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Introductory Cognitive Psychology

by: Megane Sauer

Introductory Cognitive Psychology PSYC 2145

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Psychlogy > PSYC 2145 > Introductory Cognitive Psychology
Megane Sauer

GPA 3.69

Cheri King

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Cheri King
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megane Sauer on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2145 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Cheri King in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/232023/psyc-2145-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
The belief that most of our abilities and tendencies are with us from birth is known as Nativism Historians date the founding of scienti c psychology to the 1879 laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt A traditional quotschoolquot within psychology that emphasized the adaptation of the organism to its environment and focused on questions such as what role a particular system served for an organism Functionalism The idea of natural selection is central to which paradigm evolutionary Evolutionary structures within the are the most primitive Hindbrain This structure transmits information from the spinal cord to the brain and regulates life support functions such as respiration Medulla oblongata Muscle activity is coordinated in the primitive brain structure called the Cerebellum Many of the structures of the 7 are involved in relaying information between other brain regions Midbrain Which of these structures is involved in the formation of long term memories hippocampus Which of these structures modulates the strength of emotional memories and is involved in emotional learning Amygdala The left and right hemispheres of the frontal parietal and occipital lobes are connected by the Corpus callosum The lobes are involved in the processing of sensory information from the body such as pain pressure touch and temperature parietal Damage to the occipital lobe could result in difficulty processing Visual information The 7 is involved in the planning of fine motor movements premotor cortex The major problem with phrenology was the assumption that the size of a portion of the brain corresponded to its relative power And different faculties were absolutely independent Injury to Broca s area results in an inability to produce language uently Patients with Wemicke s aphasia are often unable to understand speech Around 95 of all human beings show a specialization for language in the left hemisphere Essay Question 1 What were some major developments in the quotcognitive revolutionquot The cognitive revolution began after WWII when historical trends led to the demise of the behaviorist tradition Behaviorists believed that mental processes were unable to be studied and mental perceptions of the world did not exist This belief was challenged as certain events led revolutionaries to believe that mental representations of the world were essential to human mental functioning The first of these events took place when it became apparent that engineers had to take into account who was to be operating military machinery After the placement of a landing gear lever in WWII airplanes led to many fatal accidents engineers learned that different functions needed to be associated with different arm movements in order for a pilot to be able to differentiate between the two This discovery led to the idea of human factors engineering a concept which offered evidence of a mental representation of the world Another event in the second half the the 20th century was the advancement of the study of linguistics Through observing children interact with their parents it was found that humans don t consciously learn all the rules of grammar but instead we are equipped with an implicit understanding of generative grammar which allows us to form sentences Shortly after WWII was also when advances in computer technology were beginning to be made The discovery to computer technology and artificial intelligence further proved that people like computers need to acquire and process data As scientists continued to question this process the idea of cognitive psychology and cognitive science became the most widely accepted school of psychology Essay Question 2 Identify and discuss the basic assumptions underlying an information processing model of cognition The basic assumptions underlying an informationprocessing model of cognition are that human cognition and computer processing operate in the same way information is stored in speci c places while being processed and cognitive abilities can be thought of as systems human cognition can be compared to computer processing if you assume that cognition is essentially information which ges through our brain This includes everything that we see hear feel experience As this information enters our brain it is divided ad stored in the appropriate location Advancements in brain imagery have helped scientists discern which areas of the brain are used for what information Because all areas of the brain are linked in a system some information can be processed and trigger stimulation in other areas of the brain like memory This is why a certain smell can lead to any number of feelings that may have at one time accompanied that smell Essay Question 3 Compare and contrast four major brainimaging techniques The four major brainimaging techniques are CAT of CT scan MRI PET ad fMRI CAT and MRI show the brain structures while PET and fMRI show function CAT computerized axial Tomography scans were the first scans invented to show brain images and they worked by using focused xrays at many different points MRI magnetic resonance imaging serve the same purpose as CAT scans but do