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by: Stephan Kuvalis


Stephan Kuvalis

GPA 3.89

John Bally

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John Bally
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephan Kuvalis on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1020 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by John Bally in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/231959/astr-1020-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Astronomy at University of Colorado at Boulder.




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Date Created: 10/29/15
Star39s amp Galaxies The New Worlds Observer April 30 2008 Looking for the Next Earth Next class Review for Final amp Wrapup Using External Occulters Final Exam May 5 430 700 pm Chapters 1112414451314151617181920 21 22 23 Phil Oakley University of Colorado April 30th 2008 Do there exist many worlds or is there but a single world This is one of the most noble and exalted questions in the study of Nature Amsls39s View at Red Dwarl wilh Subslellar Comv nlan m z Detecting ExoPlanets Doppler Technique First Extrasolar Planet ltgtMeasunng a Stags Dlopplershi G Doppler shifts of Sm 51 me on War an Pegasi indirectly reveal a planet with 4day orbital perio ca tell 5 Its away lrom us 9 Current techni ues can sieiiai maiian catsen measure motions as small as 1 Whig iquot vim i mls walking speedi 9 Newton39s version 0 Kepler39s 339 Law allows us to estimate mass lt7 Short period means small orbital distance lt7 First extrasolar planet 2 i r e di overe or itinga W mam quotregularquot star 1995 arllglit hinesnmed Clicker Question Suppnse ynll found a my with the y nvin k ml fanh wi cmlld y on cnnclllrle 11 has a planet onnnng 21 le than 1 Au 11 has a planet onnnng zlgrealerlhzn1AU 11 has planelorhlllng zlexzcll 1 11 has a planet but know 530quot me masszsme Sun th 2 perin nf 15 mnn39hsiwhat not have enough Inlormauon to n orhl39al dlmnoe Clicker Question smug mono immune mason smmognuk on Minnowno om mow m cquoton you mom zszplznetorhmngztlegt n 11 has a new ummng a1 gveaievihan 1 AU p lorhnlngzlexacl1 1y A 11 n2 2 pl 1 ulwe do not have enough Inlormallon to know nsorhnzl distance Direct Imaging is What We Want Can We Ever Map ExkarSular 535th in This anerv Why Hasn t This Been Done 9 An E hrllke planet IS 10 billion 10000000000 limes falnlerlhan ILS host Star 9 The planet IS only 01 amsecond 0000027 degrees away fromlhe hoslstar 9 Must be done abovelhe Earth39s atmosphere 9 Mirror39s must be smooth to pertecuon New Worlds Observer Diagram c Telescope 1ng enough to oollecl enough 119111 on planet 4 ma a mm mm a cc 1 J enough to block sun 750 male may mm c Telescope lzr enough hack lo 11quot seelhe anhrllke planet aopoommmmen Fly the Telescope into the Shadow The Obstacle DIFFBA l ION Despite What They Tell Youin Sixth Grade Light Does Not Move In Straight Lines Occulters 9 Several previous programs have looked at occulters 9 Used simple geometric shapes Achieved uniy a laclui ul lUUsuppiessiun need 10 billion hllp Humbras otg BOSS Siam new znnm Extinguishing Poisson s Spot lt7 Occulters can actually concentrate light lt7 Need an occulter shape that casts a near perfect shadow for the telescope Fresnel Approximation E w Enz z m 27 mis 2 p Ai9p2 F d dp m Then ifcrmlarlysvmmetric 15 1mm w L Mum ij1941 n Starshade Shape Petal shape causes diffracted light to cancel out Shadow of 16 Petal Mask Linear Simulated Solar System New World Observer Architecture nature THE SEARCH FOR A SISTER EARTH ltF 4m Telescope Diameter Breakpoint ltF Two Starshades one small and fast ltF Vew Powerful Scientifically ltF Cost comparable to other missions Logm5uppression Petai Promes Effect of Petal Number n 5 1n 15 Zn 25 an Radiusou 2o WWW The First Image of Solar System 10 arcseconds Spectroscopy G Spectroscopy Wlll distinguish terrestrial atmospheres lrom Jovian With modeling It should be possible to detect oceans and continents Challenges for New Worlds Observer 9 Deployment of 50m shade to an