg quot 4 5mm o quot6472 quot 5725 3x10175u L o la 3mm vane H gym I Mums Am oli Malf SPY aw 10394 30 000 sunace ENDEIEEUFB Kelmnl 40 000 6 Temperature Thus we get this huge range of LIFE TIMES on MS 11391 3 Shorter LIFE Diorama Camnurl 10003 6000 3000 3 000 Higher on MS hi her MASS TIfoky 0F MAIv 5691sz m2 ALL Evev 1 fAME 3 musmgr A owl HYnkommc Eatmth W ftoM ooze n mam EV RAPmo Wm bum WALK 39 ammo Er ComEan EHEZ I Wrap X7 WHWMWW Ms Uv 7 wlmvs race I mwemvs ewme M z 1M0 guyme L Mums wsws Mica3 amen GEMEEAWDA M 5 2M quot17 3 CHAIN quot F1 Hamsm M 2 2M0 quotC N o Cyctequot 4 gt 4H2 quotMIAMonquot of mm SeamE rm IN 6025 Differing convection and radiation zones on MS 1 43 y gt0 mm am Sizes of stars main sequence Slriu Hiqh mass Solar mass Low mass 5quot 1 m convective core radiative interior very deep mm 111quot yr deep radiative convective convective M5 9 V envelope envelope envelope Proms U 5 Centaur a n illcllmZ lll 39yr Deeper convection may yield ercer magnetic dynamos Clicker Stellar Evolution Which is correct order for some stages of What can we nd out about a star from its m in 639 IOWmaSS Star A life track on the HR diagram Reading Clicker life tracks A protostar mainsequence star red giant planetary nebula white dwarf A When the star was born B protostar mainsequence star red giant B The surface temperature and luminosity supernova neutron Star Of the Star at each Stage Of Its Me C mainsequence star white dwarf red giant C The star s current stage of life Planetary nebula Protostar D Where the Star is ocated D protostar mainsequence star planetary nebula red giant IS 7 LIFE Am 792 Maw Mamcg 7 Life AFTER YEXW 126 Mow Ir m y z mam Discussion Topic main sequence 57ml 610wa mm 772 ftqu WITH IoME pm r What do we learn about stellar evolution by Stars m mam studying Cities of Stars big star clusters off MS not along it I T 260 6Vth I JIMNorm Why use a globular cluster and not just a mm vast bunch of eld stars Now let us test such ideas with star clusters STAR CLUSTERS two varieties both are groups of star that have evolved together great for testing ideas about evolution of stars Open cluster young thousands of stars Globular cluster old millions of stars Open star cluster Pleiades Open cluster only 1 l I 39 quotall about 100 MY old 39 39 involves several thousand stars Unlike Sun s age of v 46 BY Bright Btype stars 0 stars now missing SUBARU Globular clusters much older bigger generally much older up to 13 BILLION years made up of millions of stars very densely packed Clusters can test lifetimes on main sequence Great advantages All stars at about o same distance apparent brightness tracks luminosity All formed at about same time Lllelmze I in m E v Range of different 359quot 39 V mass stars Stars peel off MS as core H exhausted h 20000 mm 9000 3000 amp red giants sudaca temperature xerlvm l NSC IlKl 7 iron yum EVOLUTION TRACK 0F 1 Ma 37792 Life track in HR dlagram blow lo velv shell 5 5 W of solarmass lt NEBULA star VISIBLE 512 RG II 7 HeSHEu 10 DOMY Manv meanders Ker but MS phase WHITE Red Giant atmom 102 longest red giant was 39quot phases shorter amwc protostar 170w finally White dwarf av Ms ME left to cool slowly White dwarf Tom i 2 ZAMS PostMS Evolution Read Chap 17 Star Stuff carefully about lifetracks for both lowmass and highmass stars after the main sequence We will discuss these next week Now we look at how stars arrive at the MS looking at elements of star birth Next class meets directly in planetarium for the City of Stars presentation PERSPEC TIVE Our Milky Way Galaxy 100400 bl lon stars 100000 light years in diameter or 30 000 pc 30 kpc kiloparsecs M is located about 85 kpc from center in the Orion Arm 7 Artists sketch Milky Way Anatomy Spiral Galaxy globulul clualuuV I includes sgiral arms young new star formation Bulge amp Halo older stars globular clusters uplrul urmn Disk is very thin dlsk Sun39s bulge halo lofalion 1000lighlyeals a 20000 9 years g39m m clusters 100000 lightyears Artist s edgeon view