GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megane Sauer on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Joseph Berta in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/232025/psyc-1001-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
Sleep Dreams Biological rhythms Periodic uctuations in physiological functioning Circadian rhythms Twentyfour hour biological cycles Muscle tone Tension of muscle while supporting the body Physiological changes in each stage Stage 1 slowing of EEG some loss of muscle tone but still apparent slow or no eye movements decline in body temperature Stage 2 sleep spindles and Kcomplexes in EEG muscle tone still apparent slow or no eye movements REM sleep high frequency low amplitude EEG loss of muscle tone often rapid eye movements Hypnogogic imagery occurs During sleep onset Hypnopompic imagery occurs Upon awakening During what sleep stage does sleepwalking and bedwetting occur Delta sleep Tonic events Continuous throughout during REM sleep Phasic events Periodic events during REM sleep muscle twitching How does length of sleep stages change throughout the night REM periods become longer Stages 3 and 4 become shorter through the night Sleep stages change with age REM sleep decreases through childhood stages 3 and 4 sleep decrease through adulthood Effects of sleep deprivation Sleepy ability at tasks decreases immune system weakens Person does not become psychotic Yoked controls Animal paired with an experimental animal each receiving the same treatment but the treatment is controlled by the experimental animal s behavior Effects of REM sleep deprivation Humans agitation and impulsiveness Yoked controlled rats death in 16 to 54 days REM Rebound REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation 4 major types of sleep theories 1 Protection stay out of harm s way at a time of ay when don t perform well Cut down on energy expenditure 2 Recuperation restore and repair brain tissue aids immune system 3 Aids memory 4 Growth Growth hormone is released by pituitary gland during sleep Cataplexy A sudden brief loss of muscle tone without loss of consciousness can be symptom of narcolepsy Nightmares occur During REM sleep REM sleep and dreams People woken up during REM not always report dreaming Content analysis of dreams Putting content of dream reports into categories statistically examining occurrence of content In uencing dreams First night effects sleepers tend to dream about the lab during their first night Wearing redtinted goggles wearing redtinted during the day red tinted dreams Stimulating while dreaming water in the face incorporated more in dreams than light shone in eyes and more than a tone that was sounded False awakening wake up do something then dream you go back to sleep Sleep paralysis voluntary muscles are paralyzed as remnants of REM sleep activity Manifest content remembered storyline of a dream obvious Latent content meaning ofa dream CHAPTER 8 Learning Relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience and practice Associative learning Learning that two events can occur together What is associated in classical conditioning Two stimuli Operant conditioning A response and its consequence Classical Conditioning a type oflearning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus UCS unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that produces an unconditioned response without previous conditioning UCR unconditioned response an unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus CR conditioned response learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that results from conditioning CS conditioned stimulus a previously neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to evoke a conditioned response Shortdelayed conditioning CS begins just before UCS and end together Backwards Conditioning CS occurs after UCS Which works better Short delayed conditioning backwards conditioning seldom results in learning Acquisition phrase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a CR training period Extinction gradual weakening and disappearance ofa CR by presenting the CS repeatedly without the UCS Generalization tendency to respond in the same way to a stimulus similar to a CS Discrimination ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an UCS How is classical conditioning used in TV commercials Products are associated with a stimulus that elicits an emotional response usually a positive response Spontaneous recovery reappearance of an extinguished response after a test period Systematic desensitization a type of counterconditioning used to treat phobias A pleasant relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxietycausing stimuli Conditioned taste aversion one trial conditioning in which illness is associated with a specific taste organisms avoid that food for a long period of time How does it differ from most other forms of classical conditioning One trial learning hours between CS and UCR extremely long lasting doesn t work with other CSs Taste association with illness Helps organisms learn to avoid poisons or foods that are dangerous Operant conditioning learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment BF Skinner psychologist best known in operant conditioning Skinner box operant conditioning chamber Positive reinforce any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Negative reinforce strengthens a response by removing a stimulus after a response Token a type of conditioned reinforce that can be exchanged for something else often a primary reinforcer Delayed reinforcer a reinforcer given a substantial time after the desired response is made Shaping the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations ofa desired behavior What are discriminative stimuli Cues that in uence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences of a response Continuous reinforcement reinforce desired response only part of the time What are 4 basic schedules of reinforcement 1 Fixed ratio reinforce behavior after a set number of responses Results high rate of responding extinguishes relatively quickly 2 Variable ratio reinforcer is given after an unpredictable number of responses Results high rate of responding resistant to extinction 3 Fixed interval reinforcer is given for the first response following a fixed interval of time Results Responses decrease between reinforcements and increase near reinforcement time 4 Variable interval reinforce is given for the first response after a varying time interval Results low rate of responding highly resistant to extinction CHAPTER 9 Memory the persistence oflearning over time by means of the storage and retrieval of information Narrative reconstruction Changing a memory in order to give it meaning structure and completeness filling in gapsomitting details Encoding getting information into memory Storage retention ofinformation Retrieval getting information out of storage Sensory Storage 14 seconds holds a large amount ofinformation Shortterm memory about 20 seconds 59 chunks ofinformation Longterm memory very long time very large capacity Rehearsal the conscious repetition of information either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage Chunking organizing items into familiar manageable meaningful