Our Changing Environment El Nino, Ozone, and Climate
Our Changing Environment El Nino, Ozone, and Climate ATOC 1060
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jon Johns on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATOC 1060 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Weiqing Han in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/232053/atoc-1060-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in Marine Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
ATOC 1060002 OUR CHANGING ENVIRONMENT Class 10 Chp 4 Objectives of Today s Class 1 Global Energy Distribution 2 Introduce Global Circulatory Subsystems 3 Movement of Air httpatoccoloradoeduWhanATOC1060 Previous class Climate modeling How can we utilize our knowledge of Earth s current energy budget to predict what Earth s surface temperature might have been in the past or how it might vary in the future Climate system complex computer model In the model all processes clouds greenhouse gases are included Global atmospheric general circulation model AGCM Atmospheric winds moisture transport energy balance all weather phenomena Ocean general circulation model OGCM currents heat transports etc Land surface model land processes Feedbacks coupling among components Global coupled climate model 3dimensionalgt predict climate variability central role in climate policy making today Simple 1dimensional 1D models Radiativeconvective model average incoming solar amp outgoing IR over entire Earth s surface vertically atmospheric structure is considered 1D in altitude vertical 39 100 Each layer energvlayers I I Thermosphere 90 absorptlon ern1ss10n 8039 quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot quot1 A 70 convection amp latent g 60 Mesosphere 50 heat in troposphere 4O Stratosphere aSuccessfully predict 30 330C Temperature 10 Troposphere I I 180 200 220 240 260 280 3 Temperature K greenhouse effects b 1 D model double CO2 300ppm to 600ppm gt global warming effect Prediction 120C temperature increase DID NOT consider feedbacks in the system Climate Feedbacks Extremely important Amplify or moderate radiative effect of changes in greenhouse gas concentrations 1 Global energy distribution So incoming Solar varies between pole amp equator how what about outgoing IR Outgoing IR radiation varies with surface amp air temperature Hot equator radiates more than cold poles Is the entire surface of the globe in radiative equilibrium Solar in IR out Incoming solar and Outgoing IR surplus I a 39 u E Itted IR Absorbe solar deficit l v Energy Equator 3 Pole I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I N pole 90 7O 50 30 10 IO 30 50 7O 0 South Latitude North Absorbed solar energy Emitted infrared energy Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Net Radiation Tropics Solar radiation in gt IR radiation out Poles Solar in lt IR out Energy South Latitude North Absorbed solar energy Emitted infrared energy Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Fig 42 Questions Why doesn t equator keep heating up Why don t poles keep cooling down Temperature differences drive circulation of atmosphere amp ocean Warm tropical air moves north cold polar air moves south to balance temperature differences 2Global Circulatory Subsystems Response to uneven distribution of energy amp matter Redistributes matterenergy to restore balance Circulatory Circulation Timescale Subsystem Mechanism Atmosphere Winds Weeks Years Ocean Surface Currents Years Deep Currents 1000 s of years Solid Earth Plate Tectonics Millions of Years Atmospheric Circulation movement of air Vertical movement Buoyancy Tendency of an object to oat in uid Controlled by density p massvolume Low density light uid oats on high density heavy uid Density of air increased temperature T decrease density due to volume expansion examplez hot air bloom Heated air gt lighter gt rises Cooled air gt heavier gt sinks oHorizontal Motion pressure gradient force Cold High p High Pressure PGF Warm Low p Low Pressure Two columns of air with equal volume different temperatures 0 Pressure at surface depends on mass of air above gt more pressure under cold air Air moves to balance mass Pressure Gradient Force PGF moves air from high pressure to low Summary Movement of Air Heated air rises in atmosphere cooled air sinks subsidence Air moves vertically until it is neutrally buoyant parcel density surrounding air density Air moves horizontally from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure Works to remove all pressure gradients Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ Uplift Condensation amp Latent Heat Release A A l l I I l2 km l I Prec1p1tat10n I I l I l I gt lt COIder Convergence COIder l l 45 30 0 30 45 North Latitude 0 South High Low High FBSSUFE FBSSUTE FBSSUFE Equatorial area of surface convergence amp rising air strong convection Cumulus towers amp much latent heat release Recall structure of atmosphere 60 40 Altitude km 01 O i O isoijo Tropopause 220 240 260 Temperature K 280 Fig 39b Te1nperatures increase in stratosphere lower density Air can t penetrate beyond troposphere Resu1t rising air diverges at tropopause Hadley Circulation Uplift gt lt gt lt l I l I I Hadley cell A A Hadley cell I I 39 I I I Subsidence Subsidence 12 km V I I I I I I I I I I I quot II IIK gt gt ITCZ Divergence Convergence Divergence l l 45 30 O 30 45 North Latitude 0 South High Low High pressure pressure pressure DRY WET DRY Flg 43 0 ITCZ amp Hadley circulation is discontinuous amp most apparent over tropical oceans Copyright 2004 Pearson Prentice HaILJncm Po ar easterlies V Q quot 5 Polar mm Harse laUludes Hadley ceH Daldrumsi Summary for net radiation surplus in the tropics Net Radiation Surface Heating Air DenSIty Surplus Decreases Air Rises i Surface Pressure Drops i Horizontal Movement of Air Into Low at Surface
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