t Grand design spiral M51 Whirlpool Disk starsgas rotate thro traffic jams L Bright 0 s 8 stars mark the sgiral ttern 39 regions of star blrth alomlchydm ell clbuas mulecular clouds no bubbles SIargas slur cyzll39l supernovae and star lamaan sxbllar winds gamma Gd k 95 huvyelcmull Cycle of lurma39lurl stars e gas e stars V ser Prof Jur oomre TA Kyle Augustson Lecture 7 Tues 5 Feb 08 2e us coora do eduastr 040toomre Today Neutrino puzzle test of deep interior Probing inside of sun with sound helioseismology Interior structure what is run of temperature and density with radius Planetarium this THUR on Birth of Stars plus Solar Science on the Sphere go there directy Overview read Chap 16 Star Birth to prepare for planetarium with Ben Brown Bring your clickers New HM 4 given out HW 3 due today Review guide for MidTerm Exam 1 Mon Feb 18 in recitation evening review on Thur Feb 14 7pm Next discussion response for Tues Feb 12 What are effects of solar activity on our technological society Protonproton chain summary Input 6 protons Output 1 helium 2 protons 2 positrons 9 gamma rays 2 neutrinos more gamma rays 4 hydrogens 9 1 helium 2 neutrinos gamma rays energy EDO WE SEE THE GAMMARAYS NEUTRNOS Reading Clicker Q If the Sun s core went out of balance and shrank a little what would happen there A Density would decrease and fusion would slow down releasing less energy B Density and temperature would increase and fusion would speed up releasing more energy C The whole Sun would eventually shrink and thus core would come back into balance D Not much would really change so nothing to worry about Solar Thermostat Why doesn t the Sun go into a runaway reaction Fusion rate is m sensitive to tem 9 tight feedback loop lf energy generation fusion rate speeds ug 1 Pressure in core will increase lifting the gas against gravity core EXPANDS 2 Gravitational energy is created from thermal energy 9 the gas COOLS 3 Energy generation fusion rate slows down REMINDER More on solar thermostat However if energy generation 13 1 Core pressure drops 2 Solar core starts to SHRINK 3 Temperature RISES 4 Fusion rates go ug again Sun is remarkably stable only small 30 increase in fusion rate over billions of years Reading Clicker Q D What is the composition by mass of the Sun 7 A 100 hydrogen H and helium He B 50 H 25 He 25 other elements I C 70 He 28 H 2 other D 70 H 28 He 2 other E 98 H 2 He and other Meanderings of outbound photons F39VF39 haln makes gammarra ghutuns Whlch randum Walk uutvvards gettlng absurbed reeemltted gradually uullng Takes light about one million years rom Creation to get out Heading outward slow amp fast Gamma rays slowly work their wa ecome sunligh about million years a o 3 S a ugh Earth Discussion How do we really know what is happening deep within the Sun What is interplay between theory 7 and observation Temperature and density with radius 5 ma on cm momma coveter me one r from quotstellar structure theory heltoselsmology vamz uan wnwchm t i l r u rt a 5 lvaclmn ntch sms lam5 Those Mysterious Neutrinos MADE BY PP BURNING IN CORE Massless or with very small masses travel close to speed oflight Don t interact almost with other matter requires lead wall 1 light yearthick to stop a neutn39no Lots ofthem3910quots neutn39noslsec from the Sun 10l5 coming through YOU each sec Butwe can still catch some using massive underground detectors BIG PUZZLE ProtonProton PP Chain Thermon uclear FUSION 9 M2 luv 97 quotA a T w 11 3 0J3 17 9 W x A m Big Puzzle Catching Solar Neutrinos Located deep underground rock blocking other particles Huge underground vat of drycleaning u39 Chlorine captures neutrino becomes radioactive argon Only collects 1 neutrino bout every s even with 100000 gallons Solar theory predicted THREE TIMES more Big hunt started called SOLAR NEUTRINO PROBLEM SugerKamiokande uses massive tank of water to capture neutrinos Each rare capture gives ash of light detected by giant tubes Captures lower energy neutrinos m pp c ain so more