units Primacy effect tend to remember items in the first part ofa list Recency effect tend to remember items in the last part ofa list 3 test ofmemory Recall ability to retrieve information not in conscious awareness Recognition identifying items previously learned Relearning amount of time saved when relearning material Priming activation ofparticular associations in memory Context effects better recall if return to context where learned something Statedependent memory slightly better recall when in same state of consciousness as when information was learned What is maintenance rehearsal Repetition ofinformation in order to maintain it in consciousness CHAPTER 17 Psychological disorders Harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be atypical maladaptive Medical perspective on psychological disorders Psychological disorders are sicknesses that can be diagnosedtreated What is the DSMIV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders used for classifying disorders prevalence but does not explain the causes Anxiety disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduces anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder a person is continually tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Panic disorder an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable episodes of intense dread terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensations Phobia Persistent irrational fear and avoidance ofa specific object or situation OCD an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts andor actions Obsession persistent uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts Compulsion urges to engage in senseless rituals behavior Major depressive disorders During a period of at least 2 weeks five or more of the following symptoms have occurred and represent a change in functioning Depressed mood most ofthe day Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in nearly all daily activities Significant weight loss not through dieting Daily insomnia or hypersomnia sleeping a lot Daily psychomotor agitation intense restlessness or retardation physical sluggishness Daily fatigue or energy loss Almost daily feelings ofworthlessness or inappropriate or excessive guilt Almost daily diminished ability to think or concentration Indecisiveness based on subjective or objective reports Recurrent thoughts of death and suicide with or without specific plans Bipolar disorder person alternates between depression and manic episodes manic episode a period of at least one week during which an abnormally elevated expansive or irritable mood persist What characterizes schizophrenia Characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions hallucinations inappropriate emotions and actions Prevalence of schizophrenia about 1 ofpeople Delusions false thoughts maintained even though clearly wrong or demonstrated to be wrong What are the subtypes of schizophrenia 1 Equot 539quot F Paranoid preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations often with themes ofpersecution or grandiosity Disorganized disorganized speech or behavior or at or inappropriate behavior Catatonic immobility or excessive purposeless movement eXtreme negativism andor parrotlike repeating of another s speech or movements Undifferentiated many and varied symptoms Symptoms don t fall into other categories Name Learning Worksheet Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience and practice Several types of learning have been identi ed this work sheet will focus on two classical Pavlovian conditioning and operant conditioning 1 Classical and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning In classical conditioning are associated In operant conditioning are associated 139 two stimuli a response and its Classical Conditioning In a psychology laboratory meat powder is shot into a dog s mouth immediately after the dog hears a 500 HZ tone This causes the dog to salivate This tone gt meat powder gt salivation procedure is repeated several times Afterwards the dog will salivate to the tone alone 1 Using the above example of classical conditioning match the proper item in the second column with the concept in the rst column iBi Conditioned Response CR A Meat powder iAi Unconditioned Stimulus US B Salivation iCi Conditioned Stimulus CS C Tone iBi Unconditioned Response US D the timing of the tone meat owder gt salivation procedure 2 Ifthe dog in the above example salivates to the 500 HZ tone but not to a 1000 HZ tone the dog has displayed d discrimination 3 If the dog in the above example salivates to both the 500 HZ tone and to a 1000 HZ tone the dog has displayed c generalization 4 How would a dog respond if after the training described above it were repeatedly presented the tone without the meat powder c The dog would not salivate as much to the tone 5 During the acquisition phase of classical conditioning that uses shortdelayed conditioning the CS c begins iust before the US and ends at the same time as the US 6 During the acquisition phase of classical conditioning that uses backward conditioning the CS d occurs shortly after the US 7 Shortdelayed conditioning works a better than backwards conditioning 8 Conditioned taste aversion has a similar structure to classical conditioning for example the taste of sugar water gt lithium chloride gt illness avoidance of sugar water However conditioned taste aversion differs from other forms of classical conditioning in several ways Name four of these ways 1 Can be several hours between the CS taste and the UR illness 2 Requires only one trial 3 Lasts a long time resistant to extinction 4 Does not occur with visual auditory and tactile CSs Operant Conditioning 1 According to the Law of Effect behaviors followed by favorable consequences are more likely to occur in the future behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences are less likely to occur in the future With this in mind are favorable consequences d positive and negative reinforcers 2 are unfavorable consequences c Punishments 2 Give six possible problems with using punishment for learning i General suppression of behavior may occur ii Does not guide the organism to the desired behavior iii May increase aggressiveness iv The undesired behavior may reappear in safe settings v May teach the punished to fear the punisher vi May physically harm the punished 3 Which of the following describes a potential primary reinforcer events that are innater reinforcing and which a potential conditioned secondary reinforcer events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers a Poker chips won during Texas hold em secondary b The air a scuba diver needs primary c A cold glass of water on a hot day primary d A hamburger for the starving Alfred Packer primary e The teddy bear a middleaged man had as a child secondary e The sweet odor of the perfume of a man s first love secondary 4 Match the proper schedule of reinforcement in the second column with the activity described in the first column iBi Playing a slot machine A Fixed Ratio iCi Checking your mailbox B Variable Ratio every day at 5pm iAi Earning 1 for every four C Fixed Interval shirts that a worker sews iDi Checking your email D Variable Interval every so often
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