not use radiation PET Positron emission tomography scans work by injecting a compound into the blood stream that can help show which areas of the brain the blood is owing to This shows what area is being used for a given stimulus fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the magnetic properties in blood to measure where oxygenated and oxygenated blood is and can also show what area of the brain is working at what time The segregation of a whole display into objects figure and background ground is known as form perception Gestalt psychologists explain the phenomenon of subjective contours through reference to the principle of closure A certain computer can respond to a limited number of voice commands such as quotOpen filequot and quotSave dataquot However it responds to only its owner s voice and the owner must take care to pronounce the commands in a very precise manner A command spoken by a voice of the wrong gender the wrong accent or in the wrong tone will not be recognized This computer probably operates on a system of template matching One model of perception emphasizes that a percept is compared idealized representations in memory of every class of information and matched to the one it most closely approximates This model is known as prototype matching The quotgraffiti writing system used in Palm Pilots recognizes handwriting through a process of prototype matching Research into the phenomenon of change blindness supports topdown processing A participant views words pseudowords unpronounceable letter strings and false fonts on a screen A PET scan shows that viewing words produces brain activity that is most similar to that produced by pseudowords People with agnosias can see the contours or outlines of an object but cannot categorize the object or match one object to another apperceptive Prosopagnosia is a specific visual agnosia for faces A model of attention which describes selection as occurring after all messages have been processed up through and including the level of meaning is called late selection More recent research has suggested a move from an 7 to a 7 metaphor to explain the basic nature of attention bottleneck spotlight According to theory we never actually acquire unattended material at all Schema Neuropsychological studies have indicated that patients with damage to the right parietal lobe do not pay attention to objects on the left side of visual space Children with Attention De cit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD cannot sustain vigilance on repetitive tasks In the Stroop effect subjects have difficulty correctly naming the color of ink that a word is written in when the word names a color which is not the ink color Stroop interference peaks at around the age of second or third grade Treisman39s feature integration theory argues that we perceive objects in two distinct stages Glancing out your window you notice a woman in a blue coat walking with a child in a red coat Later you recall seeing a child in a blue coat You have fallen victim to the phenomenon known as illusory conjunction List and describe the basic differences between bottomup and topdown perceptual processes Bottomup processes take in a distal stimulus and use that basic information to form a perception of what it is There isn39t a lot of other information that goes into that perception if someone sees a building they think quotThat is that buildingquot TopDown processes use other information to form a perception of a stimulus for example if someone saw that same building they may think quotI am on this street where I can see this tree that Ihave seen before and the road is leading me to that building so that building must be the building where I workquot In what ways are featural analysis and prototypematching models an improvement over templatematching models In what ways are they not Template models leave no room for variation ether something matches the template or it does not Featural analysis and prototype matching incorporate many different aspects of possible inputs and attempt to find interpret that input as something based on what it most closely resembles This is a vast improvement on templatematching because it allows things to be interpreted that were not specifically programed However using featural analysis and prototype matching does leave room for errors in perception Describe the differences and similarities among filter theory and attenuation theory Filter theory suggests that our brain filters out unattended information and never processes it Attenuation theory is a modified version of filter theory that suggests that rather than completely blocking out unattended information our minds simply register that information on a lower level This information may be accessed to some extent at a later point or not at all but it is registered on some level The calling to mind of previously stored information is known as retrieval When information is first translated into a form that other cognitive processes can use we say that has occurred encoding Unattended information is stored brie y in sensory memory Information is held in for 20 to 30 seconds short term memory Information such as the name of the person who sat in front of you in fifth grade is stored in long term memory You have just listened to a list of 20 words When asked to recall these words in any order you are LEAST LIKELY to recall the 10th word Words from the beginning of a list are more likely to be recalled than words in the middle of the list This phenomenon is known as the effect primacy The capacity of shortterm memory is thought to be 7 2 meaningful chunks of information Baddeley s research indicated that storing a string of digits in short term memory slowed down reasoning only at large memory loads that is storing 6 digits in short term