sensitive test of fusion Suggests some electron neutrinos may change into much and tau neutrinos during course of ight to us 8 minutes MSW Neutrino Oscillations require neutrinos to have some ss Uses heavy water Sudbury Neutrino Observatory SNO some H in H20 replaced by its stable isotope deuterium PN SNO is capturing aH three types of neutrinos electron muon tao Solar neutrino problem leads to 39g physics advance 2002 Nobel Phys Sun Viewed by SuperKamiokande exposure Convection ane and Radiative Interior 73 S95 mu 0 mmmmmm Just below the r Sj photosphere 5 Deep shell 30 a of very turbulent St 3 convection l E J g g a 5 Drives strong 3 M M differential rotation But how do we know this i Helioseismology Millions of sound waves available to probe solar interior How Sound Makes A Surface Bounce Sound waves inside Sun cause the photosphere to move up and down with fiveminute oscillations Some waves noodle just below the surface Others almost make it tome genre Can detect these with Doppler imaging of Allexmed hymbulem gas at solar surface seequot the sound granulation visible in photosphere AVA ACOUSTIC WA vES Tools of Imaging Helioseismology 20 acmss soHo 5mm aneimnougateringertMDl Each Uscillatiun m0 e has a distinctive measure te tune Sensitive t0 haw with depth Tests models of inside temperature One ofmillions ofmudes each with a different tonei Observed fmm SOHO and GONG BONGO DRUMS and SOLAR TONES CONTROLS THE TONE FREQUENCY Solar Interior Models Theory vs Helioseismology Temgeralure u E A Interior Differential Rotation Pro le nHz Big surgrises Fast equator slow ole w W 39 overmosl of m 39l convection zone 7 Tacholineof m strong snear at its base i i Equator Radiative zone a 30 rotatesoniforrny So how are solar magnetiquot elds built 0 TACHOCLWE 5 TWO MAGNETC minus 440 30 g Global magnetic 5 42 fields built in 5i 45 TACHOCLWE a mi Smallescale fields 33 built in nearesurface 90mm 50 sheariayer ass 0 0 060 070 nan 090 1 n m Helioseismic Probing of Flows Below Surface has n at a 2 J 39 sik i 13 i39rk 2 Attit mtwes a ui tl h am m ii xv V tm m g m at w an on 12 50 mu m m m CavvinglanLnMilude a wx LINN Global Patterns of SOLAR SUBSURFACE WEATHER Meadering flows iineiet streams inlerad Witn active regions SSWin Global View Apr2002 ASTR 1120 General Astronomy Stars amp Galaxies Spring 2005 Prof Jun39 Toomre TA Ben Brown MWF 10am Duane GIBZO Lecture 1 10 Jan 05 Detailed course syllabus now being passed out zeus caarada eduad rl IZDtaamre Outline of Today s Class information Introduction39 Sizes and So Course Goals Develop a broad view 3v universe Understand the force shape the universe a history richness of what goes Course Overview What we shall study Vast range of SIZES and SCALES nding our way through the universe What is light I HOW do we are Waves vs Telescopes Tools of the Trade w a 4 Our Nearest Star 39 The Sun STARS of very many sizes and colors Evolution path an color bn39ghtnes sensitiver on STAR DEATH 39 white dwarfs neutron stars and black holes 39 NJ 7 m wquot 3 Exploring a Universe of GALAXIES GALA CTIC evolution Galaxy collisions qua Dark matter dark energy and fate of univers BIG BANG beginning ma39ors No lab credit algebra More quantitati course ASTR Course Information COURSE WEB PAGE ze us colorado eduastr1 120toomre passed out in cl calendar lect links Required Text The Cosmic Persgective by Bennett et al 2003 3rd ed Includes Access to textbook website WWWastronomypacecom SkyGazer planetarium software and tutoring center ICOSMIC PERSPEQINE You will need your own astronomyplace account Mo homeworks require it Clickers Reguired bring to each class Register clicker to your name using instructions on sylla us link on our website Used for reading quizzes inclass discussion questions feedback 39 25 purchase refund coupon with new books Read all course information in your handout after class Three inclass midterm exams mic and short essay 45 Homework assignments drop lowest 20 Final exam 25 39ckers 10 drop 5 lowest