accuracy of mllllr meters 9 Flying the starshade and telescope in formation 9 Fuel usage retargetting time 9 Stray Light 7 particularly from ourSun NW1 Concept sievshades 50 mm mm q autumn 15mm TRUE PLANET HVIAGIN G 3000 km 1000 km 300 km 100 km Earth Viewed at Improving Resolution Conclusion ASTR 1020 Stars 81 Galaxies April 7 2008 Reading Chapter 22 sections 223 MasteringAstronomy Homework on Dark Matter is due April 14 Meet at Planetarium on Friday Last midterm Exam next week Wednesday April 16 Chapters 193223 Sumhm Brion 2 mm Johannes 5mm mm mummy mum s mummyme all may canbetaundaba 2 devveessamh mamasminimum mm Yhevegmn mm M mummy 5115 mm M5 ind Wm WM mauva hand Credit 5 Co Hubble expansion within the solar system H 70 kmsecMpc 70 mmsecpc o where1pc 21 x 105 AU Over 1 year Hubble expansion distance is AD 105 meters for EarthSun distance or ADD 7 x 1039H about 1 part in 10 billion Today Chapter 22 Evidence for Dark Matter nrkau um nrk Miner The Case for Dark Matter gt 90 ofthe mass ofthe Universe is dark missing matter Detectable ON LY via its gravitational forces on light matter gas and stars Note this dark matter is NOT the same as black holes brownblack dwarfs or dust Evidence from Galaxies Rotation curves Motions of stars in the galaxy 9 dark matter beyond visible part ofthe galaxy mass is 10x stars and gas Flat rotation curves High speeds far from t e luminous center means that there is dark matter in the outer regions umllal velocily knils distancefmm center thousands o liglii years l l l l l Observed velbuiy is about 220 kmsec leferancel mnmlzuted by the dark mane halo slum ark Matter beuuly 160 kmSEL Rotation Velocity Kmsec l l l l l n 5 25 an lEI l5 2n Distance lmm Center Kpc The gxavuy of the Visible matter iii the Galaxy is not aubugli m explain the high nrbltal Speed of Stars iii the Gal For example the sin is mnvmg about an kmsecmn fast Thepart nf Lhamtatlnn curve mnmlzuted by Lhavmlzle matter buly is Lhelmtmm curve Discovered by Vera Rubin inthe1970 s Highly controversial until many rotation curves were confirmed Very little gas or stars at large radii 9 not much to measure Em E gt if Still don t know the 52 quot 39 extentofthe dark g 39 matter 2mm 9 i Possibly outweigh stars t a z u u m a u s u iau dlslnnce lrom wnlar nl Milky Way thousands ol llghlyeara by factor of 10 Stars and gas are embedded in a much larger Dark Matter Halo Don t know what dark matter is yet How much dark matter IS there Galaxies dif cult to see the full extent of dark matter because we run out of light matter to measure Galaxy clusters probably made by gravity pulling together galaxies and all nearby dark matter A more representative measure of dark matter Galaxy Clusters Dark Matter 3 ways Galaxy velumtlesvvlthln x clusters are tun large tn be Explained by gravity er the galaxies Expected sun krnsecfur gr a typical cluster savv mun krnsecl First seen m lBSEI s by Fntz Zvvlcky they mum believe mm either Hot Xray emitted gas Gas m between galaxies is alsu rnuvlng because ufthe gravity er dark matter mun krnse 9 mm mllll n degrees K Ernlts Xeraysl Temperature and concentration ofthe Xray gas tell us the s ofthe cluster gtHotter means more mass Also too much mass to be explained by the gas and galaxies Galaxies mth galaxy elusleys are studied ClusterAhaslyplcal emes utCiEIEI kmsec clus1 y u k 7 Clicker Question vein e ElleIEI rnsec Whlchlsmus1 likely a ClusterAhas mute galaxies than elusley a b ClusterMs mute massive than elusley a e Gas between galaxies m clu erAWlll have a luwer temperature than gasln elusleya e ClusterE galaxies are mute likelylu be spirals The lower velocities in A mean that there is less mass overall in that cluster This probably means fewer galaxies Less mass also means a cooler gas temperature Gravitational Lenses Dark matter warps space 9 acts like a lens and distorts and magni es the view of more distant galaxies mageol real imageul galaxy galaxy galaxy The same 5 laxy Ihlee posmuns m 19 sky ppears al


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