memory Essay Question 1 Define iconic memory What has research told us about the way it operates Iconic memory is a form of visual memory that holds information for about one second This information can be taken in immediately but it is in a very unprocessed form so recall is brief and subconscious This ash of memory can be erased if other stimuli is presented immediately after the original stimuli suggesting that there is a limited capacity for information in the iconic memory research shows that by offering different stimuli such as different pitched sounds directly after the visual stimuli can help the recall process Essay Question 2 What are the primacy and recency effects Why do they occur The primacy effect is the idea that the items early on in a sequence are easier to remember because they are the first things stored in memory out of a list of 20 things the primacy effect occurs on numbers 15 The rececy effect is similar only it applies to the items at the end of a list these items are easier to recall be because there were the most recently recorded in memory This applies for numbers 1520 on a list of 20 items These effects can be explained by interference the primacy effect can be compared to proactive interference because the information learned in the first 14 of a list interferes with the learning of the second 14 of the information The same is true for the second half of a list only the it is because of retroactive interference that the fourth l4th of the information learned interferes with the third l4th Essay Question 3 Psychologists have posited two distinct mechanisms for forgetting decay and interference Describe each brie y review the experimental evidence supporting each and state the problem in distinguishing between them Decay is that idea that after information is processed some of it decays after immediate use Interference theory says that rather than information being lost it is actually displaced by ether the importance of previous memories retroactive interference or by the processing of new more important information proactive interference Interference was supported through various experiments involving memory recall One of these experiments was called the Probe Digit Task conducted by Waugh and Norman The Probe Digit Task involved feeding a participant a string of numbers the participant was instructed to listen for a cue number 5 and when they heard the cue number for a second time they should repeat the number that directly proceeded it the first time they heard the cue They listed the numbers at different speeds assuming that if decay was functioning as a mechanism of memory loss then when the numbers were listed slower the participants would not be able to recall the number after the cue However Waugh and Norman found that the speed of delivery had no effect on the recall which suggests that interference rather than decay is responsible for memory recall deficits Another study conducted by Keppel and Underwood showed that when asked to remember many 3 letter sequences the recall of the earlier sequences was higher than that of the later sequences This nding suggested that the more information presented the more difficult recall was indicating that proactive interference accumulates over time This theory was further investigated with the idea of proactive interference release This was also studied by presenting 3 letter sequences only half way through the letters switched to numbers and the participants were again able to recall at full capacity Still further studies indicated that while interference was the apparent mechanism of memory loss decay may also be playing a role Without rehearsal of the three letter sequences participants were unable to recall earlier trios over time It is difficult to say weather memory loss is the result of interference or a combination of decay and interference because essentially every task wil involve some level of interference Psychologists believe that the capacity of LTM is unlimited Bahrick s study of retention of Spanish vocabulary words showed that large portions of information remained in long term memory for over 50 years Essay Question 1 Contrast the classical prototype and exemplar proposals for how concepts are mentally represented What kinds of arguments andor empirical findings support each proposal What kinds of arguments and or empirical data are troublesome for each The classical proposal of mental representations hinges on the idea that certain features are what define an object each set of features that define the object are quotindividually necessaryquot and when those necessary sets of features are combined they are quotcollectively sufficientquot The main issue with this theory is that it leaves no room for error Should a concept lack one set of features it is automatically thrown out The prototype proposal defines concepts through aspects that are possible characteristics of a concept The issue with this is that there is no possible way to store every possible variation of a concept as a prototype The exemplar view is similar to the prototype view in that uses stored mental data to define a concepy however rather than storing copies of every possible aspect of a concept it suggests that our brians store very vague templates based on our past experiences and we can then pace objects into concepts based on which mold they fit into Noam Chomsky J R Stroop Saul Stemberg parallel vs serial searches self terminating vs exhaustive found that serial exhaustive searches were most efficient bc it was har to stop the process once started A D Baddeley Barbara Tversky mental maps Benjamin Whorf eskimo snow inaccurate because people from languages who had no other words for colors could still recognize them


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