scored days Extracredit observatory nights max 2 There are no makeup exams or late turnins Graded 100 f answer 50 to Your grades av weekly WebCT 5 free clickerquot Buy and registe 39 Friday If you39re clicker change NOW Important classroom policies Working together on homework is encouraged BUT Your answers must be in your own words exact copies will be awarded split credit Note sources and whom you worked with on homeworks Using another person s clicker is cheating Students are expected to follow the CU Honor Code and beha ve with courtesy to the instructors and their classmates How to succeed in this course GOT TO PUT IN THE TIME 3 credits at CU 9 6 to 9 hours outsi classroom no ki Read the textboo BEFOREdiscuss n secrets of memo Come see us dur ng hours Come talk with us Jun Toomre s affine huurs Mun Wed afterclass 1 Hannah Thur F 49277 851 ur 75mm bpbruwnculurauu Ed Or call uremail ustu m appuintmentl Navigating the Universe Sizes and Scales I don t pretend to understand the Universe It s a great dealbiggerthan lamquot Thomas Carlyle 17951881 Sizes and Scales in the Universe willy anculiny l A9 For next class meeting read How to Succeed in this course p Xxvi Chapter1 all OurPlace in Universe Review Basic Astronomical terms Chapter 2 review all Motion ofStars Seasons C p sec 35 Nature ofScience First read all of Chap 4 Matter and Energy Begin reading Chap 6 Light You can get a copy of these slides a er class from course website can be helpful ASTR 1040 Accel Astra Star39s Galaxies Pruf Jun Tuumre 7A Kye Augusrsvn Lecture 23 Tue 8 Apr 08 Tour of Galaxies Brie y revisit Monster in the Milky Way supermassive black hole at the center Hubble using Cepheids showed Andromeda is a distinct island universequot another Galaxy Today turn to Galaxies Chap 20 starting with Hubble39s scheme to classify spiral galaxies ellipticals and irre u Look at our Iocalgroup of alaxies Milky Wa Andromeda Triangulum L C SMC dwarfsg Rerea 20 aaxy Types and for Thurs lecture 202 Measuring Cosmic Distances and 203 Hubble s Law N omeWork Set 10 passed out Planetarium listed for 10 Apr replaced by lecture Star motion aroun black hole at galactic center VLT lRAO Sgr A orbits 1 935 U 1995 1997 I 1 4003 AU Rotation velocity at galaxy center 3m High speeds naar 55 r E If suggest a very massive a quot39 ubiact In a small region E m Some of central mass 5 is stars joined by E E 3 7 02 milIon E inn solar mass g ii BLACK HOLE a 39quot V But further 20 l n J I In J i I I uncertainty from 1 2 5 10 20 50 distance determination anguiar dislance from Sgr A39 arcsecnnds Black hole still less than 11000 of MW mass Question Why no powerful jet and accretion disk near MWs supermassive black hole 0 Why not much emission in X rays though other signs of activity 0 Answer maybe it has eaten all it can I at least for now Largescale structure in Milky Way We can observe the atomic hydrogen in interstellar gas in Milky Way With 0 A spacebased ultraviolet telescopes D 0 B xray telescopes C groundbased visible light telescopes 0 D 21 cm observations by radio telescopes Measuring galactic distances EdWin Hubble made breakthrough using Cepheid variables to measure distance Found Andromeda far outside Milky Way Huge step forward in thinking about universe NGC 4414 W 9er KimI49 UNth W2 M AMpL7we l ILrrIw A my mm Arm 39iMmem mar quot CtheId varable stars as distance Armr uums 7HEY Emma my Commcr MWw ZtKymerr army Do In indicators39 11me am LIQHTCUEVE 0F g cemsz 39 n vam 55 W standard candle my EXVMDMC 00K Vital discovery by 3 V V V 3 nusrain 139 Henrietta Leavitt 1912 v 75 Lumn 05m ms Cmmcu 5mm 70 REMaw 50 L LJ HTCi v W 22 Lmi AAAAA wwwww m 05 Ln 30 70 TIME pm i 391 4 6 10 20 40 60 Period days Cegheid stars in H R diagram Instability strigquot i re a Ouierreginnsufsiarare uns able and and In pulsaie Iar exgands and i cuniracis geiiing brighter and farmer Cepheid variable stars Perm r Luminnsiiy relaiinn ungmgr Cepheids ave lungerperinds W found to be far outside Milky Way another island universe 39 galaxy Edwin Hubble in 1924 39 identi ed Cepheids in W9 showed they were far outside 0 Milky Way Now known distance 23 million Iy His rsibig diSCmEry came re In Hubble using new 100 Huner zeiescupe ai M2 Wilsun shave LA quotisarid universe M31 Forensic evidence of galactic collision M31 11000 image composite With Spitzer 39gmesLM mm M nu cum nu ern mm 1 Striking rings of dust and starbirth 2 Ring splits into two forming hole on lower right 3 Delicate tracings of spiral arms into very center illng1 quotTUNAC rage M31 Beautiful neighborin UV and IR n V c u H Hubble s a Am5 scheme to 30m w meucmee ma label galaxies 3quot ellipticals E some My irregulars barred spirals SB 3936 Nor AN EVowromzy SEQmag FarU V blue young hot massive stars Near U V green relatively older stars SPITZER 24 micron IR red cool dusty star forming GALEX Tuning fork shown With mugsnots of galaxies Sc b 7 i spirals eIigticZ quot SQirals 80 of galaxies Disks with spiral arms Spheroids bulgeshalos Barred sgiral galaxies Spiral arms emerge from central bar 1ch 1309 Lenticulars lensshaped Disks but less gas and star formation Note lack of dust amp pink nebulae ElliQticals 15 of galaxies Round or slightly flattened Very little cold gas dust or young stars Reddish color old stars red giants red main sequence Dwarf eliQticas Most common type of galaxy Only know nearby ones since faint l lrregulars Galaxies in transformation Often LOTS of star birth Where do spirals and ellipticals live 39 HST Hickson CG 87 Spirals mostly in groups 310 galaxies ElliQticals most often in dense clusters of galaxies involve 100 s v 39 to 1000 s HST Abel 1689 The Big Picture Universe is filled With network of galaxies in groups and clusters Pattern of galaxies 3 million 150 portion of sky Clicker reading ahead Whatare the Magellanic Clouds A Two nebulae in disk of Milky Way visible only in southern hemisphere B Clouds of dust and gas in many places throughout the Milky Way galaxy C Two small galaxies thatorbit Milky Way D Starforming clouds in constellation Orion 0m quotLOCAL gkouf 0F G39AMXES wooz NEAR NEIGHtommoo 39 ma m Our local group Andromeda is 3 million light years of alaxies away or 3 diameters has 15 mass of MW 3 sQirals ANdromeda M31 0 We see her as she Milky Way was 3 million years Triangulum ms 23 quot3 a M fogj yrgg a Is g frce warsquot i is lookback time 2 mm awE SM C Mm wwwcm W 13 0 Oops she may crash 16 dwarfs SMALL 39 5 Viquot 39 into MW in about 2 10 WW 5114me was billion years 2 9w ll wz MAME 4 5mm EuiMuLs N 2L MAXEx Trianguum Large amp Small Magellanic Clouds M33 1 15 mass of MW spiral classi ed as Sc Several bright pink star forming regions SN 1987a before and after LMC has 30 39 Doradus home 39 of SN 1987A Stefan s 39 Quintet Prof Jun39 Toomre TA Kyle Augustsonk Lecture 25 Tues 15 Apr 08 zeus coorado eduastr M toomre On Galaxy Evolution Lane Most striking many galaxies experience collisions thus becoming interacting galaxies Begin to discuss active galaxies and quasars Reread 213 Quasars and active galactic nuclei in detail New Homework 11 passed out today Third Mid Term Exam on m Apr 21 Evening review by Kyle Thur 79 pm Clicker Cephelds and distance Two Cepheid stars Fred and Barney have the same apparent brightness Fred has a period of 5 days and Barney of 10 days Which is closer 7 A Fred B Barney Why A Fred 7 Fred has a Sho er PeriodLuminosity Relation period and so must be less luminous W0 tODOO Less luminous but mum 21 i J W the same apparent brightness means Hm that Fred is closer to us a m an 3900 gm mm Distance ladder to measure universe Different standard candles are useful for different distances V N v m Mgv I u A 139 1 quot7 39 idtcrw Mg i39 E mum 1 gt f mle nun mg ml a m VELOCITY HO x DISTANCE 39 recession velocity D 10 7x10 5 vocessmnat Velocxly 1km 00 NlEKXE EVAHDJ ON 7 WEE mats 4mg EXVAAWN burAI W r Hubble s Law implies Universe expands like raisin bread I 7 bow Examv IM ZLE J VEMCTY meCE LAW True for very large scales between galaxies but M for stars planets us Cirward MAXEr Mm 7h 25 MollAK Amv mM m oms me on AW WW Ar A Mm Elm52 Are Telescopes are lookback time machines Today we see Andromeda as she was 25 M years ago lt4 Ji Clicker on reading ahead D o What do we mean by a protogalactic cloud 0 A It is a cloudlike halo that surrounds the disks of spiral galaxies 0 B It was a term used historically to refer to any galaxy C It is a cloud of hydrogen gas that we detect by looking at light from quasars 0 D It is a cloud of matterthat contracts to become a galaxy 0 Start with a fairly uniform cloud of hydrogen 0 Gravitational collapse forms protogalactic clouds 0 First stars are born in this spheroid such stars are billions of years old amp fossil record 9 Small variant in spiral making Several smaller protogalactic clouds may have merged to form a single large galaxy May explain slight variations in stellar ages in the MW Forming a disk with spiral As more material collapses angular momentum spins it into a disk Stars now formed in dense spiral m disk stars are younger Making eligticas Higher density much faster star formation uses up all the gas Nothing left to make a disk Now we see sphere of old stars Or now a different staiy Spiral galaxy collisions V destroy disks leave behind elliptical Burst of star formation uses up all the gas Leftovers train wreck Ellipticals more common in dense galaxy clusters 39 NGC 403839 Antennae 1 Me any may QWZ 2 61er owlJar COLWIE lN V mo mu Jbuf l N17 mininc MOIINK WWW Birth of galaxies in clusters Few galaxies none 7 BORN alone a r Rlcn cluster 5 f z 39 1 ol galaxies c u 339 F amzwr Coal6 mo 4 ma znzrv mum rim Mame C aMVm CLOUD My mm Clicker galaxy collisions Why are collisions between galaxies more likely than between stars within a galaxy A Galaxies are much larger than stars B Galaxies travel through space much faster than stars C Relative to their sizes galaxies are closer together than stars D Galaxies have higher redshifts than stars N542 COLLQM 0F Til0 ALAXIES TDAL lNTEZACTOASquot SMQLL Amxv llW5 Collision of THWH MN MW WVANOA tramxv small galaxy M W W one Tor WSW or flisrArE a a w awnma Mansi gt Emu ii2m AND Dimer my mum Builds bridge and counterarm Close passage M51 fl companion gay 70 mm mm Wm mrmm mu mm u m Mum m mm m WA M Mr n I39m 39Mn39 Close passage of two equal mass galaxies Builds very long tails and wisps Two galaxies form The Antennae Colliding galaxies The Antennae 1 Interacting r 1 IC 2163 Tidal streams between galaxies Ring galaxy AM 0644 741 A major puzzle The Mice NGC 4676 Many interacting galaxy systems Very distant gig 39 Iookback time with HS T Mice With HST Advanced Camera for Surveys Mice in simulation 1 Josh Barnes Rotate the Mice Mice in ner simulation 1 Barnes Latest simulation 2 of Mice John Dubmsm Stefan s Quintet in HST detail It may happen to us in future M31 and Milky Way in future collision Duomsm Rich galaxy cluster Galaxies are not lonev many interactions most likely also curious arcs of light Signs of having collided elliptical galaxy With shells Messages from galaxy interactions 1 In dense clusters galaxy collisions grazing or even headon must have been common 2 IWth successive passages spiral galaxies can tumble together to form a big elliptical 3 Vastly increased star birth from shocking the gas and dust star burst galaxies 4 Start rapid feeding of supermassive black hole lurking at center of most galaxies quasars Quasa S QuasiStellar Radio Source QSO arise from early galaxy collisions feeding BH Nuclei so bright that the rest of the galaxy is not easily seen First discovered as radio sources then found to have m high redshifts MODEL OF RAD0 GALAXIES OUASAES sewers Model for W WW active galaxies 1 H W SUMMhrrsE meg lime Accretion disk or new 103140 supermassive BH 6750 I m7va A VEJZY beams on aXIs ACME 23me Gummm A u Ema mm mmvs 47m L 2 Imu nws 34 quotup hpo L082 Wm WM 1 Jo Mg m mm mm wow Mmm Draw mm Aamw arm


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.